Annotated Bibliography – summergirl1999

Annotated Bibliography


  1. Student Loan Debt Crisis. (2006). Retrieved February 17, 2018, from

Background: This article discusses the depth of student loan debt in the United States. This article explains why student loans got put into place originally, and after generations that student loans have another meaning. This article discusses the amount of debt the United States is from student loans.

How I Used It: This article helped me discover how student debt came to be and student loans are a huge part of our economy’s debt. I used it to demonstrate student debt is a big issue within the United States, and it has an effect on Americans personal lives. The article highly discussed the $1.3 trillion dollars of student loan debt the United States is in. It helped give a better outlook on student debt.


  1. Peterson-Withorn, C. (2014, July 30). How Today’s Student Loan Debt Is Failing Future Generations. Retrieved February 17, 2018, from

Background: This article discusses the finical aspect of student loans and college. The article gives information on the rise of tuition. This article gives information about student loan debt, and its place in the economy. This article argues that the debt is affecting many millennials.

How I Used It: This article helped me get information student debt affecting not only the graduates but millennials too. This article offered in depth information about loan companies which is a topic brought up in my research paper. This article helped me gain a better understanding of the big role student debt plays in America’s society.


  1. Freedman, J. (2014, February 11). Student Loans Are a Drag on The Economy and Society. Retrieved February 18, 2018, from

Background: This article discusses the original reason student loans were put into place. Student loans were originally put into place to help more people attend college. This article speaks about student debt place in America’s economy. This article offers charts and data to prove their argument.

How I Used It: This article helped me gain information on the burden that college has on personal and financial lives. This article discussed the bigger scare more people are starting to have towards college. Student loans were put into place to help more students have an opportunity to get a college education. This article gives statements from the Department of Education to strengthen their point.



  1. SlideCasey, C. (2014). Cannot Find a Job After College. Retrieved April 17, 2018, from

Background: This website offers information about careers after having a degree. Even with a degree, careers are not guaranteed. This article gives information on what to do if someone has a degree and cannot find a job.

How I Used It: This article helped me gain information for both sides of my argument. This article is about graduates having degrees and not being able to find a career or job. It offers information about reducing cost of living and restricted budget. Students go to college for the education but also for the careers and salary. Students attend college to not struggle.


  1. Weiner, J. (2014, September 05). Why Sally can’t get a good job with her college degree. Retrieved March 20, 2018, from

Background: This article offers information about degrees, careers, and student loans. This article offers information on graduates who have degrees for majors that are not in demand. This article speaks about the value of different types of degrees.

How I Used it: This article helped me gain information about the career field. Graduates have degrees for careers that are not in high demand. This article gives statements from the Department of Labor’s Occupational Outlook and the Women’s Law Center. This article offers information about student debt in the United States economy.


  1. Nykiel, T. (2018, April 02). Student Loan Interest Rates: Federal, Private, Refinancing. Retrieved January 18, 2018, from

Background: This article offers information about student loan interest rates. It provides information about different types of student loan interest rates such as federal student loan, unsubsidized, and subsidized. This article is organized in sections to help explain student loan interest rate, such as how student loan interest rates work, federal, and private student loans.

How I Used It: This article helped me gain information about student loan interest rates. Student loans are finically difficult themselves. But there is an extra cost for borrowing the money from loaners, which is making it an extra burden on millennials.


  1. Advisor, C. (2014). What’s the Price Tag for a College Education? Retrieved February 17, 2018, from

Background: This article offers information on the variables that go into college that make the tuition. They give information and estimated prices on tuition prices of public and private universities. They break down and give in depth reason for the cost of college tuition. They organize the article in sections for general price, tuition, fees, housing and meals, books and supplies, and personal expenses.

How I Used It: This article helped me discover all the variables that go into the price of college tuition. It helped me with my opposing argument because there are many variables that go into college which makes tuition prices high. This article also offers a section about not giving up and being afraid of college because of the tuition.


  1. Harvard at a Glance. (n.d.). Retrieved February 17, 2018, from

Background: This article offers information on the ivy league university, Harvard University. Harvard University is one of the top, most prestigious universities in America. It was established in 1636. Many United States presidents attended there. Harvard is difficult to attend because they need to keep up with their name. It is a very high recognition university.

How I Used It: This article helped me discover the general facts and background knowledge of one of the top universities in America. This article helped me with my student A and student B scenario.


  1. O’Shaughnessy, L. (2015, March 13). The biggest problems with America’s colleges. Retrieved February 20, 2018, from

Background: This article offers information about the issues with America’s colleges. It gives information on amounts of student aid that is given out during certain schoolyears. This article is organized in sections to help people understand the problems with America’s universities, poor graduate rates, family incentives, lopsided priorities, willful blindness, and general information.

How I Used It: This article helped me discover more information about the general problems with America’s colleges. It helped me argue my point in my research paper, by giving detailed information with reports and facts about America’s colleges.


  1. Weissmann, J. (2012, May 17). Does It Matter Where You Go to College? Retrieved February 21, 2018, from

Background: This article offers information about the meaning of the college students attend. This article offers in depth information about the recognition of colleges, and the meaning it has on getting a career. The article also mentions prestigious schools and expensive schools. The university that students choose is very important.

How I Used It: This article helped me discover the value of university names. The career field is very competitive and the recognition of the college the graduate attended can cost someone a career. This article offers data and studies from The Journal of Human Resources.

This article helped me expand my argument throughout my research paper.


  1. 9 BENEFITS OF EARNING A COLLEGE DEGREE. (2016, December 09). Retrieved February 17, 2018, from

Background: This article offers information about the benefits of a college degree. It gives information about the perks and benefits of college. The article offers information about money, employers, and careers.

How I Used It: This article helped me discover additional points on why college is beneficial. This article is organized with sections about nine reasons why college is worth the time and money. This article gave me more information to help my rebuttal argument.


  1. (2008, October 05). 25 Best High Paying Jobs Without a Degree. Retrieved April 17, 2018, from

Background: This article offers information about jobs without a college degree. It offers information about technology, many successful businesses are online. College was almost necessary but with the technology there are many other ways to make money.

How I Used It: This article helped me discover some more ways that people can make good money without a college degree. Technology is helping many people make money. People are making online businesses that they are making very good money from. This article offers information about successful ways to make money without a college degree.


  1. Ha, L. (2017, September 15). For some freshly minted college graduates, a reckoning with a ‘quarter-life crisis’. Retrieved March 17, 2018, from

Background: This article offers information about millennials and the education system. This article offers stories from college graduates. Many graduates are having troubles finding a steady career after college. It is difficult for graduates to pay back student loans when they do not have a stable career. This article offers information about many college graduate millennials finding themselves in a quarter life crisis. This article offers a study about social media.

How I Used It: This article helped me discover that the career field is difficult. Careers are not guaranteed with a college degree. Many graduates cannot find steady careers and still have to pay off their student loans. This article gave information about real college graduates that are facing difficulties finding a career. This article helped me argue my argument in my research paper by giving information about graduates personal and finical situations.


  1. Long, K. (2016, August 08). Why Your Student Loan Debt May Not Be as Bad as It Seems. Retrieved February 17, 2018, from

Background: This article offers information about student debt not being as bad as people make it seem. Student debt is the highest debt America encounters but it is the most beneficial because having a college degree has its benefits. This article offers information about 401k, employers, and careers.

How I Used It: This article helped me with my rebuttal argument for my research paper. This article gives the positives of having student debt. Many people obtain careers after college and the salary people can get from a career makes it easier to pay off the student loans.



  1. Dickler, J. (2017, August 29). Student loan balances jump nearly 150 percent in a decade. Retrieved January 18, 2018, from

Background: This article provides the average student of student debt graduates have. The high jump of student debt America encounters. This article provides, graphs and charts to support their evidence. The percentage of America that is in student debt.

