Bibliography – PaulaJean

1. Bartlett, T. (2013, January 30). Power of Suggestion. Retrieved April 18, 2018, from

Background: This article discusses power of suggestion and how it relates to the way people act after hearing certain things. It focuses on a certain study demonstrated to have people actually walk at a different pace due to words that they unscrambled.

How I Used It: I used this article for background information to form my own opinion and to use it as evidence within my research position paper. It really helped me prove my point on unconscious forces and how things that are said around you can effect your performance and actions. I learned that after hearing or seeing a word, somebody’s actions can literally changed without them knowing based on the subconscious focus on what was heard.

2. Expectancy Bias. Retrieved April 18, 2018, from Bias

Background: This article explains what expectancy bias is and certain examples of it. There is a research study and other facts about the concept.

How I Used It: Although brief, this source gave me a lot of background information to shape my thesis and research around. I learned that expectancy bias is a form of reactivity in which a researcher’s cognitive bias causes them to subconsciously influence the participants of an experiment.

3. Spencer, S. J., Steele, C. M., & Quinn, D. M. (1999). Stereotype Threat and Women’s Math Performance. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 35(1), 4-28. doi:10.1006/jesp.1998.1373

Background: This article was about study where the experimenters tried to see if prior studies where women underperform on difficult tests but do fine on others occurred with the “highly selected” students that were chosen for this study. They conducted two experiments and concluded that stereotype threats really do effect the way women perform on difficult math tests.

How I Used It: I incorporated evidence from this article into my final research paper. I described the study and the results to further prove my point about stereotype threats. This study was really carefully designed to show that women are just as smart, but they are overwhelmed by the stereotype threat that surrounds them in math and science tests. The fact that it was so meticulously created shows a great amount of validity in the source.

4. Why Stereotype Threat Keeps Girls Out of Math and Science, and What to Do About It. (2011, June 01). Retrieved April 18, 2018, from

Background: This article delves in deeper into stereotype threat and Josh Aronson’s study. Usually before taking an AP test, a proctor will ask the students to confirm their gender. (Presumably on the answer sheet with all of the other information.) Aronson wanted to see what would happen if they had the students do this after the test instead of before. When asked before, females had a lower average than the males. When asked after the test, the females actually had a higher average.

How I Used It: I used to article to provide more evidence about stereotype threats. I described the study and results. I also used this article to increase my knowledge on the concept before writing my paper.

5. Vedantam, S. (2012, July 12). How Stereotypes Can Drive Women To Quit Science. Retrieved from -jobs

Background: This article speaks to stereotype threat and women in science professions. Two experimenters, Toni Schmader and Matthias Mehl, put recording devices on male and female science professors. They figured this could show why and how women feel compelled to leave the field. They found that when women talked to women about work/life/etc., they were very engaged. When women talked to men about work, they were very disengaged. They were engaged, though, when talking to men about things that do not have to do with work or research. Mehl believes that the way to fix this is have more women in the field.

How I Used It: I used this article within my essay to show something other than math. Women are also “attacked” at work with these threats by the men around them. Using it really shows just how much women are in danger of the stereotype threat.

6. Reducing Stereotype Threat. (n.d.). Retrieved from

Background: This article presents ideas on how to stop stereotype threat in the classroom. The author discusses different things to establish with students for teachers. Implementing a growth mindset, motivating feedback, and a sense of belonging will help reduce the threats from different stereotypes.

How I Used It: I believe that stereotype threat is a huge issue so including ways to prevent it is very important to me. This article gave me specific ways to stop the threats to include in my research paper and get the word out.

7. Rydell, R. J., Shiffrin, R. M., Boucher, K. L., Loo, K. V., & Rydell, M. T. (2010, August 10). Stereotype threat prevents perceptual learning. Retrieved from

Background: This article includes a study on how stereotype threat does not only effect performance, but the ability to learn in general.

Annotated Bibliography- Myrtle View

  1. Blake, J. (2016, March 31). It’s time to talk about ‘black privilege’. Retrieved from                  Background: This article explains what black privilege is and how it effects white people.

How it is used: I used this in my rebuttal piece as a counter argument.

  1. Music, C. O. (2017, September 22). Report: Black Women Are Responsible for Everything Cool. Retrieved from

Background: This article explains how black women set the trend for many of the worlds fashion trends.

How it is used: I used this in my definition argument to explain how black women a source of inspiration but receive no respect from the world.

  1. Brown, T., & Kopano, B. (2015). Soul thieves : the appropriation and misrepresentation of african american popular culture. Retrieved from

Background: A book that explains how black people are misrepresented and are victims of cultural appropriation towards white people. It also mentions the effects of this misrepresentation.

