White Paper draft 3-Thenaturalist201

Thenaturalist201’s Proposal

For my research essay, I will be arguing that multiracial people of a lighter skin color, in fact, do not have “White Privilege” and that they are put down for their skin color by races that they are actually part of. I will be using a study done by Salahuddin and O’Brien as their study shows that multiracial people specially suffer discrimination and that they have more problems with identifying themselves. This is a major social problem around the world and really should be considering how far we as people have had to come to believe that people are “equal”, but because of this stigma of color people are unable to really be equal. This includes all people of color who may not appear that way because of their skin color. 

I propose that multiracial people with lighter skin color do not receive privilege that is believed to be given to people with white skin color. I propose that these people are made uncomfortable because they are being discriminated by both races whether they are lighter or darker than them. Because of this uncomfortable state they start to develop identity problems.


Thenaturalist201’s sources


The content of the article: In this article, the author discusses their own personal struggle of being multiracial with her social life as well as how she is treated by her own family.

Proves: that multiracial people have problems just as much as a one race person


  1. https://www.tolerance.org/professional-development/on-racism-and-white-privilege

The content of the article: Explains the idea of white privilege and that anyone of white color has these privileges

Proves: not all multiracial have these privileges and even if they have a lighter skin color they don’t always have these privileges


  1. https://www.theglobeandmail.com/news/world/brazils-colour-bind/article25779474/

Content of the article: interviews with Brazil’s residents as well as the history of the background of their “races”

Proves: the definition of race versus skin color is a problem. It proves that everyone has this idea that the shade of your skin has a level of privilege.


  1. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/j.2161-1912.2005.tb00020.x/epdf

Content: Defining privilege. Expanding the idea the of privilege to different categories. The article explains that there are 20 categories of privilege

Proves: this proves that skin color is a small portion of privilege and should not be treated as that is the only factor of privilege.

  1. https://www.huffingtonpost.com/uloop/race-identity_b_1303787.html

Content: This article provides a personal experience to the table

  1. https://nationalseedproject.org/white-privilege-unpacking-the-invisible-knapsack
  2. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ysi5IqlIVoE
  3. https://movingupusa.com/survey-results-test/?sid=487403



  1. https://www.kqed.org/perspectives/201601135618/mixed-race-privilege
  2. https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/privilege


Rebuttal is to prove that skin color is not everything


White Paper -tjjones123

My Proposal

I will be researching and investigating kneeling during the NFL.  

White Paper

Trump criticizes NFL

The Essential Content of this Article: In the article, Trump Criticizes N.F.L. for Not Penalizing Anthem Kneeling, by Ken Belson and Kevin Draper, they explain how owners of teams and officials of the NFL decided that they will not be taking any measures to punish players who are deciding to take a knee, or even not come out during the anthem.  Donald Trump, finds this unethical and outrageous that they aren’t doing anything about it. No matter how you look at it just as Donald Trump is stating in his tweets and speeches, “Total disrespect for our country.” The NFL hasn’t changed any rules saying players have to stand for the anthem and chose not to take any actions for those who do.  This is beginning to inrage more people because there are plenty of other ways for them to protest.

What it proves: There are several other people that agree that this form of protest in not an impactful or positive method.  President, Donald Trump, thinks this is a disgrace against the country and changes need to be made immediately to inforce standing for our flag and anthem.

Think Again Before Disrespecting Our Flag

The Essential Content of this Article: In the article, Think Again Before Disrespecting our Flag and Anthem, by Cody Long, he describes the actions people are taking against this country and against our flag which people in previous years never would have thought of doing.  In years before there were rarely people burning flags, never flags laying on the ground, and never EVER someone showing complete disrespect towards our flag. In addition, this author began to explain, sure protest is allowed and everyone has the freedom of speech, however showing disrespect toward our flag and country these people are going against the rights they are exercising.  Lastly, this is one of the only countries that have the freedoms, if they go outside the U.S they can see these dictatorships and see what having no rights and how great America really is.

What it proves: Many people feel that this is more than just a protest and however it is more disrespect towards our nation and to those risking their lives to keep us free and safe.  In addition, it adds that our nation is one of the few countries that offer these freedoms we take for granted.

Behind the Protests

The Essential Content of this Article:  In this article, What’s Really Behind the Backlash to the NFL Kneeling Protests, by Kim Wilcox, it describes the reasoning behind the protests and why the players are taking these measures to address this issue.  In addition, she talks about the proper reasons why someone may take a knee during the anthem to respect a fallen soldier or family member lost at war, but a call to change racial injustice is not deserving of disrespecting our country.  Kneeing out of respect to our nation and a cause is the only time it should be done never as a protests against what we believe in.

What it Proves: It shows reasons why some people might take a knee during the anthem and it also shows and explains why taking a knee for the protest they are taking part in should not disrespect who we are.  

Quit Grandstanding with NFL Protests and get back to Football

The Essential Content of this Article: In this article, Quit Grandstanding NFL Protests and get back to Football, by James Robbins, he discuss what these protests are doing to the overall name of the sport.  As he said “Remember when you could enjoy pro football without being lectured on politics?” Less people are watching football because they feel disrespected by those players kneeling and also because every week there is something else.  We used to tune in and watch our favorite team try to win and bring home a super bowl, but now it’s all about politics and what team is disrespecting our nation, and what players are going against the flag.

What it Proves: Without the NFL taking a stance and getting control of this issue before its gets more out of control less people are starting to watch the sport and less supporters less money.  

A Marine’s Letter to the NFL

The Essentials Content of the Article: In Col. Jeffery Powers letter to the NFL he explained how he was a fan of the sport growing up, a season pass holder to Yankee Stadium, but he missed 90-91’ season while be stationed at Desert Storm.  He explained a conversation he had with one of the men that died in war about the Giants going to the Super Bowl. When he returned from fighting for this nation, he doesn’t see his teams thanking and honoring him for his service but instead he saw multi-million dollar athletes kneeling during the national anthem.  As a marine, many people said “they will understand it’s for the movement of racial injustice, but they don’t. Many people feel it is not against marines but it goes against everything they are fighting for and this marine explained that marines aren’t making millions of dollar fighting for our country, these athletes are.  Marines don’t play one game a day then get a good break to see their families. Marines don’t play a fun game with friends having a good time.

What it Proves: Marines do feel this is disrespectful towards them and this should be changed.

White Paper 3rd Draft- Doublea


Eliminating artificial turf fields with real grass fields would decrease the total amount of knee injuries in an NFL season


Source 1: NFL panel finds some knee, ankle injuries more common on turf. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.nfl.com/news/story/09000d5d816e77f1/article/nfl-panel-finds-some-knee-ankle-injuries-more-common-on-turf

This article talks about the increase specifically in ACL injuries on Fieldturf surfaces. The article started off by saying that in an annual study conducted by the NFL that knee injuries on Fieldturf surfaces increased the rate of knee injuries by 88 percent. The study was conducted in the 2003-2008 seasons. The article states that there was only 9 stadiums that have the Fielfturf surfaces. With that being said I could use the research of this article to describe the effect that the Fieldturf playing surface has on knee injuries. With just 9 stadiums sporting the Fieldturf it is a mind boggling stat that the result of knee injuries is increased by 88 percent. Imagine if every field sported the Fieldturf surfaces. The chances of a major knee injury every game would be very high.

Source 2: Turf Battle in the NFL: Natural vs. Artificial. (2017, March 11). Retrieved from https://www.lawnstarter.com/blog/lawn-care-2/turf-at-nfl-stadiums/

The article starts off by talking about the struggle of running a fantasy team with all the injuries that occur now a days on turf fields. It starts off by naming five key players that got hurt in the preseason due to turf fields. I can relate this to my own paper because I too play fantasy football and can relate to the injury struggle due to turf fields. Tons of people every year witness the amount of injuries players encounter playing the dangerous game. The article brings up that there is now 17 stadiums equipped with artificial turf now. Now this number is different than the number of the first article and that is because this is a more recent article but this can go to show that more teams are moving indoors so they have to have turf. With the increase in turf fields in the league I should show the increase in injuries on these fields in my essay.

Source 3: Todd Neale Todd Neale. (2010, March 15). AAOS: Artificial Turf Injuries Still More Likely in NFL. Retrieved from https://www.medpagetoday.com/meetingcoverage/aaos/19020

The article once again brings up the number that the articles brought up. I can continue to use the number of 88% more likely to get a knee injury on turf fields a lot. The stat is mind boggling and seriously should be looked at by NFL officials. The number of lower leg injuries in the seasons on fieldturf fields was 1.79:1.4 per team game. These turf fields were introduced in 2000 so I could try and find a graph of injuries resulting in every year and find a correlation with knee injuries and turf fields.

