White Paper draft 3-Thenaturalist201

Thenaturalist201’s Proposal

For my research essay, I will be arguing that multiracial people of a lighter skin color, in fact, do not have “White Privilege” and that they are put down for their skin color by races that they are actually part of. I will be using a study done by Salahuddin and O’Brien as their study shows that multiracial people specially suffer discrimination and that they have more problems with identifying themselves. This is a major social problem around the world and really should be considering how far we as people have had to come to believe that people are “equal”, but because of this stigma of color people are unable to really be equal. This includes all people of color who may not appear that way because of their skin color. 

I propose that multiracial people with lighter skin color do not receive privilege that is believed to be given to people with white skin color. I propose that these people are made uncomfortable because they are being discriminated by both races whether they are lighter or darker than them. Because of this uncomfortable state they start to develop identity problems.

 

Thenaturalist201’s sources

1.http://affinitymagazine.us/2017/07/10/being-biracialmulticultural-an-identity-crisis/

The content of the article: In this article, the author discusses their own personal struggle of being multiracial with her social life as well as how she is treated by her own family.

Proves: that multiracial people have problems just as much as a one race person

 

  1. https://www.tolerance.org/professional-development/on-racism-and-white-privilege

The content of the article: Explains the idea of white privilege and that anyone of white color has these privileges

Proves: not all multiracial have these privileges and even if they have a lighter skin color they don’t always have these privileges

 

  1. https://www.theglobeandmail.com/news/world/brazils-colour-bind/article25779474/

Content of the article: interviews with Brazil’s residents as well as the history of the background of their “races”

Proves: the definition of race versus skin color is a problem. It proves that everyone has this idea that the shade of your skin has a level of privilege.

 

  1. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/j.2161-1912.2005.tb00020.x/epdf

Content: Defining privilege. Expanding the idea the of privilege to different categories. The article explains that there are 20 categories of privilege

Proves: this proves that skin color is a small portion of privilege and should not be treated as that is the only factor of privilege.

  1. https://www.huffingtonpost.com/uloop/race-identity_b_1303787.html

Content: This article provides a personal experience to the table

  1. https://nationalseedproject.org/white-privilege-unpacking-the-invisible-knapsack
  2. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ysi5IqlIVoE
  3. https://movingupusa.com/survey-results-test/?sid=487403

9.http://societyforpsychotherapy.org/understanding-the-stressors-and-types-of-discrimination-that-can-affect-multiracial-individuals-things-to-address-and-avoid-in-psychotherapy-practice/

10.http://eds.a.ebscohost.com/ehost/detail/detail?vid=1&sid=167b3a9c-1ecb-4535-a917-474e20210dcd%40sessionmgr4009&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3d#AN=2011-17045-001&db=pdh

  1. https://www.kqed.org/perspectives/201601135618/mixed-race-privilege
  2. https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/privilege

 

Rebuttal is to prove that skin color is not everything

 

White Paper -tjjones123

My Proposal

I will be researching and investigating kneeling during the NFL.  

White Paper

Trump criticizes NFL

The Essential Content of this Article: In the article, Trump Criticizes N.F.L. for Not Penalizing Anthem Kneeling, by Ken Belson and Kevin Draper, they explain how owners of teams and officials of the NFL decided that they will not be taking any measures to punish players who are deciding to take a knee, or even not come out during the anthem.  Donald Trump, finds this unethical and outrageous that they aren’t doing anything about it. No matter how you look at it just as Donald Trump is stating in his tweets and speeches, “Total disrespect for our country.” The NFL hasn’t changed any rules saying players have to stand for the anthem and chose not to take any actions for those who do.  This is beginning to inrage more people because there are plenty of other ways for them to protest.

What it proves: There are several other people that agree that this form of protest in not an impactful or positive method.  President, Donald Trump, thinks this is a disgrace against the country and changes need to be made immediately to inforce standing for our flag and anthem.

Think Again Before Disrespecting Our Flag

The Essential Content of this Article: In the article, Think Again Before Disrespecting our Flag and Anthem, by Cody Long, he describes the actions people are taking against this country and against our flag which people in previous years never would have thought of doing.  In years before there were rarely people burning flags, never flags laying on the ground, and never EVER someone showing complete disrespect towards our flag. In addition, this author began to explain, sure protest is allowed and everyone has the freedom of speech, however showing disrespect toward our flag and country these people are going against the rights they are exercising.  Lastly, this is one of the only countries that have the freedoms, if they go outside the U.S they can see these dictatorships and see what having no rights and how great America really is.

What it proves: Many people feel that this is more than just a protest and however it is more disrespect towards our nation and to those risking their lives to keep us free and safe.  In addition, it adds that our nation is one of the few countries that offer these freedoms we take for granted.

Behind the Protests

The Essential Content of this Article:  In this article, What’s Really Behind the Backlash to the NFL Kneeling Protests, by Kim Wilcox, it describes the reasoning behind the protests and why the players are taking these measures to address this issue.  In addition, she talks about the proper reasons why someone may take a knee during the anthem to respect a fallen soldier or family member lost at war, but a call to change racial injustice is not deserving of disrespecting our country.  Kneeing out of respect to our nation and a cause is the only time it should be done never as a protests against what we believe in.

What it Proves: It shows reasons why some people might take a knee during the anthem and it also shows and explains why taking a knee for the protest they are taking part in should not disrespect who we are.  