How it is used: I used this in my definition argument to explain how cultural appropriation effects the black community.

  1. Hunter, M. L. (2005). Race, gender, and the politics of skin tone. Retrieved from

Background: An academic book about how the race, gender, and skin tone determines the opportunities that are received and how the world will judge the community.

How it is used: I used this in my definition argument to show how the black community are not provided fairly the same opportunities of white people because of the way they present themselves.

  1. Smith, Jessie Carney, et al. The Complete Encyclopedia of African American History, Visible Ink Press, 2015. ProQuest Ebook Central,

Background: This academic resource is about the history of African Americans from slavery to present day. It also discusses the accomplishment the black community has made and the obstacles that they still face today.

How it was used: I used this in my definition argument and causal argument to explain how far the black community has come and that it is still strive for the betterment of people.

  1. Ford, Tanisha C. Liberated Threads: Black Women, Style, and the Global Politics of Soul. University of North Carolina Press, 2015. JSTOR,

Background: This academic source is about how black women present themselves through fashion and the repercussions they receive from society.

How it was used: This academic source was used in my causal argument to explain how black fashion should not be appropriated.

  1. James, D. (2017, December 07). An Illustrative Identity of Fashion and Style Throughout African-American History and Movements. Retrieved from

Background: This article is about the many contributions to fashion the black community has offered throughout time.

How it was used: I used this article as evidence in my definition and causal argument.

  1. Bubman, M. (2017, February 22). The Double Standards of Cultural Appropriation. Retrieved from

Background: This article is about how wearing black fashion and black hairstyles effects people differently within society based on race.

How it was used: I used this article in my causal argument to demonstrate the difference in treatment black women face as opposed to white women.

  1. Dicker, R. (2017, September 08). Black Culture Appropriation Meets Its Match On ‘The Daily Show’. Retrieved from

Background: This article is about cultural appropriation that was addressed on “The Daily Show” and how this issue is widely known and controversial.

How it was used: I used this in my causal and definition argument as evidence to my claim.

  1. Blay, Z. (2015, August 04). It’s A Slap In The Face When White Women Wear Black Hairstyles. Retrieved from

Background: This article how and why it is disrespectful for white women to style their hair using black hairstyles.

How it was used: I used this as an example in my causal argument to explain what happens when white women wear box braids as opposed to when black women wear box braids.

  1. Rockett, D. (2018, April 23). ‘How to Slay’: Black fashion has made its mark on world culture. Retrieved from

Background: This article is about how black culture continues to inspire the world around them

How it was used: I used this reference in my refutation to show how positive an influence black fashion is on the world on an international level.

Bibliography- Lbirch

1. Brooke, C. (2011, November 08). Fire services on alert after smoke detector is blamed for causing TWO blazes. Retrieved April 05, 2018, from

Background: This article published by Daily Mail provides two cases in the United Kingdom where the smoke detectors actually caught fire. Fire investigators on the case say they are on the side of caution because of these incidents and are taking the situation very seriously. These detectors were installed professionally by fire services for a fire prevention safety campaign.

How I Used It: I used this article to show that there are cases of faulty detectors that do have the potential to start a fire and can cause harm. This also provides an example of an incident where smoke detectors do the complete opposite of what they are made to do. Even if detectors are professionally installed and are picked by fire services because of reliability they still have the risk of a fire.

2. Reports and statistics about smoke alarms. (n.d.). Retrieved April 18, 2018, from National Fire Protection Agency,

Background: This report focuses on the statistics of fatalities in fires and their relation to smoke detectors. This report by the National Fire Protection Association states “smoke alarms were present in slightly less than three-quarters (73%) of reported home fires and operated in roughly half (53%).” It also states that about three out of five respondents of a survey still use battery operated smoke detectors. Lastly, a main piece of evidence that can be used is that a power-failure, shut-off or disconnect was the leading failure reason for failures of hardwired only smoke alarms (46%).

How I Used It: This source was used to show statistics of fire-related deaths in houses. I used the fact that a home with smoke detectors are safer than homes that do not have them.

3. Lee, A., & Lee, D. (2005, October). Considerations For Installation Of Smoke Alarms On Residential Branch Circuits. Retrieved February 13, 2018 from

Background: This report covers the facts of smoke detector in houses today, discussing there may be a problem with battery-only alarms because if one alarm detects smoke, only that one will sound. If there is a fire in a remote section of the house, the alarm may not be heard if you are far away from the alarm. One statement in this report shows that some fires start due to overheated wires in detectors from an overload on its current.