How I Used It: This article proves that that tuition increase for college education is causing problems for not only graduates but also the economy. This article also proves the delay on personal purchases due to student debt.


  1. Matarazzo, M. (2017, March 29). How is the Student-Debt Crisis Affecting the Lives of College Graduates? Retrieved January 18, 2018, from

Background: This article provides information about the student debt crisis affecting the personal lives of college graduates.

How I Used It: This article proves student debt effects many college graduates. It provides information about the impact of rising tuition costs, and the debt America is in. The price of paying back student debt monthly. This article also proves the long-term impacts of student debt.


  1. Lanza, A. (2016, January 20). Study: Student Loan Borrowers Delaying Other Life Decisions. Retrieved April 18, 2018, from

Background: This article provides surveys on daily spending habits of young Americans. Provides information on public, private universities, and community colleges. The percentages of people who think college is and is not worth it.

How I Used It: This article proves student debt effects some graduates personal lives. Purchases from many graduates are being delayed. Student debt can cause people to take out of their savings or retirement. Student debt can cause graduates to have some troubles with paying for some necessities.


  1. Frizell, S. (2014, February 27). Student Loans Are Ruining Your Life. Now They’re Ruining the Economy, Too. Retrieved April 18, 2018, from

Background: This article proves even though a person has a degree in a certain field it does not mean a career is guaranteed. The amount of student debt America is in. The average amount of money a graduate owes. The rise of tuition and loan interest. More students are attending college.

How I Used It: This article proves that America is in $253 billion dollars of student loan debt. In the recent years the debt increased 10 percent. Not all graduates can pay back their debt in time. This article proves charts. This article proves tuition for universities rising. This article proves interest rates are crazy.



Annotated Bib – ChandlerBing

10 Big Advantages and Disadvantages of Standardized Testing. Connect US Fund. Accessed 28 Nov. 2017.

Background: There are numerous benefits as well as disadvantages when it comes to standardized testing. Whether it be that the questions are too generalized or that sometimes students are not in the effective state of mind on test day. These disadvantages aid my argument on how standardized testing stunts academic growth.

How I used it: I did not use this as an in-depth source mainly because it only pointed out a few basic facts about testing. Those basic ideas helped me find out what questions I should be looking for the answers to. The main use for this source was to further my research. It has lead me to many other sources to which I have used more predominantly.

Alcocer, Paulina. “History of Standardized Testing in the United States.” National Education Association. Accessed 1 Dec. 2017.

Background: The very beginnings of standardized testing starting around 1838. Educators around the US began to render new ideas to measure the knowledge of students. Written exams replaced oral exams when the primary purpose of education shifted from educating the elite class to educating the mass population. These tests were designed to measure the educational capabilities of students in the United States. Gradually, the intention changed, standardized testing became a way to evaluate teacher and school performance to punish schools whose test results were poor and to reward those schools with high performance scores.

How I used it: One of my arguments is how once, standardized testing was an effective way to evaluate students. Today, the primary focus of testing is to make money based decisions on the basis of test scores. A timeline of the history of standardized testing has allowed me to clearly see this important shift.

Brooks, Martin. Brooks, Jacqueline. “The Courage to Be Constructivist.” The Constructivist Classroom. vol. 57, no. 3, 1999, pp. 18-24.       Accessed 28 Nov. 2017.

Background: The constructivist style of teaching proves to be the most effective method of educating. Ideas, such as challenging the supposition of students, teaching broad concepts and valuing student opinions, are all central to the primary goal of constructivist teachers. Learning is a convoluted process in which people absorb new information to either alter their perspective of the surrounding world or not. Constructivist teachers keep relevant facts and information in their educational toolbox as to keep the minds of students engaged in classroom activity. Creativity and free thinking are lost in a world of standard assessment, forcing students to be tested on material that does not positively impact their education. Standardized testing scores the end rather than the journey of learning. Each student has a different background of knowledge; therefore, everyone learns at different rates. There needs to be a shift from students learning the same curriculum to analyzing individual student needs in the classroom.

How I used it: To understand the issues revolving standardized testing, the true meaning of an effective educator must be clear. I used the evidence and real-life examples, provided by this source, to determine my stance on the problem. The first line of the educational defense is the teacher. The research surrounding high-stakes testing has its roots in first-hand accounts from educators whom interact with their students the most. This article aided in molding my thesis; I felt that I needed to research the basics of my argument to be able to completely understand the subject.

Brooks, Martin, and Jacqueline Brooks. In Search of Understanding: The Case for Constructivist Classrooms. Association of Supervision and Curriculum Development. 1993.

Background: The author describes the ideas and experiences around the knowledge of student learning. The process of learning must not be viewed as a ‘one-size fits all’ approach. Each individual mind has witnessed events that have shaped how they view the world; therefore, no two minds are capable of effectively learning using the same method. Because they contain generalized questions, standard assessments stunt creativity, thus defiling the true purpose of education.

How I used it: Again, researching the basics of the argument is imperative to provide me with a solid foundation of knowledge for supporting my argument. These supporting facts assisted me in convincing readers the disadvantages of standardized assessments. Although, the author’s focus was on the meaning of effective learning, the ideas formed central arguments in my research.

Herman, Joan L., and Shari Golan. “Effects of Standardized Testing on Teachers and Learning–Another Look.” (1990).

Background: The cost, in dollars, of standardized testing has risen to the billions. Test results come with high risks, for teachers especially; the classroom then becomes a course on how to pass a test, ultimately distracting the learning of other important material. Less than one-fifth of teachers interviewed in this study, believe that the results of the tests accurately reflect the learning of their students. Even when studies have shown no significant impact on development, test advocates and policy-makers still believe testing has benefits.

How I used it: The arguments introduced, allowed me to formulate pros and cons of high-stakes testing. Herman evaluates the effects that standardized tests have on the learning community; she has found that testing provides no significant impact on educational development. Research has also proved that testing negatively affects teachers and how they conduct their classroom procedures. The article furthered my search for new sources by introducing more specific concepts. The evidence contributes to my final research paper, filling it with more facts to back up my thesis.

Klein, Alyson. “No Child Left Behind: An Overview.Education Week. Editorial Projects in Education Research Center, 2015. Accessed 29 Nov. 2017.

Background: In an effort to hold schools accountable for their student’s performance, the passing of the No Child Left Behind Act in 2001 mandated school districts to administer standardized assessments to all students and report the results to the state. Furthermore, harsh sanctions are put in place for those districts who do not meet the Adequate Yearly Progress. Prior to 2010, it became clear that many schools were not going to meet the required AYP. As of that year, 38 percent of schools in the US failed to meet requirement. The current educational system has bureaucratic tendencies more than focusing on educational growth.

How I used it: The issues of standardized testing focus on math, reading and writing, ultimately narrowing the curriculum. The more time a teacher spends on test prep, the less time they have for other creative inducing subjects. I emphasize this important claim as it strengthens my argument. Hindering critical thinking skills by straying away from social studies, foreign languages and various art subjects, devalues the important life skills one must learn to progress in this world.

Kohn, Alfie. The case against standardized testing: Raising the scores, ruining the schools. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann, 2000.

Background: Kohn poses arguments that are for standardized testing and then immediately refutes these claims with relevant facts and statistics. Standardized testing has many negative associations with knowledge development. They do not accurately reflect a child’s academic performance; in other words, students who do not pass these exams will be deemed failures. Of course, this will damage the confidence of the student, leaving them to live a life in which they believe they are failures; forever stunting the creative and educational growth. Kohn introduces a list created by educator Bill Ayers, “Standardized tests can’t measure initiative, creativity, imagination, conceptual thinking, curiosity, effort, irony, judgment, commitment, nuance, good will, ethical reflection, or a host of other valuable dispositions and attributes. What they can measure, and count are isolated skills, specific facts and functions, the least interesting and least significant aspects of learning.” All the skills tests do not emphasize are very important life attributes that will increase the quality of life further down the road.