Quit Grandstanding with NFL Protests and get back to Football

The Essential Content of this Article: In this article, Quit Grandstanding NFL Protests and get back to Football, by James Robbins, he discuss what these protests are doing to the overall name of the sport.  As he said “Remember when you could enjoy pro football without being lectured on politics?” Less people are watching football because they feel disrespected by those players kneeling and also because every week there is something else.  We used to tune in and watch our favorite team try to win and bring home a super bowl, but now it’s all about politics and what team is disrespecting our nation, and what players are going against the flag.

What it Proves: Without the NFL taking a stance and getting control of this issue before its gets more out of control less people are starting to watch the sport and less supporters less money.  

A Marine’s Letter to the NFL

The Essentials Content of the Article: In Col. Jeffery Powers letter to the NFL he explained how he was a fan of the sport growing up, a season pass holder to Yankee Stadium, but he missed 90-91’ season while be stationed at Desert Storm.  He explained a conversation he had with one of the men that died in war about the Giants going to the Super Bowl. When he returned from fighting for this nation, he doesn’t see his teams thanking and honoring him for his service but instead he saw multi-million dollar athletes kneeling during the national anthem.  As a marine, many people said “they will understand it’s for the movement of racial injustice, but they don’t. Many people feel it is not against marines but it goes against everything they are fighting for and this marine explained that marines aren’t making millions of dollar fighting for our country, these athletes are.  Marines don’t play one game a day then get a good break to see their families. Marines don’t play a fun game with friends having a good time.

What it Proves: Marines do feel this is disrespectful towards them and this should be changed.

White Paper 3rd Draft- Doublea

Hypothesis

Eliminating artificial turf fields with real grass fields would decrease the total amount of knee injuries in an NFL season

Sources

Source 1: NFL panel finds some knee, ankle injuries more common on turf. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.nfl.com/news/story/09000d5d816e77f1/article/nfl-panel-finds-some-knee-ankle-injuries-more-common-on-turf

This article talks about the increase specifically in ACL injuries on Fieldturf surfaces. The article started off by saying that in an annual study conducted by the NFL that knee injuries on Fieldturf surfaces increased the rate of knee injuries by 88 percent. The study was conducted in the 2003-2008 seasons. The article states that there was only 9 stadiums that have the Fielfturf surfaces. With that being said I could use the research of this article to describe the effect that the Fieldturf playing surface has on knee injuries. With just 9 stadiums sporting the Fieldturf it is a mind boggling stat that the result of knee injuries is increased by 88 percent. Imagine if every field sported the Fieldturf surfaces. The chances of a major knee injury every game would be very high.

Source 2: Turf Battle in the NFL: Natural vs. Artificial. (2017, March 11). Retrieved from https://www.lawnstarter.com/blog/lawn-care-2/turf-at-nfl-stadiums/

The article starts off by talking about the struggle of running a fantasy team with all the injuries that occur now a days on turf fields. It starts off by naming five key players that got hurt in the preseason due to turf fields. I can relate this to my own paper because I too play fantasy football and can relate to the injury struggle due to turf fields. Tons of people every year witness the amount of injuries players encounter playing the dangerous game. The article brings up that there is now 17 stadiums equipped with artificial turf now. Now this number is different than the number of the first article and that is because this is a more recent article but this can go to show that more teams are moving indoors so they have to have turf. With the increase in turf fields in the league I should show the increase in injuries on these fields in my essay.

Source 3: Todd Neale Todd Neale. (2010, March 15). AAOS: Artificial Turf Injuries Still More Likely in NFL. Retrieved from https://www.medpagetoday.com/meetingcoverage/aaos/19020

The article once again brings up the number that the articles brought up. I can continue to use the number of 88% more likely to get a knee injury on turf fields a lot. The stat is mind boggling and seriously should be looked at by NFL officials. The number of lower leg injuries in the seasons on fieldturf fields was 1.79:1.4 per team game. These turf fields were introduced in 2000 so I could try and find a graph of injuries resulting in every year and find a correlation with knee injuries and turf fields.

Source 4: BANSCH, J. (1993, Oct 17). Knee injuries call for abolishment of artificial turf fields. Indianapolis Star Retrieved from http://ezproxy.rowan.edu/login?url=https://search.proquest.com/docview/240088678?accountid=13605

This article describes the moments in a game between the Eagles and the Colts where 3 separate season ending knee injuries occurred all on turf. The article quotes this trainer Otho Davis, a physical trainer for the Philadelphia Eagles. It quotes him saying that he normally does not take sides between turf and grass fields but this season has been something else to him. Also quotes the Colts trainer saying that players want to cut on a dime but their bodies cannot handle the force of the cuts on the turf.

Source 5: NRG Stadium’s Playing Surface An ‘Abomination’. (2014, September 09). Retrieved from http://houston.cbslocal.com/2014/09/09/nrg-stadiums-playing-surface-an-abomination/

This article talks about the grass turf on Reliant Field home of the Houston Texans. The article talks about the square panels that the field uses for play. These panels are set up and when you get a cleat stuck in the side of a panel it can bend your knee the wrong way. This is what happened in Jadeveon Clowney’s first game where he planted in one of the seams and bent his knee the wrong way. According to his teammate Swearinger he also believes this is a problem because there has been a big injury bug around the Texans and knee injuries for years. I can use this to show that this could be the case for other fields as well and this is not safe to play on.