How I Used It: This was used by showing there can be some hazardous things in detectors we may not even think of. This can be the fact that with battery-operated detectors, only one detector will go off in an event of a fire while hard-wired fires all will activate. But one hazard a hard-wired detector may possess is the problem of overheated wires with can lead to electrical fires.

4. McGrath, E. (2017, July 11). What Causes Short Circuits?. Retrieved February 13, 2018 from

Background: Short circuits can be caused by faulty installation of wires. When one wire carrying a current touches another wire, heat, and fire can be made. This is from an overload of current which the wire may not be able to handle.

How I Used It: I used this to show how a short-circuit may cause a smoke detector to catch on fire. Wires may be faulty and can produce extreme heat. I used this to show a professional is needed to safely install smoke detector systems, and if this is not done, the home may be at risk.

5. Cambell, R. (2017, March). Electrical Fires. Retrieved February 3, 2018, from

Background: This report shows statistics about electrical fires in homes. Electrical fires may be the route of detector failures and fires because of the wiring involved. Fire departments responded to over 45,000 reported structure fires which involved electrical failure or malfunction from 2010-2014.  Wiring and related equipment accounted for the great majority of home fires and losses involving electrical distribution and lighting equipment, which was 69% of fires.

How I Used It: I used this to relate detectors to electrical fires, and how common they are. I also used this to show that failure to install wiring correctly will result in a harmful or deadly scenario.


Background: This article shows a time when a fire started in a house with no smoke detectors at all. The fire claimed the lives of four children, and if there were detectors in the house, the children may have been alerted and evacuated the house safely.

How I Used It: I used this to show how smoke detectors are a necessity and this shows a time they would have been very useful in a house. To use this to show why detectors are very important in homes.

7. Nichols, B. (2014, June 30). How 9-Volt Batteries Can be a Home Hazard. Retrieved February 13, 2018 from 

Background: This article written by Fire Protection Team gives is information about 9-volt batteries and how they can cause a fire. 9-volt batteries are used in detectors, but also as backups in hard-wired detectors. If a metal object, which can be as simple as a pen or paper clip touches a post of the battery, it may short the battery causing heat or fire. There have been fires due to batteries reported across the country and cause a concern to many.

How I Used It: I used this article by showing batteries also have a role in detectors and the possibility they can start fires also. I also used this to show how easy it would be to short a battery, causing extensive heat and creates the potential to start a fire.

8. BU-304a: Safety Concerns with Li-ion. (2018, January 4). Retrieved February 27, 2018, from 

Background: This article is written to inform the readers about the possible safety concerns of lithium-Ion batteries. These lithium-ion batteries may cause harm to your home, and even possibly yourself in used incorrectly or installed improperly.

How I Used It: I used this article because lithium-ion batteries are used in smoke detectors, and I show this can be another possible way a smoke detector can cause a fire. these batteries can start a fire in other appliances or devices, they could start a fire in smoke detectors also.

9. Common Causes of Electrical Fires. (2012, December). Retrieved February 27, 2018, from

Background: This article is about how electrical fire can start. They can start from physically damaged wires, overloaded circuits, high temperatures, and from other improper uses.

How I Used It: I use this to show how many ways electrical fires can start and relate back to detectors. If a detector is not installed correctly or not installed by a professional, all of these things have a high chance of happening.

10. Home Electrical Fires. (2015, February 4). Retrieved February 27, 2018, from

Background: ESFI gives us statistics about home electrical fires and gives the reader electrical and fire safety tips.

How I Used It: I use this by stating the fact about electrical distribution equipment is the third leading cause of house fires, accounting for 51,000 fires and nearly 500 deaths. I use this to show how harmful faulty electrical equipment may be.

11. Lee, A. (2002, June 28). Preliminary Test Results on Lithium Batteries Used In Resident Smoke Alarms. Retrieved February 27, 2018, from

Background: This publification gives the reader background on tests done on households with lithium-battries smoke alarms. The things found in these tests show that many households did not have working smoke detectors at all, including some households that had them with no batteries inside.

How I Used It: I used this to show how deadly a home can be if no detectors are inside a house at all. When there are no smoke detectors inside a home, the risk of death from smoke inhalation increases dramatically.



1.Beresin, E. (2017, February 27). The College Mental Health Crisis: Focus on Suicide.

Background: The article gives very alarming and strong facts to support my argument. A credible author, Dr. Beresin published it. He highlights the details of the increase in mental illness on college campuses. Also, he offers some ideas for trying to counteract the issue and reduce the number of lives lost.

How I used it: I used this article to strengthen my paper by giving facts statistically. Upon reading, I got to relate to some of his ideas of increasing access to medical health services. I also got to learn more about the ways we can counteract the stigma that is causing many students to go undiagnosed.