How I used it: Kohn assisted in my research process heavily. His thorough explanations of the downsides of high-stakes testing offered thought provoking ideas. What helped the most was his ability to refute the counterarguments which gave me a wide view on the subject. I incorporated his knowledge into my research paper to support my thesis. By demonstrating the negative effects, the chances of convincing my audience of my view greatly increases.

“New Jersey State Assessments.” NJ Department of Education.

Background: New Jersey’s Department of Education provides facts about standardized testing. The website includes how they score these tests, what they do with scores, when the tests are administered, and the scores needed to meet graduation requirements. There are numerous tools for students, parents, and teachers.

How I used it: I gained a basic knowledge of standardized testing through this source. Knowing what is at stake is important for emphasizing the fact that everyone involved in testing is under a enormous amount of pressure. My goal was for the audience to see the conditions in which the students are taking the test in. Testing is ineffectively used to determine educational growth.

Simmons, Nicola. “(De)grading the Standardized Test: Can Standardized Testing Evaluate Schools?” Education Canada. vol. 44, no. 3, 2004. Accessed 29 Nov. 2017.

Background: Simmons take and in-depth look at the alleged value of standardized testing. Holding teachers accountable for their student’s achievement is necessary, but testing is not an effective way to measure. Teachers will teach their children how to take a test rather than focus on important subject matter. Telling students not to be creative or make sure you complete the test within the time limit hinder critical thinking and puts a panic on the test taker. Simmons informs readers that the tests pose biased questions that are more designed for privileged kids.

How I used it: These arguments have a strong chance of convincing my readers that standardized testing does not procure the positive results that policy-makers tend to make people believe. By proving these facts, we can comfortably assume that we need to do away with testing.

Annotated Bibliography- Killroy513

  1. Prohibition in Canada.” Smuggling, Bootlegging and Speakeasies,

Background: The source talks about how the use of smuggling, bootlegging and speakeasies was apparent during the Prohibition. At the time these were the three main ways to get alcohol.

How I use it: In my essay, I use the information I found with this source to back up my claims that the use of these three things helped create NASCAR. Bootlegging and smuggling greatly impacted the creation of the sport, mostly because it involves the use of cars. The article supports my argument.

2.Sandbrook, Dominic. “How Prohibition backfired and gave America an era of gangsters and speakeasies.” The Guardian, Guardian News and Media, 25 Aug. 2012,

Background: The source talks about how gangsters ruled the large cities in this era. The gangsters took advantage of the law and made a lucrative business off the illegal drinks. The article talks about the gangsters and how they were able to avoid the police and make the money that they did.

How I use it: In my essay, I use the information I found with this source to back up my claims that the Prohibition leads to a boost in illegal activity. This article backs up my claim because it talks about how people became involved with the illegal drinks.

3. McElroy, Ryan. “The story of how moonshiners created the performance car.” Car Keys, Car Keys, 31 Oct. 2017,

Background: The source talks about how the use of smuggling and bootlegging with transportation helped create the sport of NASCAR. The article explains how the moonshiners created the first types of performance cars and how they were the great grandfathers to the ones used today.

How I use it: This source backed up the claim of how the Prohibition created the sport of NASCAR and how it was done.

4.“History of the Roaring Twenties.” Prohibition and the Speakeasies,

Background: The source talks about how the use of speakeasies. This was apparent during the Prohibition. These were hidden bars and served the general public with alcohol. This generated a lot of money for both private and gangster-run bars.

How I use it: This article backed up my claim that illegal activity was boosted during this time. It shows that the general populous were involved with these illegal bars and that by doing so made them affiliated with the same illegality.

5. Gambino, Megan. “During Prohibition, Your Doctor Could Write You a Prescription for Booze.”, Smithsonian Institution, 7 Oct. 2013,

Background: The source talks about the corruption in the 1920’s medical field. It provided proof that doctors would commit illegal actions to make money.

How I use it: The source helped me prove that illegal activity was boosted during this time by proving how the medical field in America would be corrupted and how selling alcohol prescriptions did it.

6. “Eighteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution.” Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, 4 Dec. 2017,

Background: The source talks about the 18th Amendment.

How I use it: In my essay, I use the information to have the knowledge and back my claims about Prohibition.

    7. Untitled Document,

Background: The source talks about how the use of smuggling helped other countries during this era. Both Mexico and Canada made money by smuggling across the border to the dry towns of America.

How I use it: This provided me with a good amount of information about how Americans were not the only ones involved at the time.

8. “Black market.” Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, 4 Dec. 2017,

Background: The source gave me a basic rundown on how the Black Market works and how it was back in this era. Understanding this made writing the paper easier because having the knowledge of this simplified my topics.

How I use it:  Understanding this made writing the paper easier because having the knowledge of this simplified my topics.

9. Thompson, Neal. Driving with the devil: southern moonshine, Detroit wheels, and the birth of Nascar. Three Rivers Press, 2007.

Background: The source gave me a basic rundown on how cars were created and used during the Prohibition. The article talks about how the cars were changed and made to go faster to evade the police.

How I use it:  ]This article helped back my claim on the modification of cars and how that resulted in the races that would become NASCAR. The book explained the correlation between the two and made it easier to link both together.

    10. Okrent, Daniel. Last call: the rise and fall of Prohibition. Scribner, 2011.


Background: The source gave me a basic rundown on what happened during the Prohibition. From start to finish the Prohibition did not work as planned. The book helps explain what occurred and how it ended.

How I use it:  The book made it easier to learn about the Prohibition and what it really was. The book talked about the start to finish product and lead me to understand that the Prohibition looked good on paper but did not work out as planned.

Annotated Bibliography – thebeard

1. Donaldson, L., Li, B., & Cusimano, M. D. (2014). Economic burden of time lost due to injury in NHL hockey players. Injury Prevention, 20(5), 347.

Background: This article discusses the different injuries that happened within a span of three seasons. It talks about statistics on what type of injuries occur more often and also how much these injuries cost teams when players miss games. It says that about 63% of NHL players missed at least one game within the span of 2009-2012 seasons.

How I used it: I used this article to explain what type of injuries occur more often and how often they occur. I also used it to show that when players get injured it costs the teams they play for a lot of money.

2. Fitzpatrick, Jamie. “History of Hockey Fights.” ThoughtCo, 18 Mar. 2017,

Background: This article talks about the early days of ice hockey and how the game was so physical and it appealed to spectators. It also talks about the “Original Six” era where fighting was established as an ordinary part of a NHL game.

How I used it: I used this article to describe what the NHL started like and how fighting became a huge part of the sport. I also talked about how there are players that are meant to go out on the ice and be an enforcer and intimidate other players. These type of players are meant to fight and pump up their own team and possibly the crowd.

3. Maggio, Andrew. “Top 10 Reasons Why the NHL Needs to Keep Fighting in the Game.”TheSportster, 20 Nov. 2014

Background: This article talks about different ways that the NHL need to keep fighting and how much it helps the game. It talks about how unique fighting is to the sport and how it is a way for players to stick up for themselves.

How I used it: I used this article’s information to show all the things that fighting does for the game and how it would be different if there wasn’t any fighting. I talked about how odd it would be to go to a hockey game and not really see any fighting if a star player was to get injured or someone hit them.

4. Vollman, Rob. “Ranking the 10 Most Durable Players in the NHL.” Bleacher Report, Bleacher Report, 12 Apr. 2017,

Background: This article describe some of the most durable players to play in the NHL and how many games they have played in their careers. It talks about some players that are on the iron man list with different amount of consecutive games played.

How I used it: I used this article’s information to talk about how tough some players are and how certain players can play so many consecutive games. I also used it to show tough some players are that they can play with injuries.