Source 6: Is an ACL tear more common on artificial turf or grass? (2018, March 03). Retrieved from http://www.drdavidgeier.com/ask-dr-geier-acl-tears-on-natural-grass-or-fieldturf/

This article brings to light the question asked by a blog member on a doctors blog site. Dr. David Geieir was brought a question because a kid had 3 injuries on his football team all on turf fields away games. Their home field was grass and all three injuries occurred on turf at away games. When answering the question Dr. said that the best results were from this study made from NFL teams from 2000-2009 where the results showed that there was not an increase in MCL injuries on turf but there was a 22% increase in knee sprains altogether and a 67% higher chance of getting an ACL sprain on turf than grass.

Source 7: Hershman, E. B., Anderson, R., Bergfeld, J. A., Bradley, J. P., Coughlin, M. J., Johnson, R. J., . . . Tucker, A. (2012, 09). An Analysis of Specific Lower Extremity Injury Rates on Grass and FieldTurf Playing Surfaces in National Football League Games. The American Journal of Sports Medicine, 40(10), 2200-2205. doi:10.1177/0363546512458888 

This article is actually the results that Dr. G used in his answer to his blogger. The results are the same as stated above but it tells us what stats they used to find this data. The article says that they literally used every game from 2000-2009 seasons and made a graph and analysed the data to find the results. The results were from 2680 games which is 5360 team games played so it is without a doubt a lot of data.

Source 8: Iacovelli, J. N., Yang, J., Thomas, G., Wu, H., Schiltz, T., & Foster, D. T. (2013, August 01). The effect of field condition and shoe type on lower extremity injuries in American Football. Retrieved from http://bjsm.bmj.com/content/47/12/789.citation-tools

This article talked about a 130 game span where they analyzed the lower extremity injuries. In this time the data was found that there was an increase in lower extremity injuries on turf but not during practice. If this is the case just practice on turf and play on grass or just take you chances and practice on grass and play on grass. I would use this in my arguments by saying and proving that in in game play there is an increase in lower extremity injuries.

Source 9: 6 – Risk of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury as a Function of Type of Playing Surface. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780323389624000060

This article states how there is indeed an increase in the number of lower extremity injuries on the football field due to the playing surface. The article states a lot of causes though like surface hardness, rotational stiffness, and release torque. These physical characteristics may interact with other environmental factors such as cleat design, surface moisture levels, and ambient temperature. Altogether, these causes are what causes these  player to twist/turn their knees on the turf. It describes how the strongest evidence in field turf play injuries comes from football because of the size of players and level of play. This article is from 2018 so I plan on using this article to bring up the argument in my rebuttal argument that people may have problems with the fact that my evidence is from 2009.

Source 10:

A Review of Synthetic Playing Surfaces, the Shoe-Surface Interface, and Lower Extremity Injuries in Athletes. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10

This article talks about how the versatility and durability of artificial playing fields but, are they really that safe. It states that research over time has shown an increase in injury on artificial playing surfaces and that biomechanical data suggests that both the torque and strain experienced by lower extremity joints generated by artificial surfaces may be more than those generated by natural grass fields. With that being said this article is more of a recent article too and I could also use this against the arguments people will have arisen in my rebuttal argument.

 

 

 

 

White paper 2—pATricKStar

Hypothesis

College students are at a high risk for mental health issues in the U.S.

Source 1

http://www.bu.edu/today/2016/mental-health-college-students/

The article explains how there has been an increase in the level of mental illness in college students everywhere. It also specifies this increase to Boston university and shows how they have saw an increase in their students with mental health issues.  Article explains which students are a higher risk. The students members of the LGBQT community are one of the groups because of how hard it might be to explain who they are. Another  person are the international students , they may find a challenging to relate to a socially with others coming from a different background.  Finally students who come from smaller high schools and transfer  to bigger colleges because this may find it harder to interact and fit in. This can cause then to feel alone and depressed.  Along with the stats of increasing mental illness, the article gives signs of mental illness they state if a personal starts to withdraw from social groups, starts sleeping more, has an increase in the substance-abuse, gives away all their possessions, and or starts posting suicidal related posts on social media and they are showing signs.  As we know learning and becoming aware it’s just one of the stops we could help but nothing is ever simple.  Most students don’t report because they don’t want to or they have fear of communicating but of the ones that do shows of shocking amount of mental illness.  Number is a referral to treatment at Boston University into thousand 14 and 2015 was 1,587.  In 2015 and 2016 number referred to treatment was 1,640. I stayed in mental health services are costly. This means students struggling financially probably not receive any treated even if needed.

source 2

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2732004/

Stress  is something we all go through. Whether it’s big or small we are all in town or stress at some point and our lines. Now there is good stress mad stress. Stress is the stress that motivate you to do better or even work harder. bad stress just leads you to being not proactive. Article goes into detail about how stress and substance abuse/addiction can go hand-in-hand if not treated properly. An experiment done on animals proves it. “Preclinical research also shows that stress exposure enhances drug self-administration and reinstates drug seeking in drug-experienced animals.” What we are finding out are Psychologist and researchers are starting to correlate the two as well as the facts. So now this topic is not just becoming an excuse for people to do engage in substance abuse it’s actually proven.

source 3

http://college.usatoday.com/2016/10/22/depression-is-at-an-all-time-high-for-college-students/ 

This article talks about depression. College students face many obstacles coming into the school. As we know it could be a stressful time and college was basically the place we learn to grow up you’re not baby anymore.  Depression is at a all time high for college students. As stated in the article, “According to a 2013 American Psychological Association survey, about one-third of college students have experienced depression within the past year and had difficulty functioning because of it.” This well-known fact is the reason why we need to focus on what is going on with students and how we can help them.  People think depression just has to do with sadness but some of the symptoms or signs he just can’t see. With many students losing their lives by being exposed to substance and partying with bad decisions out of impulse just to avoid feeling depressed. We have to ask ourselves, how can we stop this and how can we help.