2. Bowen, S. (03/2014). Relationship between dispositional mindfulness and substance use: Findings from a clinical sampleElsevier.10.1016/j.addbeh.2013.10.026

Background: This article discusses the abuse of substances when trying to cope. The article experiments to try to see if mindfulness has any effect on changing improving the conditions of addictive tendencies.

How I Used It: I used this to explain how mindfulness is an alternate method that has mixed results. The students should try it out with as
a way to clear their minds and lower stress.

3. Brown, J. (n.d.). A Growing Number of College Students are Seeking Help for Anxiety, Depression, Stress, and Psychological Disorders | BU Today | Boston University.

Background: the article talks about the recent rising in students with mental health issues. It gives specific details what type of person is at risk. As well as, it provides a list of warning signs of students who may have a mental illness.

How I Used It: I used this article to compare with the warning sign of another piece. I also incorporated the use of people who are at a higher risk. I found this interesting because after searching for so long many did not have an answer or a specific reason.

4. Emily A. Pierceall & Marybelle C. Keim (2007) Stress and Coping Strategies Among Community College Students, Community College Journal of Research and Practice, 31:9, 703-712, DOI

Background: the article explains stress and what it is. It continues by describing how with college and life stress in a regular occurrence. Students were surveyed to determine their amount of stress, and how they view the impact, it has on them.

How I Used It: this article played along with the other with stress. I didn’t find anything specific that I didn’t use. I mostly used this one for supporting evidence.

5. Downs, M. F., Golberstein, E., Zivin, K., & Eisenberg, D. (n.d.). Stigma and Help Seeking for Mental Health Among College Students.

Background: It explains the main reasons why students are reluctant to get help. It explains that students don’t ask for help because of fear of being perceived differently by others.

How I used it: I used it to point out the reason why the counseling health services are not as efficient. This helped me come up with ideas to help bring down students stigma.

6. Hofmann, S. G., Sawyer, A. T., Witt, A. A., & Oh, D. (2010). The effect of mindfulness-based therapy on anxiety and depression: A meta-analytic review. Journal Of Consulting And Clinical Psychology, 78(2), 169-183. doi:10.1037/a0018555

Background: This explains how they tested the effect of meditation on anxiety and depression. They generally, the observed effect of the treatment. They concluded that although results aren’t considered effective, it does have a slight effect.

How I used it: I explained that this method should be used as an addition to what your medical professional recommends. I’m not ruling out people trying it because although results aren’t excellent, they have slight success.

7. Katz, D. (2013). Community college student mental health: A comparative analysis (Order No. 3572817). Available from ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global. (1434835907).

Background:  It mentions the occurrences how well as the different demographics between community college and traditional universities. Studies mentioned how they found that traditional university students were more likely to report being treated or diagnosed by a professional for anxiety and depression than community college students.

How I Used It: I used this article to explain how community college is not promoting mental services as much. Students at community colleges are being overlooked and under-diagnosed. Community colleges believe its okay because of the fact a small number of students live on campus, and the demographics are different.

8.Kitzrow, M. A. (2003). The Mental Health Needs of Todays College Students: Challenges and Recommendations. NASPA Journal, 41(1).


Background: the journal explains the struggles college students with mental needs go through. They have to deal with academics, social life, fitting in, and their disorders.

How I used it: I used this journal to give examples of these student’s struggles, and they know they deal with obstacles on a daily. I used t to try t persuade the university’s board of education to allow counseling service as a resource. They must help their students and accommodate them on their needs.

9. Moise, G. (2014). Good stress or bad stress? Relationships between stress appraisals and strains in healthcare practitioners (Order No. 3630437). Available from ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global. (1563382680).

Background:  The article covers stress as its main topic. It lets the reader know the definition of stress as well the two different types of stress as well as the effect on the person.

How I Used It: I wrote about the different types of stressors and explained them in detail. I wrote about what they contribute and how they affect someone. I did this so the reader can differentiate the difference between stress and something more serious.

10. Pedrelli, P., Nyer, M., Yeung, A. et al. Acad Psychiatry (2015) 39: 503.

Background: This widespread of mental illness is increasing rapidly. Hundreds of thousands of students are being left untreated. It goes to community college age groups are different they are typically older. Then it goes into substance use done by young adults in college.

How I Used It: I used this resource to explain how alcohol and drug abuse is high in college. This problem combined with rising mental illness is deadly. Students turn to this method of negative coping to deal with a problem.

11. Storrie, K., Ahern, K. and Tuckett, A. (2010), A systematic review: Students with mental health problems—A growing problem. International Journal of Nursing Practice, 16: 1-6.