5. Kuc, Chris. “Why Is Fighting Vanishing from the NHL?”, 8 Feb. 2016,

Background: This article talks about how fighting has decreased in the last several years and how there is not much of and enforcer role anymore. It also talks about how much harder it is to find a fight these days and how often fights actually occur during the last so many seasons.

How I used it: I used this article’s information to talk about how the enforcer role is starting to disappear and talked about the last big enforcer in the game. The game has become so much more competitive these days that many teams don’t have an enforcer or a whole line that would go on the ice to challenge the other teams top line and stop them.

6. Wawrow, John. “Tie Domi Concerned about Lack of NHL Enforcers.” CBCnews, CBC/Radio Canada, 7 Jan. 2017

Background: This article is about one of the greatest enforcers to play the game and how he feels it has changed so much since when he played and now his son is playing. There is no one to hold people accountable on the ice anymore for what they do.

How I used it: I used this article to show what a former enforcer feels the game has really turned into and how he is concerned for his own sons safety because there is no one to really go out on the ice just to fight someone or to make players pay for a big hit on a top player.

7. Alberstadt, Ben. “The 10 Greatest Enforcers in NHL History.” TheRichest, 1 Jan. 1970

Background: This article is about some of the toughest enforcers to every play the game of hockey. It talks about how enforcers are players who can skate a little bit, will maybe pop in a goal or two, but are there primarily to protect his teammates from the other team’s goon.

How I used it: I used this article to talk about two of the more know enforcers, that I know at least. I talked about Dave “The Hammer” Schultz and how he had so many penalty minutes in his career and Dave “Tiger” Williams and how he wrote a cooking book.

8. Caplan, Arthur. “Why Hockey Should Ban Fighting.” Forbes, Forbes Magazine, 7 Mar. 2016,

Background: This article talks about players such as Robert Frid who has had countless concussions and how it has affected his life in the worst way possible. The sad thing is that he isn’t the only person that this has happened to. Many former and current players have dealt with depression, pain, and brain damage.

How I used it: I used it to show that fighting can be a bad thing and how much it can effect people.

9. Krieger, Ben. “Death of the Enforcer: 4 Reasons Why Fighting In Hockey Should Be Banned.Medium, Medium, 26 Apr. 2016

Background: This article talks about why fighting should be banned and how much it doesn’t help the NHL or its fans. The NHL is the only professional hockey league that allows fighting, it also talks about how fighting may lead to traumatic brain injuries. The article also mentions that fighting does not actually affect attendance.

How I used it: I used this article to show that no other hockey league, aside from the NHL and some of its subsidiaries, allow fighting. I also showed that fighting has decreased over the last two decades and attendance has actually increased, which means that despite fans still love watching the game live don’t care as much about seeing fights anymore but really just a good hockey game.

10. Strang, Katie. “Catching up with Enforcers in Exile.” ESPN, ESPN Internet Ventures, 26 Dec. 2014

Background: This article is about how the enforcer role has basically disappeared in the NHL and how all of those players are losing jobs if they are not adapting to the current way the game is played. Players have been sent down to the minors or not resigned because they are not needed anymore on a NHL team because you can’t intimidate players anymore with your fists.

How I used it: I used this article to show that players such as George Parros lost his job because the game adapted to not have fighting in it as often, but that was what he was on a team for. I also used it to show that they Flyers can’t be the bullies in the league anymore if no one is afraid of you when you drop the gloves. You need to scare the other teams with skill in the current state of the NHL.

Bibliography – theintern

1.  That’s exactly what happened to Wells Fargo customers nationwide. “5,300 Wells Fargo Employees Fired over 2 Million Phony Accounts.” CNNMoney, Cable News Network.

Background: This article discusses the millions of phony accounts that Wells Fargo employees made. Each employee at Wells Fargo are required to meet a certain amount of new accounts being opened. So each of them took customer’s information and opened up multiple accounts under the customer’s name without telling them. Wells Fargo soon found out what the employees were secretly doing and fired around 5,300 people. These employees showed their true unethical behavior.

How I used it: How I used this article in my essay was to make sure the audience knows that working for a company and trying to meet certain standards changes a human being and their ethics. These employees had to choose the route of unethical behavior to meet their margin in order to keep their jobs.

2. Kauflin, Jeff. “The World’s Most Ethical Companies 2017.” Forbes, Forbes Magazine, 14 Mar. 2017.

Background: This article contains a list of companies who have been the most ethical companies of 2017. Now the companies that aren’t on this list are not most ethical probably because of something that may have happened in the past or is happening now.

How I used it: How I used this article was to demonstrate how smaller companies are more ethical than bigger companies because of the less customers they have to satisfy and the less employees that must be paid. While bigger companies tell us that they are ethical but in reality they mostly aren’t.

3. “The Rise and Fall of Enron.” Journal of Accountancy, 1 Apr. 2002,

Background: This article summarizes the rise and fall of Enron, a once so successful energy company that rose to the top so quickly in just a couple of months. Enron was a great company but the CEOs were very greedy with the profits that they wanted to have more. So as Enron kept on rising they skyrocketed at one point because of the fraud the CEOs decided to commit, they lied on their books.

How I used it: How I used this article was to explain another situation of how big companies always have unethical problems that they want to keep hidden. Enron was a great example to explain because it really changed everyone working for that company the minute you walked in.

4. Tribune, Chicago. “Ties to Enron Blinded Andersen.”, 12 July 2008.

Background: This article summarizes the effect Enron had on Andersen; Andersen was one of the big five accounting firms until Enron became one of their customers. Enron asked Andersen to lie on the books about how their company were making profits but in reality they were losing. Soon when the SEC found out that Enron committed fraud it also came into ties with Andersen and how they didn’t announce what Enron was doing.

How I used it: How I used this article was to explain how easy it is for one big company to influence other companies. I made an example from Enron and how the company encouraged Andersen to behave unethically with having money thrown at them. Greed, money, moral ethics and business ethics all come into play its the survival of the strongest and who is willing to disobey the rules.

5. Investopedia. “5 Most Publicized Ethics Violations By CEOs.” Forbes, Forbes Magazine, 5 Feb. 2013.

Background: This article contains a list of CEOs who publicized ethic violations. For each CEO named there is a summary of what harm they caused to their company. The CEOs are come Enron, Yahoo, Tyco, Worldcom, and Hollinger International.

How I used it: How I used this article’s information was to elaborate and have more evidence about Enron and how the unethical behavior wasn’t the fault of the employees. The person who usually enforces ethic behavior rules must stand by them but not Kenneth Lay the CEO of Enron who personally wasn’t ethical which means the whole company had not been either. “CEOs have always been expected by shareholders and investors to maintain high ethical standards. Although it doesn’t always happen, today’s regulatory environment makes it easier to identify transgressions and bring violators to justice.”

6. Arlow, Peter. “Personal Characteristics in College Students’ Evaluations of Business Ethics and Corporate Social Responsibility.” Journal of Business Ethics 10.1 (1991): 63. ProQuest.

Background: This journal discussed how the age, years of experience, and sex goes hand in hand to determine whether someone will commit unethical behaviors. Arlow took many surveys with older people, college students, males/females to measure the correlation between who is more likely to be unethical when in a difficult situation. In the end he figured out that students’ ethical attitudes are influenced more by exposure to the larger socio-cultural norms.

How I used it: How I used this journal was by evaluating the age of employees who worked specifically at Enron. I noticed that older employees were more likely to be unethical in order to keep their jobs because they are families to take care of rather than younger people.

7. Ackman, Dan. “Enron The Incredible.” Forbes. Forbes Magazine, 06 June 2013.

Background: This article is similar to some other ones but has a bit more information of how Enron made their profits in just a short span of time. This article compares the amounts of hours between other companies in the 2000s and Enron and the ratio of hours to revenue don’t quite just add up.