Source 4

http://www.mentalhealthamerica.net/stressed-or-depressed-know-difference

Something that I found interesting in this article article that contribute to my topic is that they actually put a list where you can compare and contrast the differences between being stressed mean depressed. This is important now since most of the signs are similar. Many of us think that they might be the same thing or is that just depressed might just be someone being sad when it’s much bigger than that.

Source 5

https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs40596-014-0205-9

this widespread of mental illness is increasing rapidly. This alarming fact is wellknown, what isn’t, is the fact that we don’t know how to stop it yet. among the mental illnesses that affect students are anxiety disorder. “Anxiety disorders are the most prevalent psychiatric problems among college students, with approximately 11.9 % of college students suffering from an anxiety disorder” this is a huge amount if you consider the millions of students in college in the U.S. another main mental illness address is depression. depression is one of the most harmful because if not treated people can cause harm to themselves. something i like about the article is the writer addresses the abuse of alcohol in college. with many people being leftuntreated for their mental illnesses this could be a life threatening situation as we hear about on the news. many kids drink them selves or abuse drugs to death. “Approximately one in five college students meet the criteria for alcohol use disorder (AUD) in the previous year (12.5 % alcohol dependence and 7.8 % alcohol abuse)”

 

Source 6

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/jclp.21972/abstract

this article talks about a survey done by The American College Health Association which surveyed to over 30,000 students across 39 campuses. “Results of the survey showed a significant increase in psychological problems on college campuses. For instance, 15.4% of students reported being diagnosed with depression. Furthermore, 28.4% of all students, regardless of whether they were diagnosed, reported that they felt so depressed that it was difficult to function.”what is alarming about this is as we know many students including myself will not go up and ask for help or talk to people. we feel the need to deal with it ourselves or some feel that they would get judged. The article addresses that substance abuse is another concern. with students not in the right state of mind this could be harmful to themselves and others.

Source 7

https://search.proquest.com/docview/1425547111?pq-origsite=summon

The amount of mental health issues of students has rose throughout the years.  “The most common substances used by young adults are alcohol, tobacco
and cannabis [8-10]. The use of two or more of these
substances simultaneously, known as polydrug use, has
received growing attention in the literature due to an increase
in prevalence in early adulthood.” With mental health issues many students may find the abuse of such substances such as drugs and alcohol as a way to relax and cope. the study done in the article focused on students 18-25 in france. it tried to determine what these students have in common. Which age/criteria fit best for the growing amount of the substance abuse.

Source 8

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0306460312002110?via%3Dihub

Negative affects have been link to the abuse of substances of drugs and alcohol. People don just abuse these drugs without a purpose. in college this where most people are exposed to these real life situations. the article defines the need for these substance to cope has having a negative urgency. “Negative Urgency refers to an individual’s tendency to engage in impulsive behavior while experiencing feelings of distress. a study showed that women diagnosed with alcohol dependence had  higher levels of Negative Urgency compared to both a control group of women, and a group of women diagnosed with depression” Having Negative Urgency has been shown to lead to the abuse of alcohol, smoking, and the use of illegal drugs. what this proves is it could be psychological to cause these behaviors.

Source 9

https://search.proquest.com/docview/1791486139?pq-origsite=summon

“When an individual is faced with an intense emotional
experience the more dominant emotions take over, and the individual can no longer rationally consider the situation” It seems that in many articles it is an impulse control. that something in the brain makes us not distinguish from right or wrong. something makes us choose the easy way instead of the right way.

 

White Paper – PaulaJean5

PaulaJean’s Proposal

I am going to be researching the placebo effect and how the medical aspect of placebo effects relate to social stereotypical placebos or expectation bias. More specifically, the effect of people’s demographics and what other people say on their self-esteem and behaviors due to stereotypes or negative connotation.

PaulaJean’s Sources

Asking Students to Confirm Their Gender Before a Test Leads to Lower Scores for Girls, Higher for Boys

The essential content of this article: This article focuses on a study done by the Educational Testing Services where they asked a group of males/females to confirm their gender before the test and another group after. The females who got asked the inquiry about gender did worse than the other females who got asked after. The males who got asked before did better than the others who got asked the question after the test.

What it proves: The study in this article will help me prove that just mentioning somebody’s gender to them before they take a test will trigger an unconscious stereotype in their head and make them perform due to that specific stereotype. This shows how much we focus on other stereotypes around us without knowing.

Stinking Thinking and Expectation Bias

The essential content of this article: Stinking Thinking or ST language triggers negative thoughts that will bring ones self-esteem down, making them believe they will fail or that they are terrible people. This kind of language will change one’s mind about their own self. Certain phrases are said with the intention to lower one’s confidence. There are many ways of thinking/speaking that easily shape the way a person thinks. (i.e. “What if…?, “I should have…”, or the belief negative emotions make something real.)