Background: this journal gives insight into the college mental health epidemic as well as the challenges students face. It explains why students hesitate to get help.

How I Used It: I got to understand the in-depth what their stigma students have is. I got to understand characteristics that put people at risk as well as why certain people deal in certain ways.

12. Stressed or Depressed? Know the Difference. (2015, October 08). Retrieved from

Background: the article gave you information to distinguish normal stress and depression.

How I Used It:  I examined the compare and contrast list to see if I could determine the difference between stressed and depressed. This is important now since most of the signs are similar. Many of us think that they might be the same thing or is that depressed might be someone being sad when it’s much bigger than that.

Bibliography- Nreina34

  1. Adams, J. C., Belin, C., Toucas, B., Roberts, J., Brattberg, E., & Corre, P. L. (n.d.). Forget Criminals, Police Now Fear Activists and the Media.

Background:  This article published by The National Interest provides a case in Alabama where a man was pulled over by a police officer but instead of cooperating he decides to beat the officer as others join in and video the helpless man.  The officer didn’t fight back in fear of repercussions of the media and said, “I hesitated because I didn’t want to be in the media like I am right now. It’s hard times right now for us.”  


How I used it:  This article proved that the media has an affect on the mindset of a police officer now and is now altering decisions that can risk their life.  This is a perfect example of how unwanted prejudice leads to attacks against law enforcement, which is happening all around the country.


  1. Bejan, V., Hickman, M., Parkin, W. S., & Pozo, V. F. Primed for death: Law enforcement-citizen homicides, social media, and retaliatory violence.

Background:  PLOS ONE was a research studied designed to see if violence exists between the police and the public and see if it has a connection with social media.  They discovered ties between Black Lives Matter movements on the internet and how they were related to the amount of police officers and minorities killed in a certain time district.  


How I used it:  I used this article to prove that social media does have an influence on the livelihood of police officers and even the public too.  This research directly backs up thesis in regards to how the media is the fuel to the fire.


  1. Carlson, D. (2017, June 22). Exclusionary Rule.

Background:  This article which was published by the Cornell Law School is just a basic overview of the law and everything that it entails.  The exclusionary rule doesn’t let the government use evidence that is obtained during an unreasonable search, which violates your 4th amendment.  Supreme Court case Mapp v. Ohio was the cause for the exclusionary rule and took place in 1961.

How I used it:  This article was used to support my rebuttal argument that police officers are not allowed to make mistakes.  The exclusionary rule backs police officers on the mistakes they make and protects both them and the public.

  1. Gramlich, J., & Parker, K. (2017, January 25). Most officers say the media treat police unfairly.

Background:  Pew Research Center ran surveys in 2016 to get the opinion of police officers on how they feel the media treats the police.  The results were shocking, with 81% of them saying the media treats them unfairly, and half of that saying they strongly agree.  Also, this survey also showed that about 50% of police officers feel that the public doesn’t understand the risks and hardships they go through and could be another potential reason for their tarnished image.


How I used it: This research backs up the theory that media is influencing law enforcement and all of it is undeserved.  Society believes that the news headlines that ridicule police officers do not alter them, but how would you feel if you had to be the “bad guy” all the time when you’re just trying to do your job?  


  1. Gwendolyn Waters. Social Media and Law Enforcement. (2012, November 01)

Background:  The impact social media has on law enforcement has made the interactions between them erratic.  A big example is how the police are affected by the attacks on their credibility. Social media gives information to irrelevant people which is how things get escalated, and at the same time police officers are verbally attacked on social media at all times.  In addition, the rise of “questionable” videos online poses a threat to departments and is called cop baiting. By doing this, it makes police officers second guess their decisions which can end up hurting themself.


How I used it: This proves that there are people out there on social media that want to expose police officers for their every move.  Cop baiting is a serious epidemic among our country and is


  1. Keller, Jared. (2016, December 01). Why Are Ambush Killings of Police on the Rise?

Background:  There is a sudden increase in police ambush killing and it is starting to concern a lot of people, especially police officers.  This releases a mid-year report from the National Law Enforcement Officer Memorial Fund which keeps track of officer deaths. The numbers shocked people to see how much the number have increased in just a year.  

How I used it:  Ambush killings are definitely not something someone should take lightly and they are creating a major issue for policemen.  This article goes to show that law enforcement is receiving direct hatred and how much of a major threat to policing this is.


  1. Libaw, O. Y. (n.d.). Police Face Severe Shortage of Recruits.

Background:  Some cities around the country are seeing drops in applicants with rates up to 90 percent and it is a problem within the law enforcement industry.  This article recalls some possible reasons as to why people are not as attracted to the job anymore and gives multiple examples around the country where applicant numbers are dropping.