Source 4: BANSCH, J. (1993, Oct 17). Knee injuries call for abolishment of artificial turf fields. Indianapolis Star Retrieved from http://ezproxy.rowan.edu/login?url=https://search.proquest.com/docview/240088678?accountid=13605

This article describes the moments in a game between the Eagles and the Colts where 3 separate season ending knee injuries occurred all on turf. The article quotes this trainer Otho Davis, a physical trainer for the Philadelphia Eagles. It quotes him saying that he normally does not take sides between turf and grass fields but this season has been something else to him. Also quotes the Colts trainer saying that players want to cut on a dime but their bodies cannot handle the force of the cuts on the turf.

Source 5: NRG Stadium’s Playing Surface An ‘Abomination’. (2014, September 09). Retrieved from http://houston.cbslocal.com/2014/09/09/nrg-stadiums-playing-surface-an-abomination/

This article talks about the grass turf on Reliant Field home of the Houston Texans. The article talks about the square panels that the field uses for play. These panels are set up and when you get a cleat stuck in the side of a panel it can bend your knee the wrong way. This is what happened in Jadeveon Clowney’s first game where he planted in one of the seams and bent his knee the wrong way. According to his teammate Swearinger he also believes this is a problem because there has been a big injury bug around the Texans and knee injuries for years. I can use this to show that this could be the case for other fields as well and this is not safe to play on.

Source 6: Is an ACL tear more common on artificial turf or grass? (2018, March 03). Retrieved from http://www.drdavidgeier.com/ask-dr-geier-acl-tears-on-natural-grass-or-fieldturf/

This article brings to light the question asked by a blog member on a doctors blog site. Dr. David Geieir was brought a question because a kid had 3 injuries on his football team all on turf fields away games. Their home field was grass and all three injuries occurred on turf at away games. When answering the question Dr. said that the best results were from this study made from NFL teams from 2000-2009 where the results showed that there was not an increase in MCL injuries on turf but there was a 22% increase in knee sprains altogether and a 67% higher chance of getting an ACL sprain on turf than grass.

Source 7: Hershman, E. B., Anderson, R., Bergfeld, J. A., Bradley, J. P., Coughlin, M. J., Johnson, R. J., . . . Tucker, A. (2012, 09). An Analysis of Specific Lower Extremity Injury Rates on Grass and FieldTurf Playing Surfaces in National Football League Games. The American Journal of Sports Medicine, 40(10), 2200-2205. doi:10.1177/0363546512458888 

This article is actually the results that Dr. G used in his answer to his blogger. The results are the same as stated above but it tells us what stats they used to find this data. The article says that they literally used every game from 2000-2009 seasons and made a graph and analysed the data to find the results. The results were from 2680 games which is 5360 team games played so it is without a doubt a lot of data.

Source 8: Iacovelli, J. N., Yang, J., Thomas, G., Wu, H., Schiltz, T., & Foster, D. T. (2013, August 01). The effect of field condition and shoe type on lower extremity injuries in American Football. Retrieved from http://bjsm.bmj.com/content/47/12/789.citation-tools

This article talked about a 130 game span where they analyzed the lower extremity injuries. In this time the data was found that there was an increase in lower extremity injuries on turf but not during practice. If this is the case just practice on turf and play on grass or just take you chances and practice on grass and play on grass. I would use this in my arguments by saying and proving that in in game play there is an increase in lower extremity injuries.

Source 9: 6 – Risk of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury as a Function of Type of Playing Surface. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780323389624000060

This article states how there is indeed an increase in the number of lower extremity injuries on the football field due to the playing surface. The article states a lot of causes though like surface hardness, rotational stiffness, and release torque. These physical characteristics may interact with other environmental factors such as cleat design, surface moisture levels, and ambient temperature. Altogether, these causes are what causes these  player to twist/turn their knees on the turf. It describes how the strongest evidence in field turf play injuries comes from football because of the size of players and level of play. This article is from 2018 so I plan on using this article to bring up the argument in my rebuttal argument that people may have problems with the fact that my evidence is from 2009.

Source 10:

A Review of Synthetic Playing Surfaces, the Shoe-Surface Interface, and Lower Extremity Injuries in Athletes. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10

This article talks about how the versatility and durability of artificial playing fields but, are they really that safe. It states that research over time has shown an increase in injury on artificial playing surfaces and that biomechanical data suggests that both the torque and strain experienced by lower extremity joints generated by artificial surfaces may be more than those generated by natural grass fields. With that being said this article is more of a recent article too and I could also use this against the arguments people will have arisen in my rebuttal argument.





White paper 2—pATricKStar


College students are at a high risk for mental health issues in the U.S.

Source 1


The article explains how there has been an increase in the level of mental illness in college students everywhere. It also specifies this increase to Boston university and shows how they have saw an increase in their students with mental health issues.  Article explains which students are a higher risk. The students members of the LGBQT community are one of the groups because of how hard it might be to explain who they are. Another  person are the international students , they may find a challenging to relate to a socially with others coming from a different background.  Finally students who come from smaller high schools and transfer  to bigger colleges because this may find it harder to interact and fit in. This can cause then to feel alone and depressed.  Along with the stats of increasing mental illness, the article gives signs of mental illness they state if a personal starts to withdraw from social groups, starts sleeping more, has an increase in the substance-abuse, gives away all their possessions, and or starts posting suicidal related posts on social media and they are showing signs.  As we know learning and becoming aware it’s just one of the stops we could help but nothing is ever simple.  Most students don’t report because they don’t want to or they have fear of communicating but of the ones that do shows of shocking amount of mental illness.  Number is a referral to treatment at Boston University into thousand 14 and 2015 was 1,587.  In 2015 and 2016 number referred to treatment was 1,640. I stayed in mental health services are costly. This means students struggling financially probably not receive any treated even if needed.

source 2


Stress  is something we all go through. Whether it’s big or small we are all in town or stress at some point and our lines. Now there is good stress mad stress. Stress is the stress that motivate you to do better or even work harder. bad stress just leads you to being not proactive. Article goes into detail about how stress and substance abuse/addiction can go hand-in-hand if not treated properly. An experiment done on animals proves it. “Preclinical research also shows that stress exposure enhances drug self-administration and reinstates drug seeking in drug-experienced animals.” What we are finding out are Psychologist and researchers are starting to correlate the two as well as the facts. So now this topic is not just becoming an excuse for people to do engage in substance abuse it’s actually proven.

source 3


This article talks about depression. College students face many obstacles coming into the school. As we know it could be a stressful time and college was basically the place we learn to grow up you’re not baby anymore.  Depression is at a all time high for college students. As stated in the article, “According to a 2013 American Psychological Association survey, about one-third of college students have experienced depression within the past year and had difficulty functioning because of it.” This well-known fact is the reason why we need to focus on what is going on with students and how we can help them.  People think depression just has to do with sadness but some of the symptoms or signs he just can’t see. With many students losing their lives by being exposed to substance and partying with bad decisions out of impulse just to avoid feeling depressed. We have to ask ourselves, how can we stop this and how can we help.

Source 4


Something that I found interesting in this article article that contribute to my topic is that they actually put a list where you can compare and contrast the differences between being stressed mean depressed. This is important now since most of the signs are similar. Many of us think that they might be the same thing or is that just depressed might just be someone being sad when it’s much bigger than that.

Source 5


this widespread of mental illness is increasing rapidly. This alarming fact is wellknown, what isn’t, is the fact that we don’t know how to stop it yet. among the mental illnesses that affect students are anxiety disorder. “Anxiety disorders are the most prevalent psychiatric problems among college students, with approximately 11.9 % of college students suffering from an anxiety disorder” this is a huge amount if you consider the millions of students in college in the U.S. another main mental illness address is depression. depression is one of the most harmful because if not treated people can cause harm to themselves. something i like about the article is the writer addresses the abuse of alcohol in college. with many people being leftuntreated for their mental illnesses this could be a life threatening situation as we hear about on the news. many kids drink them selves or abuse drugs to death. “Approximately one in five college students meet the criteria for alcohol use disorder (AUD) in the previous year (12.5 % alcohol dependence and 7.8 % alcohol abuse)”


Source 6


this article talks about a survey done by The American College Health Association which surveyed to over 30,000 students across 39 campuses. “Results of the survey showed a significant increase in psychological problems on college campuses. For instance, 15.4% of students reported being diagnosed with depression. Furthermore, 28.4% of all students, regardless of whether they were diagnosed, reported that they felt so depressed that it was difficult to function.”what is alarming about this is as we know many students including myself will not go up and ask for help or talk to people. we feel the need to deal with it ourselves or some feel that they would get judged. The article addresses that substance abuse is another concern. with students not in the right state of mind this could be harmful to themselves and others.

Source 7


The amount of mental health issues of students has rose throughout the years.  “The most common substances used by young adults are alcohol, tobacco
and cannabis [8-10]. The use of two or more of these
substances simultaneously, known as polydrug use, has
received growing attention in the literature due to an increase
in prevalence in early adulthood.” With mental health issues many students may find the abuse of such substances such as drugs and alcohol as a way to relax and cope. the study done in the article focused on students 18-25 in france. it tried to determine what these students have in common. Which age/criteria fit best for the growing amount of the substance abuse.