What it proves: My thesis was created to essentially research how one’s language, phrasing, and/or perceptiveness to negativity effects one’s self-esteem. This article provides me with information that shows just by using certain words and phrases one can change somebody’s whole mood and confidence level. The way a person words the things they say can make other people around them acquire certain beliefs.

Enhancing Placebo Effects: Insights from Social Psychology

The essential content of this article: This study focuses on social psychology and how you can apply it to life and increase positive expectancies in clinical settings. Providing a comfortable office, many awards for the doctor/therapist, multiple degrees, and also a sense of comfort and familiarity will let a patient believe that any type of treatment will work as long as it is paired with these social psychology implications.

What it proves: My thesis focuses on things people say or do that change what you believe in or think. In this case, the way the office looked and people acted shaped a patient’s opinion on a certain treatment. This helps me show a real life example where this relationship exists and occurs.

The Weird Power of the Placebo Effect, Explained

The essential content of this article: This article focuses on the different types of effects and what causes them. Regression to the mean is an effect that is caused by time. As time goes on, the sickness/disorder will be healed by time. Confirmation bias is when a patient’s focus shifts from the sickness to the recovery. This shift lets the ill person recognize signs of health and recovery which will end up in ignorance towards the signs of illness. Expectations and learning tell us that we should respond to pain and/or medicines due to the cues we receive from our environment. For example, if a patient receives painkillers from a pump that they cannot see, they will need twice as much medicine as the patients who watch the doctor actually administer it to them. Pharmacological conditioning is related to learning and conditioned responses. If a patient takes a painkiller and then switches to a placebo unknowingly, it will provide the same response as the painkiller as the patient’s body was trained to relieve pain when it took that specific pill. Social learning works in the same way as watching somebody else take a pill that eases pain, will make that certain pill work for them as well. Human connection also has a big effect on what one feels as warmth and empathy can actually help kick start or push along the healing process more so than patients not receiving the same attention and warmth.

What it proves: This proves that there many ways to alter one’s thoughts and beliefs. For example, a lot of what a hospital is is a placebo which makes you more trusting of the treatment. The way the world works around us really creates and shapes how we will think until another placebo pops up and changes our train of thought yet again.

Dogs and the Placebo Effect

The essential content of this article: This article focuses on the placebo effect on animals. There was a study done where a dog was given actual pills and then switched to placebos. They had a way to measure the dog’s pain and found out that the placebos actually worked as a painkiller.

What it proves: This proves just how subconscious the placebo effect is. Dogs, who do not have the cognitive capacity to understand what the pill is actually trying to do for them, are susceptible to the placebo effect. This proves how effective a placebo can be.

Getting Drunk on Expectations

The essential content of this article: This article’s main focus is on the fact that you can be drinking non-alcoholic beer and get drunk. Of course, you can’t know it is non-alcoholic, but just the scene of a party can itself can get you drunk. Alcoholics are advised to not drink non-alcoholic beer and be in a party setting because it can cause a relapse in their recovery. Drinking out of a keg is enough of a cue to trigger the intoxicated feeling. The “needle freak phenomenon” is another example of this. People with an addiction to heroin can inject themselves with a saline solution, thinking it is heroin, and  get an instantaneous high. Cues themselves are very powerful.

What it proves: This proves how our minds can trick us. Just by setting up our atmosphere in a way that is familiar with certain feelings and experiences, we can feel certain ways without the stimulus even being present.

Are Diets Just Placebos?

The essential content of this article: This article focuses on how diets may not be working because of the actual diet, but because of the act. They have done many experiments, and each one showed how just by being told the food was healthy or a part of a diet.

What it proves: This proves, once again, how powerful our minds are. If we are told something will help us lose weight, we start losing weight and feeling healthier even if it is not exactly scientifically proven.

Placebo of HIV Trials

The essential content of this article: Between 1996 and 1999, there were certain trials that tested the effect of highly active antiretroviral therapy on patients with HIV. This treatment was more effective in the clinical trials then they were in hospitals. This is called the trial effect. This test was done later in the early 2000s. It did not show the same results as the perception of HIV changed and there was more evidence to prove that HIV is more treatable.

What it proves: This proves that the time of studies can change results, but the placebo effect still shows. The trial effect is an interesting situation as one may intuitively think that being given treatment in a hospital would be more effective than a treatment in a clinical trial. But still, the time of the study and the relevance is very important for the placebo effect to take place.

Is the Placebo Effect a Placebo?

The essential content of this article: This article focuses on how the placebo effect is just a placebo. The placebo needs multiple factors and varies in every situation. Nobody responds the same way to things, and this is also creates a more difficult way to prove the placebo effect.

What it proves: This article proves that placebo effects are difficult to prove. I do not believe what this article says besides that. There are some flaws and not enough evidence supporting their point. Placebos are very hard to prove, but there is a lot of evidence that points towards it.

The Placebo Effect and Marketing

The essential content of this article: This article focuses on how marketers and advertisers can alter their products and advertisements to appeal to consumers. When they change their products, they start this expectation so when they buy it, it is as good as the commercial or advertisement said. Social media has a huge effect on this as well.

What it proves: This article proves that commercials are very meticulously created so that people buy these things and enjoy them when they are consumed or used.

What I am still looking for…

I am still looking for a thesis statement that is coherent and effective. I like where I am going, but I need to shape and create a thesis that is provable and able to be written a lot about.