How I used it: How I used this article was to explain the certain years Enron started to skyrocket in profits and how before hand they were following the rules. I made sure to explain how that Enron’s numbers couldn’t have been so high in revenue within 3 years and with a small amount of employees it is figuratively impossible.

8. “How Corporate Social Responsibility Pays Off.” Long Range Planning, Pergamon, 26 Feb. 1999.

Background: This database explains what CSR is a how it pays off to have enforced in a company. CSR was announced in the mid 70s but was never really looked upon because every business company were doing fine without it.

How I used it: How I used this database was to discuss how Enron had corporate values and responsibilities but they never really enforced it like they should have.

9. Tribune, Chicago. “The Fall of Andersen.”, 12 July 2008.

Background: This article focuses on the fall of Andersen a big time accounting firm that was part of the big five. Well once known as the big five now it’s just the big four. Andersen had great clients but because of one mistake they fell and lost all of their clients because none of them wanted to be bothered getting investigated after what happened to Enron. Enron brought Andersen down because they asked and paid much money to Andersen to help them cover and falsely write on their books.

How I used it: How I used this information was by explaining the methods of how Andersen dealt with Enron. I intend to expose Andersen and how they could’ve used common sense and not get mixed up in this mess. Andersen could of followed their normal ethics by doing the right thing of just letting Enron go and slip away from their fingers or could have told the SEC what they were doing.

10. Berenson, Alex. “S.E.C. Opens Investigation Into Enron.” The New York Times. The New York Times, 31 Oct. 2001.

Background: This article discusses about the SEC and what they are capable of doing. S.E.C. stands for Securities and Exchange Commissions which stand for what is right and what is wrong. The SEC follow the corporate rules just as moral ethics. In Enron’s case, the SEC were not keeping a close eye on Enron until word was busy through Wall Street about Enron skyrocketing in the stock market as well as Forbes magazines as being the best place to work. That is where the SEC just opened an Investigation on Enron and wanted to know how they were making so much revenue in small span of time, Enron tried to tell them their profits were real but once the SEC got a hold of Andersen and the books; Enron as everyone knew was ruined.

How I used it: How I used this article was to explain how the SEC works and what they are allowed to do through an open investigation. I also plan to say that companies that say they are ethical like Enron are never truly ethical. Since the Enron incident I intend to say that the SEC has been more strict upon businesses and because of Enron there is the Sarbanes-Oxley Act.

11. “Ethics vs Morals.” Ethics vs Morals – Difference and Comparison 

Background: This article describes the differences between business ethics and morals. It explains the definition, where do they come from, why, origins and etc. Knowing the differences helps identify what each company follows by.

How I used it: How I used this article was by understanding the concept of the two and make sure to keep reminding myself the difference. I intend to implement them into my writing and talk about different companies and how they have gone through unethical phases and how that hasn’t done any justice for them. While those who have been ethical like on that list are active, I also plan to write about how sticking with our morals from birth will help us become successful. If we intend to do the opposite of what we were taught because of business standards then we shall know what happens to those who fall in that trap. Being unethical ruins environments and causes more strict rules that other businesses do not deserve to get penalized.

12. Investopedia. “Enron Scandal: The Fall of a Wall Street Darling.” Investopedia, 23 Oct. 2017.

Background: This article elaborates more about what happened in each year. Enron started back in 1985 and was rising slowly up without and frauds or lies. Though it says once management changed within Enron everything changed and profits were skyrocketing but the SEC got suspicious that within 3 years Enron went bankrupt and was the fall of wall street.

How I used it: How I used this article was by elaborating the skyrocket of Enron and the cause of downfall. Within the article there is a timeline where it states that in 1998 Andrew Fastow was promoted to CFO. I used this information to connect the pieces of when the business was going to fail because when Fastow became the new CFO he hid there debts by falsely cooking the books with Andersen and since Enron was in the stock market they wanted their shares to keep rising so they “increased” revenue to have people buy more shares and increase profits that would then be put in the CFO, and CEOs wallets.

13. PBS. Public Broadcasting Service,Web. 02.

Background: This article is a timeline of all the years of Enron and what happen in almost every month of each year. The timeline gives detailed information about the stock market, the revenue of the business, the CEOs who fined and charged for the fraud offense.

How I used it: How I used this article was by backing up any sort of explanation with each time year and what happen to Enron and the amount of stock it went up or when they changed CEOs or even the time they wanted Arthur Andersen to be their auditing team to help them increase their profits.

14. Jenkins, Heledd. “Small Business Champions for Corporate Social Responsibility.SpringerLink. Kluwer Academic Publishers, 02 Sept. 2006. Web. 03

Background: This journal contains information and statistical data from the UK proclaiming that small to medium businesses perform best and follow the ethics they have as rules

How I used it: How I used this journal was by confirming about how business have less of a lack of ethics like big businesses do. I will use think link for my rebuttal and say give examples that can go along with this journal I got off of google scholar.

Annotated Bibliography- phillygirl

Source 1:  Committee on Early Childhood, Adoption and Dependent Care. “Developmental Issues for Young Children in Foster Care.” Pediatrics, American Academy of Pediatrics, 1 Nov. 2000,

Background: This article discusses developmental issues that young children face in foster care. Developmental problems are one of the biggest issues in younger children. The article lists problems that these children suffer from. The main argument is how bad of an impact foster care leaves with younger children.

How I used it: I used this information to back up one of my main points; foster care does effect most children, especially younger children. This article gave me reliable evidence backing up my point that children suffer most from child care. This article gives me reasoning on how young children are entering foster care during the time brain growth is most active. I used this to support one of my arguments as well.

Source 2: Cross, Theodore P. “Why Do Children Experience Multiple Placement Changes in Foster Care? Content Analysis on Reasons for Instability.” Taylor & Francis, 14 Feb. 2013, (

Background: This article discusses why children experience multiple placement changes in foster care. The main point of this article is to provide reasons for instability.

How I used it: I used some of this information to show the different sides of instability that is caused by foster homes. Like children not achieving stability in their living situations because of the constant placements. This just supports the children who are placed into different foster homes consistently.

Source 3: Troutman, Beth. “The Effects of Foster Care Placement on Young Children’s Mental Health: Risks and Opportunities.”

Background: This article discusses the effects of foster care placement on young children’s mental health. It also talk about risks and opportunities. In the article they explain attachment disruptions among young children in foster care. The author also discuss the risks of unresponsive care within foster homes and children having trouble maintaining attachment relationships because of the abuse within foster care.

How I used this: I used this to support my main point that abuse within foster homes does causes problems within children. I used this evidence to show readers that my information is valid and reliable.

Source 4: Child Welfare Information Gateway. (2017). Foster care statistics 2015. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Children’s Bureau.

Background: This article discusses foster care statistics. It provides estimates for children and youth from the current year. It is data showing the statistics of children in, entering, and exiting foster care. Mainly information about the children’s ages, length of stay, and placement after leaving care.

How I used this: I used this information to really support my research paper overall. Showing statistics and data as such, shows validity and reliability.

Source 5: “A Critical Look at Foster Care: How Widespread a Problem?” A Critical Look at Foster Care: How Widespread a Problem?, 1 Dec. 2005,

Background: This article gives a critical look at the foster care system, and how widespread a problem. The article gives evidence of how some children experienced a pattern of physical, sexual, and emotional abuses. The article mainly discussed trial cases that has been reviewed.

How I used this: I used this information to show readers exactly what these children experience in foster care. This article provides readers the evidence that shows how these children suffer and how nothing is done about this issue.

Source 6: McFadden, Emily Jean|Ryan Patricia. “Abuse in Family Foster Homes: Characteristics of the Vulnerable Child.” ERIC – Education Resources Information Center, 31 July 1986,

Background: This article talks about abuse in foster homes, specifically characteristics of the vulnerable child that experiences the abuse while in care. The article presents information from a study identifying characteristics of abused children. The article also discusses how child mistreatment within foster are causes children to have behavioral issues that strings along with many other issues as well.