Source 8


Negative affects have been link to the abuse of substances of drugs and alcohol. People don just abuse these drugs without a purpose. in college this where most people are exposed to these real life situations. the article defines the need for these substance to cope has having a negative urgency. “Negative Urgency refers to an individual’s tendency to engage in impulsive behavior while experiencing feelings of distress. a study showed that women diagnosed with alcohol dependence had  higher levels of Negative Urgency compared to both a control group of women, and a group of women diagnosed with depression” Having Negative Urgency has been shown to lead to the abuse of alcohol, smoking, and the use of illegal drugs. what this proves is it could be psychological to cause these behaviors.

Source 9


“When an individual is faced with an intense emotional
experience the more dominant emotions take over, and the individual can no longer rationally consider the situation” It seems that in many articles it is an impulse control. that something in the brain makes us not distinguish from right or wrong. something makes us choose the easy way instead of the right way.


White Paper – PaulaJean5

PaulaJean’s Proposal

I am going to be researching the placebo effect and how the medical aspect of placebo effects relate to social stereotypical placebos or expectation bias. More specifically, the effect of people’s demographics and what other people say on their self-esteem and behaviors due to stereotypes or negative connotation.

PaulaJean’s Sources

Asking Students to Confirm Their Gender Before a Test Leads to Lower Scores for Girls, Higher for Boys

The essential content of this article: This article focuses on a study done by the Educational Testing Services where they asked a group of males/females to confirm their gender before the test and another group after. The females who got asked the inquiry about gender did worse than the other females who got asked after. The males who got asked before did better than the others who got asked the question after the test.

What it proves: The study in this article will help me prove that just mentioning somebody’s gender to them before they take a test will trigger an unconscious stereotype in their head and make them perform due to that specific stereotype. This shows how much we focus on other stereotypes around us without knowing.

Stinking Thinking and Expectation Bias

The essential content of this article: Stinking Thinking or ST language triggers negative thoughts that will bring ones self-esteem down, making them believe they will fail or that they are terrible people. This kind of language will change one’s mind about their own self. Certain phrases are said with the intention to lower one’s confidence. There are many ways of thinking/speaking that easily shape the way a person thinks. (i.e. “What if…?, “I should have…”, or the belief negative emotions make something real.)

What it proves: My thesis was created to essentially research how one’s language, phrasing, and/or perceptiveness to negativity effects one’s self-esteem. This article provides me with information that shows just by using certain words and phrases one can change somebody’s whole mood and confidence level. The way a person words the things they say can make other people around them acquire certain beliefs.

Enhancing Placebo Effects: Insights from Social Psychology

The essential content of this article: This study focuses on social psychology and how you can apply it to life and increase positive expectancies in clinical settings. Providing a comfortable office, many awards for the doctor/therapist, multiple degrees, and also a sense of comfort and familiarity will let a patient believe that any type of treatment will work as long as it is paired with these social psychology implications.

What it proves: My thesis focuses on things people say or do that change what you believe in or think. In this case, the way the office looked and people acted shaped a patient’s opinion on a certain treatment. This helps me show a real life example where this relationship exists and occurs.

The Weird Power of the Placebo Effect, Explained

The essential content of this article: This article focuses on the different types of effects and what causes them. Regression to the mean is an effect that is caused by time. As time goes on, the sickness/disorder will be healed by time. Confirmation bias is when a patient’s focus shifts from the sickness to the recovery. This shift lets the ill person recognize signs of health and recovery which will end up in ignorance towards the signs of illness. Expectations and learning tell us that we should respond to pain and/or medicines due to the cues we receive from our environment. For example, if a patient receives painkillers from a pump that they cannot see, they will need twice as much medicine as the patients who watch the doctor actually administer it to them. Pharmacological conditioning is related to learning and conditioned responses. If a patient takes a painkiller and then switches to a placebo unknowingly, it will provide the same response as the painkiller as the patient’s body was trained to relieve pain when it took that specific pill. Social learning works in the same way as watching somebody else take a pill that eases pain, will make that certain pill work for them as well. Human connection also has a big effect on what one feels as warmth and empathy can actually help kick start or push along the healing process more so than patients not receiving the same attention and warmth.

What it proves: This proves that there many ways to alter one’s thoughts and beliefs. For example, a lot of what a hospital is is a placebo which makes you more trusting of the treatment. The way the world works around us really creates and shapes how we will think until another placebo pops up and changes our train of thought yet again.

Dogs and the Placebo Effect

The essential content of this article: This article focuses on the placebo effect on animals. There was a study done where a dog was given actual pills and then switched to placebos. They had a way to measure the dog’s pain and found out that the placebos actually worked as a painkiller.

What it proves: This proves just how subconscious the placebo effect is. Dogs, who do not have the cognitive capacity to understand what the pill is actually trying to do for them, are susceptible to the placebo effect. This proves how effective a placebo can be.

Getting Drunk on Expectations

The essential content of this article: This article’s main focus is on the fact that you can be drinking non-alcoholic beer and get drunk. Of course, you can’t know it is non-alcoholic, but just the scene of a party can itself can get you drunk. Alcoholics are advised to not drink non-alcoholic beer and be in a party setting because it can cause a relapse in their recovery. Drinking out of a keg is enough of a cue to trigger the intoxicated feeling. The “needle freak phenomenon” is another example of this. People with an addiction to heroin can inject themselves with a saline solution, thinking it is heroin, and  get an instantaneous high. Cues themselves are very powerful.

What it proves: This proves how our minds can trick us. Just by setting up our atmosphere in a way that is familiar with certain feelings and experiences, we can feel certain ways without the stimulus even being present.

Are Diets Just Placebos?

The essential content of this article: This article focuses on how diets may not be working because of the actual diet, but because of the act. They have done many experiments, and each one showed how just by being told the food was healthy or a part of a diet.

What it proves: This proves, once again, how powerful our minds are. If we are told something will help us lose weight, we start losing weight and feeling healthier even if it is not exactly scientifically proven.

Placebo of HIV Trials

The essential content of this article: Between 1996 and 1999, there were certain trials that tested the effect of highly active antiretroviral therapy on patients with HIV. This treatment was more effective in the clinical trials then they were in hospitals. This is called the trial effect. This test was done later in the early 2000s. It did not show the same results as the perception of HIV changed and there was more evidence to prove that HIV is more treatable.

What it proves: This proves that the time of studies can change results, but the placebo effect still shows. The trial effect is an interesting situation as one may intuitively think that being given treatment in a hospital would be more effective than a treatment in a clinical trial. But still, the time of the study and the relevance is very important for the placebo effect to take place.

Is the Placebo Effect a Placebo?

The essential content of this article: This article focuses on how the placebo effect is just a placebo. The placebo needs multiple factors and varies in every situation. Nobody responds the same way to things, and this is also creates a more difficult way to prove the placebo effect.

What it proves: This article proves that placebo effects are difficult to prove. I do not believe what this article says besides that. There are some flaws and not enough evidence supporting their point. Placebos are very hard to prove, but there is a lot of evidence that points towards it.

The Placebo Effect and Marketing

The essential content of this article: This article focuses on how marketers and advertisers can alter their products and advertisements to appeal to consumers. When they change their products, they start this expectation so when they buy it, it is as good as the commercial or advertisement said. Social media has a huge effect on this as well.

What it proves: This article proves that commercials are very meticulously created so that people buy these things and enjoy them when they are consumed or used.

What I am still looking for…

I am still looking for a thesis statement that is coherent and effective. I like where I am going, but I need to shape and create a thesis that is provable and able to be written a lot about.

Current state of research…

I like all of my sources so far, but I am not 100% confident on my progress. I am having a hard time getting my thoughts together. I think with time and help, my confidence will go up.


White Paper 2nd Draft- Nreina34

For my research essay, I will examine how the media portrays law enforcement and how it’s affecting these departments around the country.  

Throughout the country police officers feel as if they are perceived to be the criminal and that isn’t the mentality a police officer should have.  Social media is a major cause to the irrational hatred the police receives and it is ultimately leading to a decline in numbers in law enforcement. These accusations of the media are not at all false, the majority of police officers agree with the idea on how the media treats them poorly.  Police officers are everyday citizens outside of their job and have to deal with these things, and for someone who protects and serves their community to be ridiculed for doing their job is truly unjust.       

  1. Forget Criminals, Police Now Fear Activists and the Media

The Essential Content of the Article: This article published by The National Interest provides a case in Alabama where a man was pulled over by a police officer but instead of cooperating he decides to beat the officer as others join in and video the helpless man.  The officer didn’t fight back in fear of repercussions of the media and said, “I hesitated because I didn’t want to be in the media like I am right now.  It’s hard times right now for us.”  

What it proves:  This article proves that the media has an affect on the mindset of a police officer now and is now altering decisions that can risk their life.  This is a perfect example of how unwanted prejudice leads to attacks against law enforcement, which is happening all around the country.

  1. The Real Reasons Nobody Wants To Be A Police Officer In America

The Essential Content of the Article:  The main point of this article is that numbers in the police force have been declining rapidly around the country.  Entrance exam numbers have gone down tremendously, for example in Fairfax County, Virginia, there were 4,000 applicants for their exam in 2011, but now will only catch the eye of 300.  