Current state of research…

I like all of my sources so far, but I am not 100% confident on my progress. I am having a hard time getting my thoughts together. I think with time and help, my confidence will go up.

 

White Paper 2nd Draft- Nreina34

For my research essay, I will examine how the media portrays law enforcement and how it’s affecting these departments around the country.  

Throughout the country police officers feel as if they are perceived to be the criminal and that isn’t the mentality a police officer should have.  Social media is a major cause to the irrational hatred the police receives and it is ultimately leading to a decline in numbers in law enforcement. These accusations of the media are not at all false, the majority of police officers agree with the idea on how the media treats them poorly.  Police officers are everyday citizens outside of their job and have to deal with these things, and for someone who protects and serves their community to be ridiculed for doing their job is truly unjust.       

  1. Forget Criminals, Police Now Fear Activists and the Media

The Essential Content of the Article: This article published by The National Interest provides a case in Alabama where a man was pulled over by a police officer but instead of cooperating he decides to beat the officer as others join in and video the helpless man.  The officer didn’t fight back in fear of repercussions of the media and said, “I hesitated because I didn’t want to be in the media like I am right now.  It’s hard times right now for us.”  

What it proves:  This article proves that the media has an affect on the mindset of a police officer now and is now altering decisions that can risk their life.  This is a perfect example of how unwanted prejudice leads to attacks against law enforcement, which is happening all around the country.

  1. The Real Reasons Nobody Wants To Be A Police Officer In America

The Essential Content of the Article:  The main point of this article is that numbers in the police force have been declining rapidly around the country.  Entrance exam numbers have gone down tremendously, for example in Fairfax County, Virginia, there were 4,000 applicants for their exam in 2011, but now will only catch the eye of 300.  

What it proves:  There must be a major cause to this 90% drop of applicants and people are now looking to the media to be that influence.  Ultimately, this is proving that not only does the media affect day to day officers, it is trickling down into the young minds making them not want to pursue their dreams anymore in law enforcement.  

  1. Most officers say the media treat police unfairly

The Essential Content of the Article:  Pew Research Center ran surveys in 2016 to get the opinion of police officers on how they feel the media treats the police.  The results were shocking, with 81% of them saying the media treats them unfairly, and half of that saying they strongly agree.  Also, this survey also showed that about 50% of police officers feel that the public doesn’t understand the risks and hardships they go through and could be another potential reason for their tarnished image.

What it proves: This research backs up the theory that media is influencing law enforcement and all of it is undeserved.  Society believes that the news headlines that ridicule police officers do not alter them, but how would you feel if you had to be the “bad guy” all the time when you’re just trying to do your job?  

  1. We’re not seeing more police shootings, just more news coverage

The Essential Content of the Article:  I decided to utilize this article to show an opposing side to this argument.  This article published by CNN preaches upon that their haven’t been more “controversial” police incidents, there has just been more media coverage on them giving them more exposure.  A big part to this more exposure is cell phones because it gives eye witnesses the ability to record everything that goes on.  

What it proves: This may prove that this type of behavior from law enforcement can be a recurring thing dating back way farther to Eric Garner and Ferguson, Missouri.  Maybe more exposure to these incidents will educate the public about what is really going on in our police departments around the country.

  1. How Social Media Is Changing Law Enforcement

The Essential Content of the Article: This article helps seek through the “pros and cons” that social media brings to law enforcement.  This is only a part of the argument but I feel that it has a lot more importance than people think it has.  Social media nowadays is used by law enforcement to assist in looking for missing children, and also helps spread word about important news from the police to the public.  But social media has created a whole new world of law enforcement including pedophiles using a these networks as a platform to meet young children, and ISIS and other organizations like that use social networking to recruit people overseas.  

What it proves:  This proves that social media is a double edged sword for law enforcement, but it can be a very vital thing to law enforcement.  It is starting to be used in police departments to communicate with the public, gather information about certain people, and can also be used a form of evidence.  This goes to show that the police really are trying to help out but at the end of the day the media still portrays them as victims in certain scenarios.  

  1. Social Media and Crime: The Good, The Bad, and The Ugly

The Essential Content of the Article:  The article posted by The Conversation states that there are 3 sides to social media and crime.  It states that essentially social media is taking over to be the majority’s primary news source which can potentially be a major problem due to all the controversy between the industries.  It also shows how social media is a good thing for law enforcement by it aiding with investigations, having more access to the public, and it has also made it alot easier to communicate with the public in times of crisis.  There are too much of a hatred bias on social media for it to be the main news source.

What it proves: This proves that a lot more people (the majority of them being young) turn to social media as their news outlet which eventually is going to turn into a big problem due to how unreliable it is.  People will believe anything they see on social media nowadays, it is so credulous of them.  

  1. The Use of Social Media Monitoring Tools for Law Enforcement

The Essential Content of the Article:  This piece gives examples at how social media benefits the police.  Police are able to use social media to find tips from followers about the bragging of crimes on social media.  Also, police agencies use social media in hiring decisions.  Law enforcement agencies already do extensive background searches on their applicants before they are hired but by looking into social media accounts it gives these departments a better look at the character of their candidates.  

What it proves:  I wanted to use this article to show that even though social media is a burden on law enforcement, it also very useful for the police.  This is why there must be a resolve between these two industries.  There is too much distrust between them and how they are skewed against each other.  