How I used this: I used this information to support all of my main arguments because this article provides information for each of them. More specifically, behavioral issues and the problems that follow it.

Source 7: Hobbs, Georgina F. “Abuse of Children in Foster and Residential Care.” Child Abuse & Neglect, Pergamon, 29 Nov. 1999,

Background: This article discusses abuse of children in foster and residential care. The author examines the characteristics of physical and sexual abuse of children in foster and residential care. The author focuses on a city in England. The author provides abuse reports and the number of cases.

How I used it: I used this information to provide readers with an estimate of foster care abuse cases that goes on in just a city. I used the number of cases there were filed in this city, and used some of the reports to show readers exactly what these children experience and how these children suffer while being in foster care.

Source 8: Dozier, Mary. “Challenges to the Development of Attachment Relationships Faced by Young Children in Foster and Adoptive Care.” American Psychological Association, American Psychological Association,

Background: This article discuss challenges to the development of attachment relationships faced by young children in foster and adoptive care. The author talk about the different challenges children experience in foster homes. As well as, factors affecting how children cope with adversity, challenges for children forming attachment issues, and the effects of infants’ early experience.

How I used it: I used this information to help me with giving information about how younger children who experience abuse suffer from long term issues. Also, to provide information about foster children’s experience and the affects children face after foster care.

Source 9: Teo, Dawn. “The 10 Most Surprising Things About Foster Care.” The Huffington Post,, 15 Apr. 2015,

Background: This article briefly discusses the life of a foster child. The author talk about how most foster children are forced to leave everything and everyone behind them, how these children were abandoned, bad social workers, and more related topics.

How I used it: I used this source to educate myself on the good and the bad things foster children endure.

Source 10: Wexler, Richard. “Abuse in Foster Care: The Denial Runs Deep.” The Chronicle of Social Change, 5 Nov. 2017.

Background: This article discuss abuse in foster care and the denial that runs deep in foster children. In the article they discuss children who suffer from abuse while in foster care and children who do not experience any abuse. The article mainly focuses on a case where two foster children were starved to death by foster parents. Caseworkers ignored red flags and specific complaints about what was going on the house hold.

How I used it: I used this article to provide me with information to support my background information. I used specific information from this article to support some of my main points about how some children suffer in while in foster care and are ignored by social workers.

Annotated Bibliography – PlethoraGaming

1) On the scientific relevance of esports:

Background: The author tries to define esports to lead a proper investigation on the problems in esports. This article defines esports, gives us a brief history of esports and gives us the esports science. The esports science focuses on the development of teams of how they have to have high level of communication to be a high performing team. It also focuses on it as if they were a normal team to state that players need to practice to essentially hone their skills.

How to use it: This is used to show some of the basic needs to be a team, especially for varsity esports in college, how this determines skill gap between casual and competitive players.


2) Rise and rise of esports:

Background: This article essentially talks about the boom of esports. It talks about the video game being a entertainment industry however it is being turned into a competitive scene. He states that the hours a pro player puts in essentially makes them equivalent to athletes because of the rigorous training.

How to use it: This article will be used to show that the esports industry is rising, and lead into the question i’m asking of why there is a skill gap in varsity versus casual teams. This is to show that colleges need to invest in esports


3) Recognizing ESports as a Sport:

Background: This article talks about how esports should be categorized as sports in the competitive level. Using the definition of the National Collegiate Athletic Association, the author believes that esports still fits in their category as sports. This article also defines esports and tries to put it together in the same category as sports. It also talks about the benefits of esports being a sport especially in the NCAA

How to use it: This article tries to separate the amateur and professional environment of esports, this will be used to categorize varsity esports as professional and any clubs to be just amateur. And utilize how beneficial it is to have esports in NCAA to have colleges invest more in eports


4) eSports: The New intercollegiate “athlete”:

Background:This powerpoint introduces esports as a mainstream sport and the players as athletes in college. It compiles several colleges, and shows the usage of esports scholarship. This powerpoint breaks down what categories it must hit to be defined as a sport. This also tries to show how to institutionalize esports in college.

How to use it: In this I have focused on specifically sport having to have physical exertion to be considered a sport. This powerpoint talks about exercise games but it’s not competitive. I use a substitute to show in my article that physical exertion does exist in video games, and it’s mostly in the eyes and hands.


5) eSport management: Embracing eSport education and research opportunities:

Background: This article talks about how esports is evolving, and how do we classify as as a sport? This defines esports but it checks to see which aspects of sports should be a criteria for esports to be considered to be in it. Even further it tries to discuss how its a growing industry and sports should try to guide it.

How to use it: I use this to discuss how esports is different from video game, it shows the difference between ‘fun’ and ‘competition’. This also talks about how diversity is created within college varsity teams to show that esports is evolving and that helps my article by showing the impact of esports in the collegiate scene.


6) Campus knowledge of esports:

Background: this article focuses on how esports can lead to a higher education. Essentially it talks about how colleges are looking for new innovative ways to have more people enroll in their school, but esports is a fairly new phenomenon and how should colleges treat this to get more enrollment. It has a survey that also shows player earning and such to show how this can lead to a career.

How to use it: This is being used mostly for showing how this leads to a higher education. With video games growing it shows how colleges can utilize this to show improvement in enrollment and have students chase after that goal.


7) Comparison of eSports and Traditional Sports Consumption Motives:

Background: This article focuses on comparing esports and sport media consumption. The author goes over 14 different motivational factors that affects the time spent watching esports. This article also talks about how video game developers might take the route to creating a game that is competitive for esports.

How to use it: I will be using this show my experience in the behind the scenes of creating a game to be competitive. I utilize my experience with Amazon for the game Crucible which I was flown out for; to lead the topic of creating games for esports in my essay, to show what games should colleges focus on in esports.


8) Time to be grown-ups about video gaming: the rising esports industry and the need for regulation:

Background: This article talks about how to regulate esports. The main topics are how can the government get involved. The author wants the government to regulate the visas, form an esports association, and classify which players are employees.

How to use it: I will be using this to show that varsity teams are winning money but does it classify them as employees? The author states that almost any paid players are employees, but I will be fighting that argument, to show that certain games have different wages and it’s not exactly a stable income.


9) Not just a game: the employment Status and collective bargaining rights of professional esports players:

Background: This article focuses on employment status of people in this industry. This article defines what an employee is and tries to figure out if players are employee of their own org or are they employees of the game.This article leads to showing what federal laws are applicable to give these players employment status.

How to use it: I will be using this to show which parts of the esports industry will we consider employment for esports. There are lot of section to esports, like the games, writes, the players, but they all could apply to the federal employment laws in one way or the other, so it shows my discussion in that.


10) Survey I conducted:

I asked in a public collegiate esports tournament group chat ( “how does collegiate varsity esports team compare skill wise to just gaming clubs. Pretty much is there a skill gap?”

Background: What I got from the surveys are player responses stating essentially how it run in their college. However few statements from various people gives clarification on the skill gap between pro, varsity and casual gaming. Essentially how did varsity esports team get beat out by casual college players.

How to use it: I work with AVGL and conducted this public survey to give me a better understanding how things are run at colleges with varsity esports. I will be focusing on what Victor said on the topic of coaching. Essentially answering the question is 4 years enough for the players to really make any impact in improving.



A Revised First Source

  1. Copley, Margaret Freeman, and John B. Bodensteiner. “Chronic Sorrow in Families of Disabled Children.” Journal of Child Neurology, vol. 2, no. 1, 1987, pp. 67–70., doi:10.1177/088307388700200113.

Background: The author has collected and analyzed the psychological literature examining the Chronic Sorrow of parents who give birth to children with disabilities. She describes the ongoing grief—similar to the grief of parents whose child dies—caused by “the loss of an idealized normal child.” One parent reports that he and others suffer “months and years of anguish, roller coaster cycles of elation and depression as the parents try to deny the evidence before their eyes that their child is less than ordinary or normal.” 