How I used it:  I utilized this article because I felt that it showed that since the police are starting to have more of a tarnished image, people are not wanting to be cops anymore.  The media can be blamed a reason for the low amount of police applicants around the country.


  1. McLaughlin, E. C. (2015, April 21). There aren’t more police shootings, just more coverage.

Background:  I decided to utilize this article to show an opposing side to this argument.  This article published by CNN preaches upon that their haven’t been more “controversial” police incidents, there has just been more media coverage on them giving them more exposure.  A big part to this more exposure is cell phones because it gives eye witnesses the ability to record everything that goes on.


How I used it: This could prove that this type of behavior from law enforcement can be a recurring thing dating back way farther to Eric Garner and Ferguson, Missouri.  Maybe more exposure to these incidents will educate the public about what is really going on in our police departments around the country. Starting to make police officers question if things are a set up sometimes, it’s really sad.  Social media makes police officers the biggest public figures it also comes along with the fact that the barrier between their professional and personal is no longer existent.


  1. Rieder, R. (2013, July 15).Column: Media got Zimmerman story wrong from start.

Background:  This article posted by USA TODAY  recalls an instance during the time when the George Zimmerman and Trayvon Martin case was buzzing everywhere.  This instance involved NBC News and how they edited Zimmerman’s comments on television to make them sound racist.

How I used it:  I used this article to prove that major news outlets, such as NBC News, skews information on television.  They do this to create more publicity and make the story explode because that is what they do, they are the news.


  1. Utah State University. Retaliatory violence between police and citizens is primed by social media. (January 11, 2018.)

Background:  This was another article regarding the research study PLOS ONE because it was so vital to my research essay.  This study proved that when there were deaths with minorities there were also deaths with officers, which ties the both of them together meaning retaliatory actions took place.

How I used it:   This study helped persuade my readers that social media negatively impacts the violence in the streets against police officers and the public.  If this is not put to a stop then violence will just continue and that is no way to live.


  1.  Vandita. The Real Reasons Nobody Wants To Be A Police Officer In America

Background:  The main point of this article is that numbers in the police force have been declining rapidly around the country.  Entrance exam numbers have gone down tremendously, for example in Fairfax County, Virginia, there were 4,000 applicants for their exam in 2011, but now will only catch the eye of 300.  


How I used it:  There must be a major cause to this 90% drop of applicants and people are now looking to the media to be that influence.  Ultimately, this is proving that not only does the media affect day to day officers, it is trickling down into the young minds making them not want to pursue their dreams anymore in law enforcement.



Annotated Bibliography- AmongOthers13

1) Carter, C. J. (2013, May 19). Why Aren’t Low-Income Students Succeeding in School? Retrieved from
Background: Many low income first-generation college students are reading and doing math at a seventh or eighth grade level and are admitted into college. Annually, as many as 1.7 million first-year students entering both two- and four-year colleges have to take remedial courses to learn the skills they need to enroll in a college-level course.Academic challenges they face are due to the past education they have received. Lack of exposure to books, language barriers, lack of stability, lack of role models, and first generation are all aspects of their struggles put on them from early on in education.
How I Used It: I used it to show that the problem does not end after high school. The effects get worse as we get older. These are the reasons why these children sometimes do not excel in school.
2) How Does Poverty Affect Education? | LSU Online. (2017, April 10). Retrieved from
Background: Poverty puts a toll on a child’s physical readiness, social-emotional readiness, and cognitive readiness. When a child is raised in a low-income home, they are often left alone to fend for themselves while their parents work multiple jobs. They can only provide fast, easy food to make for themselves, which is usually junk food. This leads to unresolved health conditions, which cause major problems in the future. What a child endures at home could be so distracting that they can not pay attention in school, leading to poor performance and an emotional cut-off from everybody in the classroom and the school. If a child does not understand what is in the text book, they feel foolish and silly and do not ask questions. They would rather act up than to be embarrassed in front of the whole class for something they don’t know.
How I Used It: Growing up in a low-income area has a major impact on the children living there. The schools are not good enough to have quality learning and teaching. These children suffer in many ways each and every day. These factors listed are all detrimental to a child’s life, well-being, and to their success.
3) Isaacs, J. B., & Magnuson, K. A. (2016, July 29). Income and Education as Predictors of Children’s School Readiness. Retrieved from

Background: Studies have shown huge gaps when testing school readiness in young children due to income of their families and also material education. Most children from a poor, low-income family perform poorer than those from a high-income family. A test is being conducted to test how children perform and why- what causes the poor performance>

How I Used It:  This article shows how income plays a huge role in the success of young children, as it is the deciding factor for their success. It explores the idea of parent’s education and family income and how they come into play when it comes to children’s education.