  1. Social Media and Law Enforcement

The Essential Content of the Article:  The impact social media has on law enforcement has made the interactions between them erratic.  A big example is how the police are affected by the attacks on their credibility.  Social media gives information to irrelevant people which is how things get escalated, and at the same time police officers are verbally attacked on social media at all times.  In addition, the rise of “questionable” videos online poses a threat to departments and is called cop baiting.  By doing this, it makes police officers second guess their decisions which can end up hurting themself.

What it proves: This proves that there are people out there on social media that want to expose police officers for their every move.  Cop baiting is a serious epidemic among our country and is starting to make police officers question if things are a set up sometimes, it’s really sad.  Social media makes police officers the biggest public figures it also comes along with the fact that the barrier between their professional and personal is no longer existent.  

  1. American policing is broken.  Here’s how to fix it.

The Essential Content of the Article:   A major reason as to why there is so much shown hatred towards law enforcement is the accusations that police officers are prejudice and this article points out some of that racial prejudice that goes in in Baltimore, Maryland.  In order for the media and the police to nicely mesh with each other, the police have to fully clean up their act before they can turn around and point fingers.  An investigation given by the US Department of Justice uncovered many instances of unreasonable targeting against black individuals in that area.  

What it proves: This does prove that there are some prejudicial and bias things that go on through some police departments, so the haters are right, but to an extent.  But before the media goes a day without trying to expose the men in blue, all police departments have to clean up their act before they call themselves the victims.  

  1. Fostering Better Relationships Between Police and Media

The Essential Content of the Article:  This article focuses upon the fact that these two professions have so much controversy because they do not fully understand the other person’s job.  A former crime reporter named Carolyn Lowe who worked for WCCO-TV decided to take a challenge and took a college class to try and learn more about law enforcement.  One class led to another and next thing you know, she has a masters degree and is a certified officer.  She really wanted to gain better insight on the job of policing and she did by taking matters into her own hands by actually becoming one.  

What it proves:  This proves that if we were to just understand what goes on in these professions, there would be a lot less skepticism and controversy between them.  There is a resolution and it will come one day but if we do not put ourselves aside then it will not happen.  The media is seriously affecting the way law enforcement is now acting and there needs to be a resolve before things really do get out of hand.  

White Paper 3 – Dancers

My Proposal

I will be conducting research on bullying and cyberbullying. What the effects of bullying cases are, what is the makeup of the bully (why do they bully), lastly is there anything that can be done to stop bullying.

My research will go one of two ways either I will delve further in to see if by prohibiting cell phones within a school if bullying rates will decrease. By getting rid of social media within the class setting could decrease numbers if bullying cases seen. Or I may take my paper in the direction of why do children bully one another. I could argue that bullies tend to bully due to having problems at home or the exact opposite that bullies have a great home life and there is no specific reason as to why they torture other children.

Sources:

1. Behind Bullying: Why Kids Are So Cruel

The essential content of this article: This article discusses why kids are so cruel. It discusses how bullies are looking to gain admiration and dominance by bullying other children. It states that bullies also want affection and look for approval in their own group of friends. Due to this they strategically pick victims they know few other classmates will defend. Some children who bully struggle with aggression may be abuse victims themselves, others just think its the cool thing to do.

What it proves: This proves that children who bully may be victims of abuse at home or could just think its cool.So by reading this article it shows that bullies could have a hard at home life or they could have a good one.

2. The Mind Behind the Bully: The Psychology of Bullying

The essential content of this article: This article states that bullying starts early research shows that behaviors are developed between toddler and preschool years. Children are a product of their upbringing and many parents expose their children to interactions unknowingly that will eventually shape their children’s communication skills one day. Bullies also lack personal awareness and often don’t know how they are perceived. Bullies also tend to have low self esteem and need to feel in charge of someone.

What it proves: This article proves that bullying behaviors can be started at a young age to to the behaviors they are exposed to in their house.

3. Bullying Statics

The essential content of this article: This article shows the statistics of bullying cases and what the effects of bullying are. As well as discussing statistics of cyberbullying cases, students with disabilities, students of color, and students who identify with LGBTQ. Bullying and suicide rates are discussed and interventions places have put into place due to bullying.

What it proves: This proves that bullying is still a dominant problem within a school setting and more often than not people are being bullied.

4. Social Media Bullying Has Become a Serious Problem

The essential content of this article: The article discusses what constitutes bullying on social media some examples include posting negative comments on pictures, posting abusive posts on a user’s wall, and using social media to stalk. A significant amount of cyberbullying takes place on Facebook. Other social media accounts are becoming more used in order to bully as well such as Twitter, Ask.FM, and SnapChat.

What it proves: This article proves that social media bullying is a problem and is only becoming more widespread throughout different sites. Children find it easier to bully online now instead of doing it in person.

5. What is Cyberbullying

The essential content of this article: This article discusses what cyberbullying actually is,how it takes place over digital devices like cell phones, computers, and tablets. Cyberbullying can occur through SMS, Text, and app, or online in social media forums. Common places where cyberbullying occurs are Facebook, Instagram, Snapchat and Twitter for social media accounts. But also can occur through text messages a lot of the time as well. It also talks about the special concerns when it comes to cyberbullying cases. Such as how it can be persistent, permanent, and or hand to notice.

What it proves:This provides some background information as to what cyberbullying is and how it happens online.