What it proves:  There must be a major cause to this 90% drop of applicants and people are now looking to the media to be that influence.  Ultimately, this is proving that not only does the media affect day to day officers, it is trickling down into the young minds making them not want to pursue their dreams anymore in law enforcement.  

  1. Most officers say the media treat police unfairly

The Essential Content of the Article:  Pew Research Center ran surveys in 2016 to get the opinion of police officers on how they feel the media treats the police.  The results were shocking, with 81% of them saying the media treats them unfairly, and half of that saying they strongly agree.  Also, this survey also showed that about 50% of police officers feel that the public doesn’t understand the risks and hardships they go through and could be another potential reason for their tarnished image.

What it proves: This research backs up the theory that media is influencing law enforcement and all of it is undeserved.  Society believes that the news headlines that ridicule police officers do not alter them, but how would you feel if you had to be the “bad guy” all the time when you’re just trying to do your job?  

  1. We’re not seeing more police shootings, just more news coverage

The Essential Content of the Article:  I decided to utilize this article to show an opposing side to this argument.  This article published by CNN preaches upon that their haven’t been more “controversial” police incidents, there has just been more media coverage on them giving them more exposure.  A big part to this more exposure is cell phones because it gives eye witnesses the ability to record everything that goes on.  

What it proves: This may prove that this type of behavior from law enforcement can be a recurring thing dating back way farther to Eric Garner and Ferguson, Missouri.  Maybe more exposure to these incidents will educate the public about what is really going on in our police departments around the country.

  1. How Social Media Is Changing Law Enforcement

The Essential Content of the Article: This article helps seek through the “pros and cons” that social media brings to law enforcement.  This is only a part of the argument but I feel that it has a lot more importance than people think it has.  Social media nowadays is used by law enforcement to assist in looking for missing children, and also helps spread word about important news from the police to the public.  But social media has created a whole new world of law enforcement including pedophiles using a these networks as a platform to meet young children, and ISIS and other organizations like that use social networking to recruit people overseas.  

What it proves:  This proves that social media is a double edged sword for law enforcement, but it can be a very vital thing to law enforcement.  It is starting to be used in police departments to communicate with the public, gather information about certain people, and can also be used a form of evidence.  This goes to show that the police really are trying to help out but at the end of the day the media still portrays them as victims in certain scenarios.  

  1. Social Media and Crime: The Good, The Bad, and The Ugly

The Essential Content of the Article:  The article posted by The Conversation states that there are 3 sides to social media and crime.  It states that essentially social media is taking over to be the majority’s primary news source which can potentially be a major problem due to all the controversy between the industries.  It also shows how social media is a good thing for law enforcement by it aiding with investigations, having more access to the public, and it has also made it alot easier to communicate with the public in times of crisis.  There are too much of a hatred bias on social media for it to be the main news source.

What it proves: This proves that a lot more people (the majority of them being young) turn to social media as their news outlet which eventually is going to turn into a big problem due to how unreliable it is.  People will believe anything they see on social media nowadays, it is so credulous of them.  

  1. The Use of Social Media Monitoring Tools for Law Enforcement

The Essential Content of the Article:  This piece gives examples at how social media benefits the police.  Police are able to use social media to find tips from followers about the bragging of crimes on social media.  Also, police agencies use social media in hiring decisions.  Law enforcement agencies already do extensive background searches on their applicants before they are hired but by looking into social media accounts it gives these departments a better look at the character of their candidates.  

What it proves:  I wanted to use this article to show that even though social media is a burden on law enforcement, it also very useful for the police.  This is why there must be a resolve between these two industries.  There is too much distrust between them and how they are skewed against each other.  

  1. Social Media and Law Enforcement

The Essential Content of the Article:  The impact social media has on law enforcement has made the interactions between them erratic.  A big example is how the police are affected by the attacks on their credibility.  Social media gives information to irrelevant people which is how things get escalated, and at the same time police officers are verbally attacked on social media at all times.  In addition, the rise of “questionable” videos online poses a threat to departments and is called cop baiting.  By doing this, it makes police officers second guess their decisions which can end up hurting themself.

What it proves: This proves that there are people out there on social media that want to expose police officers for their every move.  Cop baiting is a serious epidemic among our country and is starting to make police officers question if things are a set up sometimes, it’s really sad.  Social media makes police officers the biggest public figures it also comes along with the fact that the barrier between their professional and personal is no longer existent.  

  1. American policing is broken.  Here’s how to fix it.

The Essential Content of the Article:   A major reason as to why there is so much shown hatred towards law enforcement is the accusations that police officers are prejudice and this article points out some of that racial prejudice that goes in in Baltimore, Maryland.  In order for the media and the police to nicely mesh with each other, the police have to fully clean up their act before they can turn around and point fingers.  An investigation given by the US Department of Justice uncovered many instances of unreasonable targeting against black individuals in that area.  

What it proves: This does prove that there are some prejudicial and bias things that go on through some police departments, so the haters are right, but to an extent.  But before the media goes a day without trying to expose the men in blue, all police departments have to clean up their act before they call themselves the victims.  

  1. Fostering Better Relationships Between Police and Media

The Essential Content of the Article:  This article focuses upon the fact that these two professions have so much controversy because they do not fully understand the other person’s job.  A former crime reporter named Carolyn Lowe who worked for WCCO-TV decided to take a challenge and took a college class to try and learn more about law enforcement.  One class led to another and next thing you know, she has a masters degree and is a certified officer.  She really wanted to gain better insight on the job of policing and she did by taking matters into her own hands by actually becoming one.  

What it proves:  This proves that if we were to just understand what goes on in these professions, there would be a lot less skepticism and controversy between them.  There is a resolution and it will come one day but if we do not put ourselves aside then it will not happen.  The media is seriously affecting the way law enforcement is now acting and there needs to be a resolve before things really do get out of hand.  

White Paper 3 – Dancers

My Proposal

I will be conducting research on bullying and cyberbullying. What the effects of bullying cases are, what is the makeup of the bully (why do they bully), lastly is there anything that can be done to stop bullying.

My research will go one of two ways either I will delve further in to see if by prohibiting cell phones within a school if bullying rates will decrease. By getting rid of social media within the class setting could decrease numbers if bullying cases seen. Or I may take my paper in the direction of why do children bully one another. I could argue that bullies tend to bully due to having problems at home or the exact opposite that bullies have a great home life and there is no specific reason as to why they torture other children.


1. Behind Bullying: Why Kids Are So Cruel

The essential content of this article: This article discusses why kids are so cruel. It discusses how bullies are looking to gain admiration and dominance by bullying other children. It states that bullies also want affection and look for approval in their own group of friends. Due to this they strategically pick victims they know few other classmates will defend. Some children who bully struggle with aggression may be abuse victims themselves, others just think its the cool thing to do.

What it proves: This proves that children who bully may be victims of abuse at home or could just think its cool.So by reading this article it shows that bullies could have a hard at home life or they could have a good one.

2. The Mind Behind the Bully: The Psychology of Bullying

The essential content of this article: This article states that bullying starts early research shows that behaviors are developed between toddler and preschool years. Children are a product of their upbringing and many parents expose their children to interactions unknowingly that will eventually shape their children’s communication skills one day. Bullies also lack personal awareness and often don’t know how they are perceived. Bullies also tend to have low self esteem and need to feel in charge of someone.

What it proves: This article proves that bullying behaviors can be started at a young age to to the behaviors they are exposed to in their house.

3. Bullying Statics

The essential content of this article: This article shows the statistics of bullying cases and what the effects of bullying are. As well as discussing statistics of cyberbullying cases, students with disabilities, students of color, and students who identify with LGBTQ. Bullying and suicide rates are discussed and interventions places have put into place due to bullying.

What it proves: This proves that bullying is still a dominant problem within a school setting and more often than not people are being bullied.

4. Social Media Bullying Has Become a Serious Problem

The essential content of this article: The article discusses what constitutes bullying on social media some examples include posting negative comments on pictures, posting abusive posts on a user’s wall, and using social media to stalk. A significant amount of cyberbullying takes place on Facebook. Other social media accounts are becoming more used in order to bully as well such as Twitter, Ask.FM, and SnapChat.

What it proves: This article proves that social media bullying is a problem and is only becoming more widespread throughout different sites. Children find it easier to bully online now instead of doing it in person.

5. What is Cyberbullying

The essential content of this article: This article discusses what cyberbullying actually is,how it takes place over digital devices like cell phones, computers, and tablets. Cyberbullying can occur through SMS, Text, and app, or online in social media forums. Common places where cyberbullying occurs are Facebook, Instagram, Snapchat and Twitter for social media accounts. But also can occur through text messages a lot of the time as well. It also talks about the special concerns when it comes to cyberbullying cases. Such as how it can be persistent, permanent, and or hand to notice.

What it proves:This provides some background information as to what cyberbullying is and how it happens online.