The effect on normal siblings is not described in this source, but is easy to imagine from what is described. “Parents cannot effectively mourn the loss of the idealized child because of the unrelenting daily demands of the living disabled child,” which will reasonably deprive them of the psychic strength to properly nurture their “normal” children as they deserve. And that will likely cause resentment in the siblings. Parents who feel “helpless, hopeless, and anxious” all the time, and who react with “anger, resentment, and aggression” to the frustration of their predicament will not parent as well as they should.

How I Used It: I used this article to establish that parents of a handicapped child are stunted in their ability to properly nurture their other children. Then, since the parents are grieving, I sought and found articles that address how the DEATH of a sibling affects the parent-child relationship with the survivors. Those healthy siblings suffer a loss of affection from their parents along with the burden of being the surviving child, of whom much more is expected and demanded.


2. Chien, Yi-Ling, et al. “School Functions in Unaffected Siblings of Youths with Autism Spectrum Disorders.” SpringerLink, Springer US, 6 July 2017,

Background: This article is about the question of whether or not the normal child and handicapped child brother and sister relationship differ in any significant way from children in any other non-handicapped brother and sister relationship.

How I used it: This article proves that growing up with a handicapped brother and sister can have some differences in the house and in school or public.

3. Hartley, S., et al. “How Do Carers of Disabled Children Cope? The Ugandan Perspective.”Child: Care, Health and Development, Blackwell Science Ltd, 16 Feb. 2005,

Background: This article describes caring for a disabled family member generally falls on one person sometimes two, specifically females. Male members of the family such as father or uncles usually control the key decisions concerning the child and the associated resources.

How I used it: This article proves that most care providers are woman as nurtures.

4. Franklin, Anita, and Patricia Sloper. “Participation of Disabled Children and Young People in Decision Making Within Social Services Departments: A Survey of Current and Recent Activities in England | The British Journal of Social Work | Oxford Academic.” OUP Academic, Oxford University Press, 10 Oct. 2005,

Background: This article is an investigation concerning the participation of disabled children within decision-making regarding their own care and in service development. Such as care given to them in the home and care provided to them from a provider.

How I used it:  This article proves, if possible the disabled should be a part and current when decisions are made about their care options.

Background: This article is a survey between parents of handicapped and non handicapped children and in difference in how they develop symptoms of depression.

How I used it: This article proves that being a parent can be stressful but being a parent of a disabled child causes excessive stress.

6. Strawbridge, William J. 1940-. “The Effects of Social Factors on Adult Children Caring for Older Parents.” University of Washington Libraries ResearchWorks Service, 1 Jan. 1991,

Background: This article is a test to evaluate the physical and emotional state of caregivers, caring for a disabled person. The results show that they have a poor mental health themselves causes by stress and family conflict.

How I used it: This article was the extra information I needed to prove that being a caregiver is not easy. I used it to emphasize that being a sibling care giving requires time and patience.

7. Featherstone H: A difference in the family, in Living With a Disabled Child. New York, Penguin Books, 1980, pp 232, 233.

Background:  This article is about the community-based rehabilitation (CBR) in Uganda. It was created by the World Health Organization in 1989 to help families cope with taking care of a disabled family member and helps to improve the utility of life of the disabled and their family.

How I used it: This article helped me in my writing to explain various programs that help families with disabled children.

8. “Understanding emotions in others: mirror neuron dysfunction in children with autism spectrum disorders”

Background: This article goes into great detail about the autism spectrum and what it actually is. It also discusses other mental illness children may be diagnosed with.

How I used it: I used this article to help me have better understanding of the definition  of each mental illness.

9. Reichman, Nancy E., et al. “Impact of Child Disability on the Family.” SpringerLink, Springer US, 1 Dec. 2007,

Background: This article is about the relationship between the parents and children, their living arrangements whether they need special accommodations for the disabled child and relationships with other extended family members and the children.

How I used it: I used the article to explain how taking care of the disabled and they responsibilities that come with it may fall on extended family members.

10. “Mothers Who Care.” Journal of Family Issues,

Background: This article is about mothers who care about the process of care of their children as they get older. It also explores that women are the dominant sex when it comes to being a care giver to a family member.

How I used it:  I used this article in to explain my personal experience with only women being care givers in my family.

Annotated Bibliography-Jonhjelly

1.Swain, Frank. “Future – Why I want a microchip implant.” BBC, BBC, 10 Feb. 2014,

Background: This article provides a strong argument on a positive outlook on why having a microchip  implanted will be help towards human society. The author talks about how they tried to embedded a microchip from a train card into their body so that they can gain access with a wave of a hand and no card. Also he talks about if we can eventually have a microchip that is truly universal that was embedded in our bodies then it would be very help because we could have access to so much of the digital world. For example we can purchase things for the store with a wave of hand or withdraw money from the ATM without putting in a pin number. Simple things such as this will be extremely easier and safer. The author claims that having a micro chip embedded in our bodies will come more in handy for certain things.

How to use it: By this author listing the positive of having a identity chip within our bodies will help me provide better arguments for my research paper.

2.Post, G. (2017). Should people agree to the use of identity chips?. [online] Startup Dope. Available at: [Accessed 27 Nov. 2017].

Background:This article provides a list of pros and cons of having a Identity chip embedded into our skin. A radio-frequency identification microchip that could used to identify your body. A pro is that it will be good for traveling because it will be able to pinpoint our exact location. A con will be security reasons such as, if microchips exist then microchips readers will also exists as well. If a person has a microchip then they will be able to see your identity with out you having  a say in the matter. This author claims that having a microchip can be dangerous as much as it is useful because of the lack of privacy due to the microchip readers.

How to use it: By this author stating pros and cons it gives me more information on mu topic also it gives me more information on the cons on this topic.

3.Anon, (2017). [online] Available at: [Accessed 27 Nov. 2017].

Background: This article provides information on clubbers in Spain choosing to have a RFID chip implanted instead of a regular membership card because this way they will be able to skip lines and gain entry into the club. The article also talks about how this clubs states the benefits of having this chip is that it will be safer for people because they will not have to bring a wallet because they won’t need it. They have an in-house credit that will be linked to the micro chip. This way people leaving the club will be safer from robbery. This author claims that having a microchip is very beneficial for clubbing and makes it more fun and more safe.

How to use it: By this article giving a positive example of how the microchips could be a great impact on society it gives me more information to write a better argument for the positives of having a microchip.

4.Images, A. (2017). Would you let your boss microchip you?. [online] [Accessed 28 Nov. 2017].

Background: This article talks about a company named Three Squared Market is inserting micro chips into their employees hand right in-between the pointer and index finger. The article is about employees talking about how it is such great device and how it allows them to get into their office, log into their computers, and buy lunch with just a wave of their hand. The claim this author is making is that having a microchip is a plus in the eyes of these employees because it makes the a simple task even easier.

How to use it: By this article giving a insight into a company where they allow their works to have this micro chip, and have them talk about how great it is. It gives my more information to use in my research paper.

5.euronews. (2017). RFID chips: a key to more or less freedom?. [online] Available at: [Accessed 28 Nov. 2017].

Background: This article provides another positive outlook on the micro chip. In this article the author talks about how it will be easier to unlock doors and how losing keys will never be an issue. The author of the article is a fan of the new technology and also gives useful information on the subject. The claim he makes it that having this microchip will make finding your lose car keys extremely easier to find, also he claims having this chip in general will make life easier.

How to use it: By this article talking about the positives of this device it gives me more useful information on the positives of have this microchip embedded in our skin.

6.“Human-Implantable RFID chips: Some ethical and privacy concerns.” Healthcare IT News, 27 Dec. 2008,

Background: This sources has information about the microchip if it was meant to be a medical bracelet. It would replace the medical bracelets that are currently in use now. It would have all of our medical emergency information. This way it will be safer than if the microchip contained all of our information.