4) Poverty and Education. (n.d.). Retrieved from

Background : The lack of education could lead to a lifetime full of struggles, hardships, and difficulties. It is hard for children to accomplish more things when they lack a full education. A program called ChildFund India raises money for children’s needs for schooling. In most areas where ChildFund is, schooling itself is free, but the uniforms, books, buses, are often too expensive for families to pay.

How I Used It: The significance of a good education and what it can do for children in the long run. Without a quality education, children are steered onto the wrong path, and it is hard to get out of.

5) Reardon, S. F. (2017, July 24). The widening academic achievement gap between the rich and the poor: New evidence and possible explanations. Retrieved from

Background: Discusses family socioeconomic characteristics and the difference in academic success over the last 50 years. Income achievement gap is the “Average achievement difference between a child from a family at the 90th percentile of the family income distribution and a child from a family at the 10th percentile”. It is now double the black-white gap, a gap that used to be one and a half to two times larger than the income achievement gap.

How I Used It: The relationship between income and achievement has grown tremendously and income is now a deciding factor for children’s success.


6) Richmond, E. (2015, June 08). How Ineffective Government Funding Can Hurt Poor Students. Retrieved from
Background: Fourteen states are currently spending less money on public school funding to poor areas and communities. The states are forcing schools to make do with the bare minimum for their students, as well as give no extra money to support funding in classrooms. Public school funding remains unfair and unequal for the 11 million poor students in the U.S
How I Used It: Property tax to support public school funding is tearing down the fundamentals of education. Students are left with little to nothing in schools and acquire not all of the necessary materials. They are forced to make do with what they have. These children are simply not receiving a quality education that will help them today, and in the future.
7) Schaeffer, U. (n.d.). Knowledge is power: Why education matters | DW | 03.05.2012. Retrieved from
Background: No other resource will ever be able to live up to the benefits of education. Education empowers students and gives them the confidence to participate in society. All human beings should have direct access to an education, but in 2009 only 89% of children attended school, and the process has slowed down since then. In many poor communities, every 4 out of 10 students stop going to school before they reach elementary school. Children in rural areas have a less chances to be educated.
How I Used It: In my opening paragraph I used quotes to show the importance of education so that my reader was thinking about how much they have grown from education, and then introduced the fact that low-income students are struggling in poor conditions in schools. I was hoping to hit their emotions with this one.
8) Skinner, K. (2015, April 13). How does underfunding actually affect schools? Four questions with Greene County Superintendent Richard Fleming. Retrieved from
Background: Richard Fleming, the Superintendent of a school in Mississippi, states that his school has barely enough materials to get by. His program has been underfunded for years, he claims. He has had to cut positions that he really needed to have in his schools. His schools is in survival mode, and is in “nuts and bolts”, about to fall apart. They cannot offer extra-curricular activities or clubs to children. The textbooks are old and falling apart, always behind in technology, buildings from the 1930’s.
How I Used It: Money is essential to give students a quality education. When the spending is unequal for different schools, it creates diverse problems between the students and their success is impacted negatively.
9)  Taboh, J. (2017, August 27). Lack Of Materials Hinders Student Success. Retrieved from
Background: We cannot obtain a quality education if it is not offered to us. Schools lack funding, which in turn creates a lack of materials. The ability to give proper materials to students is a recurring problem. There is not enough collection of data to tell schools what they need and what they are doing okay with. There is a deficiency of staff, which results in an inadequate number of supplies
How I Used It: Without the right materials, children have difficulty learning and understanding to their fullest extent. Children are suffering in schools because they are not funded enough in order for them to be successful.
10) Zhao, E. (2012, February 14). Dropout Rates For Minority And Poor Students Disproportionately High. Retrieved from
Background: As badly as administrators yearn for the minorities and poor students to graduate, a large number of them dropout. Someone who drops out of high school will make about $630,000 less than someone who got their high school diploma. High school dropouts are not able to work in 90% of America’s jobs. In October of 2009, 3 million 16-24 year-olds were not enrolled in high school and did not have their GED. Minority students dropped out at extremely higher rates than their White classmates in 2009, when 4.8 percent of of blacks and 5.8 percent of Hispanics between 15 and 24 dropped out of grades 10-12, compared with 2.4 percent for white students. Low-income dropouts was 5 times greater than high-income students- comparing 7.4 percent to 1.4 percent.
How I Used It: I used these facts to show how dramatic the difference in dropout rates are between low-income and minorities than high-income and white students. These students do not dropout because school is hard, they dropout simply because they are in low-funded schools with not enough materials or teachers to supply their learning. They decide to dropout and get a job to start supporting themselves, since they have given up on school due to their conditions.