6. The Bully as Victim: Understanding Bully Behaviors to Increase the Effectiveness of Interventions in the Bully-Victim Dyad

The essential content of this article: “Bullies are well-versed in aggressive behaviors designed to obtain goals, and these lessons most often originate first in the home environment (Brody, 1996; Craig, Peters, & Konarski, 1998; Pepler & Sedighdel lami, 1998). Greenbaum et al.(1989), Hazier (1996a), and Oliver, Oaks, and Hoover (1994) noted many of the difficult characteristics encountered and learned by bullies in the home environment. The home situation of the bully is quite harsh (Craig et al., 1998; Espelage, Bosworth, Karageorge, & Daytner, 1996; Pepler & Sedighdellami, 1998). Hazier (1996a) is explicit: “[Humans] are most vulnerable to learning appropriate behaviors when they are very young. The vast majority of what [bullies] see and hear … is from their family” (p. 34). Punishment is often capricious and physical. Minor infractions may bring violent verbal, emotional, or physical overreactions from one or both parents, after which the child is often ignored for long stretches of time. Praise, encouragement, and humor are rare in the life of the bully. Put-downs, sarcasm, and criticism are more the rule than the exception (Greenbaum et al., 1989). Parents exhibit little in the way of positive role modeling behaviors. Bullies are seldom monitored for their whereabouts or activities (Roberts, 1988) or disciplined for antisocial behaviors. Out of this home environment emerges a personality steeped in the belief and justification that intimidation and brute force are ways to interact with the obstacles encountered in life. Indeed, the parents of bullies often support their children’s behavior as “‘standing up’ for oneself” (Ross, 1996, p. 73). Additionally, bullies empower themselves through aggression toward others”

What this proves: This proves that bullies first experience these behaviors from their home environment and that their parents often don’t see their children as bullies, so they don’t discipline their children for acting this way usually. Children are vulnerable at at young age to what they see and hear and often end up acting the way they see their parents behave or how their parents treat them is how they treat others.

7. Bully/victim problems in school: Facts and intervention

The essential content of this article: “1. The basic emotional attitude of the primary caretaker(s) toward the child during early years (usually the mother). A negative emotional attitude, characterized by lack of warmth and involvement, increases the risk that the child will later become aggressive and hostile toward others. 2. Permissiveness for aggressive behaviour by the child. If the primary caretaker is generally permissive and “tolerant” without setting clear limits to aggressive behaviour towards peers, siblings, and adults, the child’s aggression level is likely to increase. 3. Use of power-assertive child-rearing methods such as physical punishment and violent emotional outbursts. Children of parents who make frequent use of these methods are likely to become more aggressive than the average child. In other words, “violence begets violence”

8. Bullying and Being Bullied: To What extent are Bullies also Victims?

The essential content of this article: “concluded that bullies come from families where parents are authoritarian, hostile, and rejecting, have poor problem-solving skills, and advocate fighting-back at the least provocation. Bullies have aggressive behavior histories, and they often take advantage of their physical strength (Olweus, 1991b). There are no significant socioeconomic differences among bullies. Bullies do not have low self-esteem as many educators expect (Rigby & Slee, 1991), and bullying behaviors are not a result of academic failure in school (Olweus, 1991a, 1993, 1994; Rigby & Slee, 1991). Bullying in school varies with grade levels (Whitney & Smith, 1993), but researchers are divided in their findings. Bran white (1994) reported more incidents of bullying in secondary school than in elementary school. On the other hand, some researchers suggest that the percentage of students being bullied decreases significantly with age or grade, although the decline in rate is less substantial during junior and senior”

What it proves: This proves that children who bully other children tend to have a hard life at home and a different upbringing than those of children who don’t bully other students.

9. The Issues of Child Abuse 

The essential content of this article: This article provides the different types of abuse children experience and how children react to such abuse.

What it proves: That children experience many different types of abuse at home and it can negatively effect their behavior and emotions towards others.

10. Violence in the home leads to higher rates of childhood bullying

The essential content of this article: A study conducted to see whether or not children who are exposed to violence within their home are more prone to bullying behaviors.

What it proves: This article shows that being exposed to violence within a home does not necessarily make children grow up to bully.

11. Raising Our Children to Be Resilient: A Guide to Helping Children Cope with Trauma in Today’s World 

The essential content of this article: This article discusses grief and trauma and the impact it has on children and how to work with kids and trauma within home, school and the community. Traumatized kids feel powerless, hopeless, and helpless.  Children often respond to a traumatic event with fear, terror and extreme vulnerability. Trauma can create distorted perceptions of self in children, commonly produces angry and combative reactions and overriding feeling of terror. When experiencing trauma teenagers may withdraw, bully or resort to drugs and violence  in order to cope.

What it proves: This article provides valuable information on how bullying tendencies could indeed start at home.

Topics for Smaller Paper

1. How Much Time Do People Spend on Social Media

The essential content of this article: This article discusses how much time the average person spends on social media daily and added up to see how many years it equals up to. The article also discusses each top social media and how much time the average person spends a day on each one of these platforms.

What it proves: It proves that social media is very popular and many people use it even more often than we think the average person uses it.

2. 6 Reasons Why Social Networking is Popular Nowadays

The essential content of this article: This article lists the top six reasons to why social media is popular in this day and age. It gives you an opportunity to meet new people,they are user friendly, they are free, they have a job marker, they allow businesses to reach out to potential customers,and they allow you to join groups.


White Paper third draft—UgandanKnuckles

Claim: Self-help mantras are effective for people with high self-clarity

Hypothesis: Mantras are helpful despite the initial belief that they are ineffective hoaxes. High self-clarity is key though, otherwise it’ll be ineffective and can make the situation worse. (Self-clarity being how well one knows themselves)

My Proposal: For my research, I’ll be investigating studies done and analyzing reviews of studies done to find out if self-help mantras are actually effective or if they are completely ineffective and just make the individual feel worse.

Proposal 2: From my current research, I have found that self-help mantras usually only help people who don’t need them, and self-esteem plays a big part in that. Upon further investigation, I found how to measure self-esteem as well. Also, actions can be more effective than words

I enjoy psychology, and I remembered the professor mentioning something about this.

First article I found on it: http://ellenbard.com/why-affirmations-dont-work/

This article didn’t provide much more than one person’s opinion on a study. It verified that I’m not the only one arguing this point, and that it’s an arguable position. There’s a common fad that’s been going since the 1950’s where someone will stand up on TV and tell you to repeat random bs to yourself about feeling better and that it will work. In reality, it doesn’t do much at all except make you feel worse.

The study reviewed: https://www.uni-muenster.de/imperia/md/content/psyifp/aeechterhoff/sommersemester2012/schluesselstudiendersozialpsychologiejens/03_wood_etal_selfstatements_psychscience2009.pdf

The abstract to the research article is shown in a non-biased fashion as “Positive self-statements are widely believed to boost mood and self-esteem, yet their effectiveness has yet to be demonstrated.” They argue that people who try to repeat something that they don’t accept actually end up causing more harm than good, as they reject it. Someone who views themselves as stupid and tries to say “I’m smart” might end up making themselves feel more stupid. They further conclude that if praise someone receives is outside their level of how they feel about themselves, it has the inverse effect as well. This means that someone who already feels good about themselves will be more apt to accept praise than someone who actually needs to feel good about themselves.

The first study done generally just showed that people with higher self-esteem used positive self-statements more often than people with lower self-esteem.

There was a second study done afterwards that verified their hypothesis that people with lower self-esteem would not benefit from positive self-statements. In fact, the study showed that the only people to benefit from the positive self-statements were people who already had a high self-esteem. People with low self-esteem suffered lower scores than their original scores as well.

The third study, they tested to see if having less pressure to think of positively would help those with low self-esteem. The results showed slightly less better results for those with low self-esteem than in study 2.

The overall conclusion is that small improvements in mood can be attained for people with low self-esteem by repeating things that are positive within the person’s realm of acceptance, rather than repeating crazy positive things that the person would not believe if someone else told them it.

An article that centers on various studies done: https://www.theguardian.com/science/2012/jun/30/self-help-positive-thinking

The article starts by showing an example of how positive visualization/speaking positively can actually hinder you rather than help you. A study from the University of California shows that students who visualized themselves getting a higher grade were less likely to study, and actually received lower scores than their counterparts who didn’t. The same went for recent graduates from New York University. The ones that fantasized about getting the job they wanted more frequently ended up receiving few job offers, and thus lower salaries.

The article goes on to reference a widely known behaviorist/psychologist from the 19th century, William James. He posed the idea that behavior and emotion affect each other, rather than just emotion affecting behavior. In other words, smiling can make you feel happy, and frowning can make you feel angry. He didn’t pursue the idea much further, and it would be several decades until someone else picked up the idea.

In the 70s, a psychologist from Clark University, James Laird, tested James’s theory. Participants were asked to use different facial expressions. The results were stunning, as James’s predictions were correct. People actually felt happier or angrier depending on the facial expression they adopted. Further research found that the same can apply to our daily lives, and by acting like a more confident or just different person, you can become that person.