How to use it: I would use this in my paper by giving examples of how the microchip could be used safer if it was used as a medical bracelet instead of a having all of your bank and personal information. (2017). Cite a Website – Cite This For Me. [online] Available at: [Accessed 28 Nov. 2017].

Background: This article was giving information about the RFID chips  also known as the microchip that would be embedded into our skins. Based off the information that was provided in this article it is stated that the RFID chip will monitoring the employees of the company. And it also gives the other specs of the RFID chip.

How is it used:  The information the was gather from this article I can use in my essay by displaying how the micro chip is used in other areas other than shopping and looking for deals.

8 Anon, (2017). [online] Available at: . [Accessed 28 Nov. 2017].

Background: This article is about how the RFID chip will increase employee productivity in the work area.

How is it used:  This information is used making my argument stronger how the microchip and how it is incorporated in the workplace and how it increases the productivity of the employee.

9.“How RFID Works.” HowStuffWorks, 5 Nov. 2007,

Background: This article gives me information about how the RFID chip works and gives the benefits of how the microchip  and what they are used for.

How it is used: I can used this article and incorporate it into my article and it can be used in my argument by going into detail about how th RFID is used to track employees.

10. (2017). RFID frequency ranges. [online] Available at: [Accessed 28 Nov. 2017].

Background: This article gives information about the Ranges of the RFID chip and talks about how far you use be to pick up the information that would be on the chip.

How it is used: I can use this article by incorporating it the section of my essay when I’m talking bout the  safety of the people who have these microchips in there bodies.

11.Fox, M. (2017, July 24). Installing microchips in employees is ‘the right thing to do,’ CEO says. Retrieved December 05, 2017, from

Background: This articles talks about a company that use been using the microchip in its work place. They have allowed their works to have it installed for free.

How its used: I will use this information to help my argument strong by giving examples of how its is used in this office. 


Roll, Jordan The World of Slave Trade

Background:  Slaves for the most part believed they were inferior and that their lives were meant to work for the white man.  Slaves either obey or die.  Africans were ripped away from their home country and sold off to whites so they could work until they died in this foreign land.

How I used it: This article helped connect similarities between African slaves and animals within SeaWorld parks.  They are ripped away from their natural habitat only to forced into working for their masters. Neither animals in SeaWorld parks or slaves have/had any hope of freedom.


What will the future bring? Prison mental health care in England 

Background: This article gives statistics of inmate’s mental health condition within England’s prison system. The estimate that the proportion of people with mental health problems within in prisons is 90%.

What it proves: This article helped me connect SeaWorld’s animals to inmates.  Both are confined to small areas for most of the day. This article takes a look at what being confined within concrete walls can do to the human brain.  Seeing such a high risk of mental health and suicide rates with human inmates, it allowed me to question what it must do to the animal prisoners at SeaWorld.

Kidnapping and Mental Health in Iraqi Refugees: The Role of Resilience

Essential Content of Article: This is a study conducted to observe the presence of Post traumatic stress disorder and major depression disorder with kidnapping victims.  The study conducts the experiment on Iraqi refugees, especially those who had been kidnapped.  Results indicated those diagnosed with PTSD were more likely to have been kidnapped.

How I Used It: This article gave me evidence to prove kidnapping indicates a higher likelihood to develop PSTD.  I explained PTSD and its symptoms.  Than I discussed the study.  This allowed me to describe how orcas were taken from the wild.  Orcas usually stay with their family their whole lives.  But when they’re kidnapped they suffer greatly at the expense of entertainment.

Breaking News: The last generation of orcas at SeaWorld 

Background: SeaWorld states they will not release the remaining orcas, because they would not be able to handle the elements and dangers of the wild.  They then state that the orcas will remain in the love and care of SeaWorld.

How I used It: By collecting a statement from SeaWorld that disagrees with my claim it helped me further prove my point. Even though SeaWorld hasn’t collected an orca from the wild in 40 years they are still reaping the benefits of those captured orcas.  They deny the request to free orcas into the wild because of the dangers of elements they aren’t accustomed too.

Jean-Michel Cousteau: SeaWorld should set captive orcas free

Background: An oceanographer believes orcas can be successively reintroduced into their wild habitat.   By using seaside sanctuaries captive orcas can be adjusted to hunting for food and learning the techniques of wild orcas.

How I used it:  This article, although it agrees with my opinion, does not echo my thesis.  I used the facts to dispute the SeaWorld claim that orcas cannot safely be released to the wild.  This scientifically proves that seaside sanctuaries could be the answer to releasing the orcas.

“The Debate- Pro-Captivity.” PBS, Public Broadcasting Service.

Background: This is a released statement by SeaWorld employees, McBain and Andrews.  Their opinions on the quality of life orcas and all captive animals is importance to the evidence against SeaWorld.  They use several facts to prove their claims.

How I Used it: I used this article in my rebuttal, it is important to recognize the opposing view point.  It is crucial to find stronger evidence against this pov, so I gather further information to discredit McBain and Andrews claims.

Powell, Dylan.  “The Free Willy Effect: Perspective and Time in the Anti-Captivity Movement.Dylan Powell, 12 Mar. 2014.

Background: This article describes the Free Willy movie and its effect on its viewers.  After falling in love with Willy, viewers loved Keiko, the whale who played Willy.  People wanted to free Keiko from his life in captivity and release him into the wild; where he could be happy, healthy, and free.  Free Willy was the start to the major anti-captivity movements.  Free Willy is the reason people are still inspired to empty the tanks and release orcas into the wild.

How I Used It: I used this article in my causal argument.  I wanted to pinpoint a movement where the fuse was lit.  I believe it all started with Free Willy.  Keiko was freed and became an example. This article allowed me to dive into the debate over people then wanting to release SeaWorld’s orcas.

“Predator-Prey Relationships.” NECSI Evolution.

Background: This short explanation defines predator and prey and their relationship to one another.  Predator and prey rely on each other and move together in order to survive.  Predator must eat prey to survive, prey must avoid being eaten to survive; it is a dangerous game.

How I Used It: I used this article to categorize orcas as predators but only if they’re in the wild.  Once orcas are captured and stuck into tanks they become the prey. Orcas once at the top of the food chain become the ones struggling to survive. I use this article to show how unnatural it is to take a born predator and force it to become prey.

 Holm, Gretchen, and Erica Roth. “Toxoplasmosis.” Healthline, Healthline Media, 10 Feb. 2016.

Background: This article details what Toxoplasmosis is and what the effects are.  Toxoplasmosis is a parasite that infects your brain and causes sickness and mental health issues within its host.

How I used it: I used this article to show that alone orcas fall prey to SeaWorld, SeaWorld does not become predator though.  SeaWorld becomes a parasite because it does not survive by killing its prey but rather they leech off the nutrients and thriving environment the prey provides. I use this article to categorize SeaWorld and Toxoplasmosis as deadly parasites that infect the brains of their hosts.

Schelling, Ameena. “SeaWorld Orcas Have ‘Alarming’ Number Of Injuries, Vet Reveals.” The Dodo, The Dodo, 11 Aug. 2015.

Background: This article describes the condition of orcas health at San Diego SeaWorld.  The biggest concern was the condition of the orca’s teeth. Orcas in captivity chew on their metal gates and cause harm to their teeth.  In order to fix the teeth the orcas has to get root canal, followed by daily cleanings. This dental trauma is not seen in the wild and is found most commonly in captive orcas.

How I Used It: I used this article to show that SeaWorld survives off the orcas but meanwhile the orca’s health is suffering.  Parasites harm their hosts because they take away from their hosts in order to feed themselves.  Seaworld rips orcas away from the wild where they thrive just so they can make money.  This article helped me finalize the cause and effect between SeaWorld’s and the orcas.