6. The Bully as Victim: Understanding Bully Behaviors to Increase the Effectiveness of Interventions in the Bully-Victim Dyad

The essential content of this article: “Bullies are well-versed in aggressive behaviors designed to obtain goals, and these lessons most often originate first in the home environment (Brody, 1996; Craig, Peters, & Konarski, 1998; Pepler & Sedighdel lami, 1998). Greenbaum et al.(1989), Hazier (1996a), and Oliver, Oaks, and Hoover (1994) noted many of the difficult characteristics encountered and learned by bullies in the home environment. The home situation of the bully is quite harsh (Craig et al., 1998; Espelage, Bosworth, Karageorge, & Daytner, 1996; Pepler & Sedighdellami, 1998). Hazier (1996a) is explicit: “[Humans] are most vulnerable to learning appropriate behaviors when they are very young. The vast majority of what [bullies] see and hear … is from their family” (p. 34). Punishment is often capricious and physical. Minor infractions may bring violent verbal, emotional, or physical overreactions from one or both parents, after which the child is often ignored for long stretches of time. Praise, encouragement, and humor are rare in the life of the bully. Put-downs, sarcasm, and criticism are more the rule than the exception (Greenbaum et al., 1989). Parents exhibit little in the way of positive role modeling behaviors. Bullies are seldom monitored for their whereabouts or activities (Roberts, 1988) or disciplined for antisocial behaviors. Out of this home environment emerges a personality steeped in the belief and justification that intimidation and brute force are ways to interact with the obstacles encountered in life. Indeed, the parents of bullies often support their children’s behavior as “‘standing up’ for oneself” (Ross, 1996, p. 73). Additionally, bullies empower themselves through aggression toward others”

What this proves: This proves that bullies first experience these behaviors from their home environment and that their parents often don’t see their children as bullies, so they don’t discipline their children for acting this way usually. Children are vulnerable at at young age to what they see and hear and often end up acting the way they see their parents behave or how their parents treat them is how they treat others.

7. Bully/victim problems in school: Facts and intervention

The essential content of this article: “1. The basic emotional attitude of the primary caretaker(s) toward the child during early years (usually the mother). A negative emotional attitude, characterized by lack of warmth and involvement, increases the risk that the child will later become aggressive and hostile toward others. 2. Permissiveness for aggressive behaviour by the child. If the primary caretaker is generally permissive and “tolerant” without setting clear limits to aggressive behaviour towards peers, siblings, and adults, the child’s aggression level is likely to increase. 3. Use of power-assertive child-rearing methods such as physical punishment and violent emotional outbursts. Children of parents who make frequent use of these methods are likely to become more aggressive than the average child. In other words, “violence begets violence”

8. Bullying and Being Bullied: To What extent are Bullies also Victims?

The essential content of this article: “concluded that bullies come from families where parents are authoritarian, hostile, and rejecting, have poor problem-solving skills, and advocate fighting-back at the least provocation. Bullies have aggressive behavior histories, and they often take advantage of their physical strength (Olweus, 1991b). There are no significant socioeconomic differences among bullies. Bullies do not have low self-esteem as many educators expect (Rigby & Slee, 1991), and bullying behaviors are not a result of academic failure in school (Olweus, 1991a, 1993, 1994; Rigby & Slee, 1991). Bullying in school varies with grade levels (Whitney & Smith, 1993), but researchers are divided in their findings. Bran white (1994) reported more incidents of bullying in secondary school than in elementary school. On the other hand, some researchers suggest that the percentage of students being bullied decreases significantly with age or grade, although the decline in rate is less substantial during junior and senior”

What it proves: This proves that children who bully other children tend to have a hard life at home and a different upbringing than those of children who don’t bully other students.

9. The Issues of Child Abuse 

The essential content of this article: This article provides the different types of abuse children experience and how children react to such abuse.

What it proves: That children experience many different types of abuse at home and it can negatively effect their behavior and emotions towards others.

10. Violence in the home leads to higher rates of childhood bullying

The essential content of this article: A study conducted to see whether or not children who are exposed to violence within their home are more prone to bullying behaviors.

What it proves: This article shows that being exposed to violence within a home does not necessarily make children grow up to bully.

11. Raising Our Children to Be Resilient: A Guide to Helping Children Cope with Trauma in Today’s World 

The essential content of this article: This article discusses grief and trauma and the impact it has on children and how to work with kids and trauma within home, school and the community. Traumatized kids feel powerless, hopeless, and helpless.  Children often respond to a traumatic event with fear, terror and extreme vulnerability. Trauma can create distorted perceptions of self in children, commonly produces angry and combative reactions and overriding feeling of terror. When experiencing trauma teenagers may withdraw, bully or resort to drugs and violence  in order to cope.

What it proves: This article provides valuable information on how bullying tendencies could indeed start at home.

Topics for Smaller Paper

1. How Much Time Do People Spend on Social Media

The essential content of this article: This article discusses how much time the average person spends on social media daily and added up to see how many years it equals up to. The article also discusses each top social media and how much time the average person spends a day on each one of these platforms.

What it proves: It proves that social media is very popular and many people use it even more often than we think the average person uses it.

2. 6 Reasons Why Social Networking is Popular Nowadays

The essential content of this article: This article lists the top six reasons to why social media is popular in this day and age. It gives you an opportunity to meet new people,they are user friendly, they are free, they have a job marker, they allow businesses to reach out to potential customers,and they allow you to join groups.