The article goes on to explain a case where people were able to achieve higher amounts of willpower simply by tensing a muscle. Another case cited shows that a confident pose at a desk can make people feel more confident, and another case showed that men who acted twenty years younger in a setting from twenty years prior for a week made them feel and act younger.

This article overall shows that positive behavior can help you become a more positive person. It’s not in the thinking, it’s in the actions.

Side note: The article ends with ten exercises that can be used to test the theory.

The article I had here that was really good has been taken down by PsychologyToday. 

The last source I found: http://www.sonima.com/meditation/mantras/

This source is in support of self-help mantras. The article opens with the personal tale of the author herself. Whenever she is sad or wakes up in a bad mood, she just listens to some positive mantras, and she feels better. She cites that some studies have showed that chanting mantras can help reduce stress levels, and that the tongue tapping actually changes the way your whole body feels.

She cites a psychologist from Beverly Hills, Vanessa Pawlowski, as a proponent of mantra chanting. She says, “There’s a lot of negative self-talk, people getting stuck in judgment and playing the same thing over and over again. So I have them use mantras as a way of interrupting those negative experiences and instead give them something positive to focus on.” The rest of the article centers on the stories of nine different women and how mantras have helped them.

The first woman used mantras to help her build self-confidence. The second woman uses them to help her not feel like a failure when she couldn’t achieve her lofty goal of running 100 miles. The third woman uses them to help her endure tough times. The fourth woman used them to help her realize she was ready for love. The fifth woman uses them to remember that she doesn’t always need to have the right answer and to be happy. The sixth woman uses mantras with her patients to help them get over body-image issues, or to help them recover from eating disorders. The seventh woman uses mantras to help her build different character traits within herself. The eighth woman uses them to help her start her day. The last woman uses mantras to help her relax when she feels like she hasn’t done enough during her day.

This article represents the positive effects that self-help mantras can have. It helps to diversify my pool of thoughts, and it is set from more of a feeling and emotional perspective. This helps to contrast from some of my other articles that are mores science based.

I’m feeling pretty good with the progress I’ve made. I managed to change my topic entirely and find all five sources in just four days so I think this project will be manageable. My opinion is roughly the same, but now I know more about the subject than just my hypothesis and thesis statement. I anticipate my overall outcome to shift from just self-help mantras being counterintuitive, to the whole idea of mantras and and chanting being counterintuitive.


The meaning of the most popular mantras: http://www.sunnyray.org/The-meaning-of-the-most-popular-mantras.htm

Before being able to thoroughly criticize mantras, we need to know what they mean- especially the popular ones. The first part of his page talks about what mantras are, the steps to using them, and explaining what the rest of the page is.

The first mantra they go over is the one that everyone knows. Om, or “aum” as they clarify, is described as “the three qualitatively different levels of consciousness: A – waking, U – dreaming and M – deep sleep.”

The next one is “Om Namah Shivaya.” It contains elements of the previous mantra, but has two other parts added on. “Namah” stands for adoration or respect, and “Shivaya” stands for God. This chant is for bringing peace to the user.

“Om Mani Padme Hum” is the next mantra on the page. This is one is used for transformation of an impure body into the pure qualities of the Buddha. A gem more specifically.

It doesn’t go into as much detail for the last three on the page. “Om Asato Ma Sadgamaya” stands for “Lead me from the unreal to the Real,” so it can be assumed that this is for trying to find an answer or truth in something uncertain or false. After that is “Hare Krishna Hare Krishna, Krishna Krishna Hare Hare, Hare Rama Hare Rama, Rama Rama Hare Hare.” This one is sixteen words long and is three different words for God.  “I love you, I’m sorry, Please forgive me, Thank You” is the most popular among the newest members of the chanting community, is taken from Hawaiian tradition. This one is used for taking responsibility for our actions, or as the page says, “We take absolute responsibility for our life, because our external reality is but a reflection of our inner reality. So we should always ask for forgiveness, be thankful and love the people around us.”

With this better understanding of popular mantras, I should be able to better understand the uses behind mantras and their usage in in improving one’s self-image and self-esteem.

Most common measurement of Self-Esteem: http://fetzer.org/sites/default/files/images/stories/pdf/selfmeasures/Self_Measures_for_Self-Esteem_ROSENBERG_SELF-ESTEEM.pdf

Not much to say about this. The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale is the quiz used to measure self-esteem, and it was made in 1965. It features 10 questions, and features a point scale out 40. A higher score means higher self-esteem.

Assessing Self-Esteem: http://sites.dartmouth.edu/thlab/files/2010/10/TFH03.Hea_.Self-regulation.pdf

This PDF opens by explaining what society believes about self-esteem, and the foolish steps taken by schools in an attempt to try and boost it in students in schools. It further defines self-esteem as “Self-esteem is the evaluative aspect of the self-concept that corresponds to an overall view of the self as worthy or unworthy.”

An important distinction the PDF makes is the difference between self-concept and self-esteem. Self-concept is “the totality of cognitive beliefs that people have about themselves; it is everything that is known about the self, and includes things such as name, race, likes, dislikes, beliefs, values, and appearance descriptions, such as height and weigh.” Self-esteem is “the emotional response that people experience as they contemplate and evaluate different things about themselves.”

The writers of the article point at cases of low self-esteem being brought on “when key figures reject, ignore, demean, or devalue the person.” That’s not to say that just because you tell your kid off or don’t pay attention to them 24/7 they’re not gonna have good self-esteem. That just means that you shouldn’t insult your child everyday and you should talk to them at least a few times a day to make sure they’re alright. Connections can be made between cases of low self-esteem and social anxiety as well. As taboo as it is in 2018, there are gender differences in what helps boost self-esteem in males and females. Females tend to gain self-esteem through positive relationships while males gain self-esteem through objective successes. An interesting observation made from one of the studies is that men gain self-esteem through getting ahead, while women gain self-esteem through getting along.

Another taboo bit of information found is that White women are more likely than Black women to think they are obese despite the fact that Black women are about two times as likely White women to actually be obese. White women are also more likely to view large Black body shapes positively than large white body shapes positively. This article goes into a bunch of other subsections that will be useful for writing the overall paper, but too much to summarize. These subsections are: Dimensionality of Self-Esteem, Stability of Self-Esteem, Revised Janis–Field Feelings of Inadequacy, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, State Self-Esteem Scale, Alternative Conceptualizations: Implicit Self-Esteem, and Future Developments. It also presents the reader samples of the Revised Janis and Field Scales tests, the Rosenberg Scale, and the Current Thoughts test.

A site on ways to boost Self-Esteem: https://www.mind.org.uk/information-support/types-of-mental-health-problems/self-esteem/#.WoiKJ6jwY2w

The page starts by citing the ways people with low self-esteem may feel. “How to improve your self-esteem” is the first subsection of the page, and it features links to more pages on how to help you avoid situations that may damage your self-esteem, and ways to improve the self-esteem you already have. It also makes the distinction that while people with depression and anxiety may have low self-esteem, the two aren’t cause and effect, but rather things that may come with one another.

The next section is titled “Think about what is affecting your self-esteem.” It cites common and uncommon reasons, and it even includes a small video where someone talks about their feelings and their low self-esteem. A good portion of the page is then dedicated to ways to combat low self-esteem. At the bottom, it has a link to more stories of people who overcame their low self-esteem.

The main reason this page is important is that at no point did it mention taking up chanting or having a mantra. All of these sites say that low self-esteem can be cured quickly through the use of chanting, but this very official page that has several methods that makes sense and are no doubt tested and it does not mention chanting.

An Article about why having “self-esteem” might be overrated: https://www.fastcompany.com/40531879/positive-self-esteem-is-overrated-heres-what-you-need-instead

This article by Melissa Dahl titled “Positive Self-Esteem is Overrated, Here’s What you Need Instead,” explores the idea that having a high self-esteem may not be all there is to getting through your short comings. The first section talks about a study done in 2007 where the researchers had people come in, sit down in front of a camera, and tell a made-up fairy tale/story as it recorded them. The one rule being that it had to start with “Once upon a time, there was a little bear…” After they told the story, the researchers then played either the person’s own recording or someone else’s back to them, and they were asked to evaluate the story. People that didn’t have as much self-clarity hated their own recording more than people who had more self-clarity. Self-clarity is defined as “how well we know our own strengths and weaknesses, as well as our ability to accept them.” This distinction between self-clarity and self-esteem is important as it explains why some people don’t like the way they look on camera, and why some experiences we have are more embarrassing to different people.

The next section is titled “Hacking your way to Self-Clarity.” People with low self-clarity were more critical of their their stories and the way the looked on the recording. They rated their overall performances much lower than others did. People with high self-clarity were less critical of themselves, didn’t have as much trouble watching themselves, and they rated their performances average with other people. The next paragraph makes the distinction that high self-esteem inflates your ego, which can make how others see you hard to understand. Self-clarity, on the other hand, lets you see yourself better, your flaws included. The article then gives a call to action. It asks the reader to think about an embarrassing high school story moment, and then to break it down. After getting the memory into your head, it has the reader ask three questions of the memory, “How many times have other people experienced the same thing or something similar? If a friend came to you and told you about this memory, how would you respond to them? Can you try thinking about the moment from someone else’s point of view?”

The final section is titled “Seeing yourself, and seeing beyond yourself.” This section is mostly telling you why self-clarity is important. It says, “Here’s what doesn’t work: Convincing yourself it was someone else’s fault. Distracting yourself by focusing on your positive characteristics. Telling yourself that the memory ‘does not really indicate anything about the kind of person I am.’ ” It stresses the importance of accepting that everyone has done something dumb or embarrassing things in their life. You’re better off owning it than seeing that incident as just you being the only person who’s ever messed up.

(Side note: the article was adapted from a book written by Melissa Dahl, who is also the writer of the article)

This article is a breakthrough for me on how to the possible reasons for mantras being bs: http://www.saspetherick.com/the-stuck-record-why-mantras-feel-like-bullshit/


An Article about the effects of sound on your body: https://health.usnews.com/health-news/blogs/eat-run/2013/10/02/your-brain-on-om-the-science-of-mantra

This article by Gabriel Axel titled, “Your Brain on Om: The Science of Mantra” starts with him being skeptical of mantras himself. He later did research himself, and found that our brain links certain sounds to certain emotions like tire screeches and crash sounds to accidents and fear. He says, ” This evocation is qualitative and subjective and is linked with interoception (inner body sensations) and emotional sense of self, both predominantly represented in the right hemisphere of the brain. Conversely, the narrative strand of sounds in which we give them meaning is done predominantly through the left hemisphere.” The sound resonates in different parts of our brains and bodies having different effects on us. The next section of the article breaks down the word “Aum” by letter, the way each letter should sound, and how it should make you feel.

The condition of the person both physically and mentally, will have an effect on how it effects them. He goes through the proper way to begin using mantras, and even includes scientific evidence about how repeating things in your head can be just as effective as saying them allowed. At then end of the article, Axel stresses that mantras can be used to bring out our inner energy and bring more of spirit into our everyday lives.

An article on the scientific aspects of Mantras: https://buddhaweekly.com/science-mantras-mantras-work-without-faith-research-supports-effectiveness-sanskrit-mantra-healing-even-environmental-transformation/

The first part of this article is just an introduction or forward as to some uses for mantras (mothers playing music to unborn babies, etc.). The first section titled “Some Buddhist Teachers Recommend Mantra Even Where There’s No Faith,” talks about the possible benefits of chanting around ill pets and the elderly. Nothing incredible will happen, but the words will provide some support through minor transformations.

The article sights in a drastic way,  but the next section, titled “Medical Treatment: Nurses and Doctors Recommend Mantra for Some Conditions,” says that mantras can be used to help people with PTSD and other stress related disorders. The article claims people experienced “lowered levels of tension; slower heart rate, decreased blood pressure, lower oxygen consumption, and increased alpha wave production,” and so, “The benefits experienced in 20 minutes of meditation exceed those of deep sleep, thus indicating the regenerative power of meditation and saving of wear and tear on the body.”


What I’m Looking For

I’m still looking for the specific way in which mantras or chanting would help raise ones self-esteem or make one feel more happy. A lot of what I find is opinion based and is more of a blog post by a wine-mom than an actual post by someone who knows what’s going on.

How It’s Going

My entire thesis and hypothesis have flipped. People are pretty polarized on the topic, but from people that I’ve talked to, my initial position was the popular opinion. I’m now doing research on the inverse of my original research. This class is very difficult, and at this point I’m just trying to pull out of this course with a passing grade.

White Paper 2—dudeintheback

Proposal- I am trying to build the information to prove my hypothesis of Adderall being the same thing as methamphetamine. my research so far gives me examples of how it is, but I need more explaining why it is. I am trying to find the line of discussion. either I can talk about how it has meth like qualities, or I can talk about how it shoud not be prescribed in the first place.

Hypothesis-   Adderall should be viewed as a dangerous prescription

  1. Methamphetamine vs. Adderall | Science Says They’re Almost Identical


What Is the source?: this source is an article both describing what adderal is, and also in less depth describes what meth is. also giving practical examples of how Adderall is used, and how meth is used.

What will this source do?: this source explains how both of these drugs have very similar chemical makeups. only meth has a ” have more of something called methyl, which is important in this discussion because it lets the drug cross the blood-brain barrier more quickly. This leads to a more powerful effect.” showing that the only thing separating, and clarifying both to be different is one molecule that makes the effect instantaneous

2.  Adderall VS Crystal Methamphetamine – is meth really the more dangerous and addictive drug?

What is this source?: this source is a youtube video of a former meth addict explaining the differences in Adderall and in meth. this is a youtuber named Cg Kid, who makes videos on drug awareness, and addiction. having taken both drugs, and researching about the drugs, Cg has an extensive knowledge on the topic.

What will it prove?: the account of someone describing their view of the two drugs. explaining how Adderall is just a smaller dose of the same effect in a pill. describes the different ways of taking both drugs and how they work how they do. also saying one pipe/smoke/hit of methamphetamine will give you the same effect of taking 8 Adderall. saying how people are only addicted to meth because its cheapness, and instant results.

3. The Similarities of Adderall & Amphetamines


Meth-or-Adderallwhat is this source?: a picture of both chemical makeups of Adderall and meth

What does it prove?: that the chemical makeups of adderall and meth are almost identical… the article this picture is from also describes how we feel about meth because of the anti drug campaign.

4. Meth & Adderall are the same drug & other drug facts

What is this source?: youtube video interviewing Carl Hart talk about drugs and drug hysteria. Carl is a professor of neuroscience and psychology at Columbia University. Hart is known for his research in drug abuse and drug addiction .

What does it prove?: carl describes that Adderall and meth are virtually the same drug, and describes meth as the “new crack”

also describes the same issue in this video:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VOCsIyIGNls  explains how they produce the same effects.

5. The Surprising History Of Adderall


What is this source?: article describing the history of amphetamine, then going in to history of Adderall

What does it prove?: proves the first origins of the uses of methamphetamines. one being the on the Nazis for extremely long marches.

6. Is Adderall Safe? | Safe for Adults and Children?


website article by the recovery village, which specializes in addiction awareness/education

this source describes Adderall’s effect in kids, and adults. also talks about how much of it is safe, and if its safe in general.

“It’s not meant to be a long-term treatment because symptoms of ADHD often get better in children as they get older.”

also says how for adults there are options to help reduce symptoms of ADHD, such as therapy.

“When someone takes a stimulant drug like Adderall, it changes their brain chemistry, and it also impacts their motivation and reward pathways. This changes how people feel emotions and pleasure, and if Adderall is taken over the long-term, these changes and this brain rewiring can become permanent.”

using these quotes will help me describe how getting people hooked to Adderall, and reliant on using Adderall because its something they have been programmed to keep doing will effect them in the long term

7. The real effects of Adderall: a personal testimony


Publication: The Washburn Review, Washburn University, Topeka KS.

this article gives a first person experience on what Adderall did for her. it talks about her addiction, and why she was addicted. also how she knew she did not have ADHD.

”Evans compared taking Adderall to “being superwoman.” She could get all of her homework done, write papers longer than the required length, clean her house until it was spotless and still pick up extra hours at work. No one knew she was staying up three days in a row to get all of her work done.”

”As time went on, Evans started accomplishing less at school and work and shifted her main focus to finding more pills. This disrupted both her studies and home life.”

this article gives a look at the terrible addiction path someone can go down. being addicted changes everything a person does in their lives by making their lives revolve around their addiction. talks about how she was taking more than 10 times the highest prescribed dosage of amphetamines per day

8. ADHD drugs are as dangerous as street meth – and Americans are getting hooked
Alexander Zaitchik


”new-gen daily regimen speeds”

article describing how more and more people are starting to get addicted to medications like vyvans, and Adderall. describes his first times using speed and how he and all the people around him used it. also saying how these medication drugs have turned away from their use to treat adhd, but rather to help people in classrooms, party longer and harder, and all of the uses that makes it seem like a street drug.

”During our recent industry-guided speed renaissance, “speed” has been turned into “meds”, reflecting the idea that amphetamine for most people remains some kind of safe treatment or routine performance-booster, rather than a highly addictive drug with some nasty talons in its tail.”


in this youtube video, Dr. Thomas Szasz, Professor of Psychiatry Emeritus describes the connotation an illness or disease has now. He believes that any disease cannot be not based on behavior, its something in the body that malfunctions. the stigma and connotation ADHD has around it is socially constructed. by diagnosing a child with ADHD and classifying it as a disease, or disorder stigmatizes a child, and puts them in a category that they should not be in. children are precious, and should not be exposed to prescription drugs. parents should not think that their kid has an ilnesss based on behavior, and should not jump to try to treat it.

10. Psychiatrists Are Drug-pushers


this article explains how easy it is to get a prescription, and the many ways why it is so easy. the diagnosis and prescription of medicine is what people see psychologists for nowadays.  psychiatrists no longer engage in talk therapy anywhere near how they used to. instead, they prescribe medication to alternte behavior. the pills become what keeps the person going throught her day as if it was a normal day, just drug induced. gives the example of A psychiatrist can earn $150 for three 15-minute medication visits compared with $90 for a 45-minute talk therapy session to show why a psych might just resort to a prescription, and getting paid for it. a dentist doesn’t make his money by having a patient with healthy teeth.

“You have to have a diagnosis to get paid,” he said with a shrug. “I play the game.”

“I don’t need a half-hour or an hour to talk,” said a stone mason who has panic attacks and depression and is prescribed an antidepressant. “Just give me some medication, and that’s it. I’m O.K.”


White Paper-Dohertyk9

Dohertyk9’s Proposal:

I set out to attempt to prove that consent is a social and legal construct rather than simply “common knowledge”. Consent has never been clear, but as it is defined today, consent is the constant expression of agreement. The constant expression of agreement is actually impossible, and therefore, every sexual act is rape.

However, after reviewing my sources and attempting to make causal claims about it, it became clear to me that data was extremely scarce and lacked uniformity. As Prof. found in his own research of the topic, the FBI recorded 85,593 rapes in 2010, yet the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reported nearly 1.3 million incidents. Both had differing definitions of rape that made an enormous difference in how many rape cases are believed to have occurred. Based on prof.’s suggestion and my own speculation, I have decided to adjust my argument.

…You could identify the disagreement about rape’s definition as the cause of the wide disparity in rape statistics (DEFINITION, CAUSATION), leading to the inevitable problem that nobody’s numbers can be used to draw any general conclusions (REFUTATION). Then you use the test case of the BJS numbers to prove your point: THERE ARE WAY MORE RAPES than can be counted by the “forcible penetration” definition, so we shouldn’t be impressed by the BJS chart that forces the narrative of a radical reduction in rape over time.

-Prof. Hodges

This is precisely what I plan to argue: No one’s number’s can be used to draw accurate conclusions about how many rape cases actually occur within a given year. This is due to the incredible disparity in rape statistics. In particular, the numbers used by the Bureau of Justice Statistics, which report that there has been an overall decrease in rape cases  since 1973, should not be given any weight because it is likely that there are way more cases of rape than the Bureau reports. If you use a broader definition than the “forcible penetration” one, the number of rape cases in a given year skyrockets from the number reported by the Bureau of Justice Statistics. This is evident when reviewing the sheer difference in number between the cases reported by the Bureau of Justice Statistics and those reported by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

1. Negotiating Sex: The Legal Construct of Consent in Cases of Wife Rape in Ontario, Canada

Helpful quotes for my argument: “Based on my analysis, I argue that wife/partner rape is informed by societal and cultural beliefs about sexuality, intimate relationships and marriage, and rape myths. Although my study reveals that rape mythology and stereotypes are not as explicit as they have been historically, a little digging under the surface and some unpacking of the views and arguments presented by my interview group reveal the extent to which myths and sexism continue to inform the legal prosecution of wife/partner rape as well as the failure to prosecute it in many cases.”

-Ruthy Lazar (author)

The Essential Content of the Article: The author essentially argues that few studies have actually looked at how rape cases are processed in court. She notes that the arguments used in court for these cases are fueled by underlying themes of sexism and myths about sexuality and rape.

What it Proves: This article contributes to my argument by proposing that societal views affect the legal interpretation of rape. This will be useful to prove that the definition of rape is actually constructed by society and is not universal.

2. The Discursive Reconstruction of Sexual Consent


The Essential Content of the Paper: This paper argues that in legal settings, although the complainant has the opportunity to tell their side of the story, the complainant often feels as though he/she has not truly had the opportunity to explain the situation in his/her terms. The paper argues that this is because the case is always framed by the people asking the questions in the debate. The paper further argues that the case is framed in a favorable way for the defendant because of societal views that a misinterpretation of verbal and nonverbal cues between women and men is not intentional rape on the man’s part, and therefore, the defendant is innocent.

What it Proves: This proves that the legal definition of consent varies depending on the courtroom. Even if an agreement has been reached on what the legal definition of consent actually is, it is very difficult to decide whether or not that definition has been met in the case (whether or not that legally defined consent was actually given.)

3. Re-examining the issue of nonconsent in acquaintance rape

(By Donat, Patricia L. N and White, Jacquelyn W)

The Essential Content of the Book: This book examines consent as a social construct. It explains in detail the effect of cultural attitudes, cultural metaphors, societal myths, sexual scripts, and the legal system on the definition of consent and rape.

What it Proves: The book proves that relationships are defined by those same cultural attitudes, cultural metaphors, societal myths, sexual scripts, and legal systems and therefore they define consent and rape.

4. Understanding the Unacknowledged Rape Victim

(by Kahn, Arnold S and Mathie, Virginia Andreoli)

The Essential Content of the Book: This book seeks to explain how some victims of rape do not consider themselves to be rape victims even though they experienced what would legally be considered rape. It argues that personalities, sexual attitudes and experience, affective reactions, reactions of peers, use of alcohol or drugs, and counterfactual thinking affect whether or not a victim will consider him or her self to be a victim.

What it Proves: This book proves that certain circumstances of rape are not considered rape even by the victim himself/herself. The person’s personality and experiences can alter what he/she considers to be rape. A person’s interpretation of the definition of rape can be altered by the legal or social definition and therefore even when a person has been victimized, he/she may not even consider it to be a victimization. This helps to prove that rape’s definition is relative and not universal.

5. Rape culture is normalized across college campuses


The Essential Content of the Article: This article argues that college students are desensitized to rape and therefore perpetuate rape culture. It states that “rape is about power, control and dominance.”

What it Proves: This article proves only that the author feels very strongly about rape and defines it much differently than others do. The author blatantly makes the statement that all rape cases are caused by “power, control and dominance”, but offers no factual proof of this statement. This article aides my argument solely because it proves that the definition of rape varies greatly from person to person.

Additional 5 sources:

1. Intimacy Without Consent: Lynching as Sexual Violence


The Essential Content of the Book: This book seeks to show that lynching has a tendency to involve not only violence, but also sexual violation of the victim, regardless of the victim’s gender. In addition, the race of the victim plays a large role; if the victim is black and male, the case is treated very differently than if the victim is white and male.

What it Proves: This proves that because cases of sexual assault are taken more seriously if they involve the violation of a female, especially a white female, legitimacy of rape is defined by a person’s gender and race. This will help prove my point that consent is socially constructed because factors such as race and gender should not matter if every person is equally capable of giving consent.

2. Party Rape, Nonconsensual sex, and Affirmative Consent Policies


The Essential Content of the article: This article shows that many college age men do not consider forcing a woman to have sex to be rape. 32% of college age men said that they would force a woman to have sex, while only 13% said that they would rape a woman. It also shows that the law tends to favor these often otherwise successful young men over their victims.

What it Proves: This proves that rape is defined differently depending on how you ask. Men view forcing a woman to have sex to be different from rape, when in reality, they are the same thing.

3. Concubinage and Consent


The Essential Content of the text: The text explains that wives and slaves in Islamic history had very different rights, even though slaves could be married off without their consent. Slaves could be treated far worse than wives and it would be perfectly permissible. However, their husbands needed to treat them better than their owners did.

What it Proves: This shows that what was considered acceptable in some situations was completely unacceptable in others. The law allowed for owners to rape their slaves, yet their husbands could not perform the same act under the same circumstances, or it would be considered illegal.

4. ‘Talk, Listen, Think’: Discourses of Agency and Unintentional Violence in Consent Guidance For Gay, Bisexual and Trans Men


Helpful quotes: “You don’t have to say no in words. Many people who are threatened, frightened, tricked or stopped from escaping feel so scared that they choose not to say anything and not to ‘fight back’. This is a way people survive sexual attack. The law says that your consent has to be given /freely/.” (Galop, Help & Advice, Your Rights & the Law, Consenting To Sex, Some Questions About What Consent Means)

The Essential Content of the article: This article explains the focus on men in the explanations of sexual assault and consent made by Galop. It helps to put into words the traumatic experiences people in the LGBT community have.

What it Proves: This article proves that there is always a neglected race, gender or sexual orientation when it comes to defining rape and consent. Because one type of person is always left out, the definition of consent always falls short of its intended meaning. In this way, the definition of consent is not universal. This helps my argument because it proves that for certain types of people, legal consent cannot be given.

5. R.v.A. (J.) And the Risks of Advance Consent to Unconscious Sex


The Essential Content of the Article: This article describes the risk of agreeing to sex before one of the partners becomes unconscious. It explains that any misunderstandings in the advance consent or mistreatment of the partner during the unconscious sex could result in rape and therefore unconscious sex should be automatically considered rape.

What it Proves: This proves that consent is impossible to define in exact terms. The partner could agree to the unconscious sex before the act and yet it could still be defined as rape.