Bibliography – picklerick

  1. Amanda Christy Brown and Katherine Schulten. (2012, December 13). Fiction or Nonfiction? Considering the Common Core’s Emphasis on Informational Text. Retrieved March 02, 2018.

Background: This article debates whether or not the new version of the Common Core Standards is beneficial in its emphasis on informational text. It relays the opinions of teachers and journalists about what students should be reading.

How I used it: This article helped me realize that both fiction and nonfiction literature are important in the classroom. It also taught me how the Common Core Standards are always changing.

  1. Bartlett, B. (2014, June 20). 4 Bad Side Effects of Reading Fiction According to the 19th Century. Retrieved March 02, 2018.

Background: This article discusses how reading for fun isn’t quite as beneficial as reading to gain knowledge. It goes over four “bad side effects” of reading fiction.

How I used it: Although I do not agree that these side effects will happen to anyone who reads fiction, the article did give me some good points toward what happens when you skim text and don’t get the full benefits out of it. It helped me in my paragraph where I compare books to film.

  1. Dakin, C. (2013). The Effects of Comprehension Through Close Reading (Unpublished masters thesis). St. John Fisher College.

Background: This dissertation discusses, in depth, the effect close reading has on students’ levels of comprehension. It provides studies and interviews that compare how teaching close reading differs from general reading education.

How I used it: This paper helped me realize how important close reading is in the classroom. I used the quote from Caitlin Dakin, “It is essential in today’s educational world that teachers begin to transform their classroom instruction of fiction literature into short informational complex texts to give the students the opportunity to meet the demands of the common core learning standards.”

  1. Goodwin, B., & Miller, K. (n.d.). Research Says / Nonfiction Reading Promotes Student Success. Retrieved April 17, 2018.

Background: This article gives statistics that show how children, on average, spend less that four minutes a day reading nonfiction. It discusses the new emphasis on nonfiction in the Common Core Standards. It also gives advice on how teaching should change to meet these standards.

How I used it: This article gave me solid examples to how the change in the  Common Core Standards will affect teaching in the future. It also helped show me that informational texts are as important for student success as narrative texts.

  1. Is fiction good for you? How researchers are trying to find out. (2016, July 19). Retrieved April 17, 2018.

Background: This article challenges the idea that reading fiction encourages empathy. It ultimately proves that fiction does, indeed, improve empathy.

How I used it: I used this article to help strengthen my argument that books are just another form of media. It says books are merely “a piece of consciousness being passed from mind to mind” which made sense to me.

  1. Matthews, C. E., Chen, K. Y., Freedson, P. S., Buchowski, M. S., Beech, B. M., Pate, R. R., & Troiano, R. P. (2008). Amount of Time Spent in Sedentary Behaviors in the United States, 2003-2004. American Journal of Epidemiology, 167(7), 875-881.

Background: This study reveals how much time people really spend doing sedentary behaviors on a day to day basis. It gives statistics from the 2003-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey which show that people spend an average of 7.7 hours each day doing sedentary behaviors.

How I used it: I used statistics from this article to prove my argument that there is a growing problem of adults staying sedentary for too long.

  1. Owen, N., Healy, G. N., Matthews, C. E., & Dunstan, D. W. (2010). Too Much Sitting. Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews,38(3), 105-113.

Background: This article discusses how being sedentary for to long is bad for metabolic heath. It points out the difference between too much sitting and too little exercise.How I used it: I used this information to explain why activities like watching TV or readig books should be done in moderation in order to maximize metabolic health.

  1. Pennington Publishing Blog. (n.d.). Why Sustained Silent Reading (SSR) Doesn’t Work. Retrieved March 17, 2018.

Background: This article points to why SSR is not a good use of class time and how there are better, and more effective ways to get kids to benefit from reading.

How I used it: I used the quote from Mark Pennington, “Students often choose books with reading levels far below or far above own their reading levels and so do not experience optimal reading growth.” to prove that when you give kids SSR they won’t make the most out of their class time.

  1. Shanahan. (2012, June 18). What is Close

Background: This blog explains what close reading is and what it is meant to help with. It points out how to close read in three main steps. It also discusses why the Common Core Standards have such an emphasis on close reading.

How I used it: I used this post to gain a wider knowledge on the subject of close reading. It informed me on how to practice close reading, as well as how teachers should teach it. This mainly improved my paragraph where I offer advice on how teachers should teach close reading to their students.

  1. Strauss, V. (2014, September 08). Why kids should choose their own books to read in school. Retrieved March 17, 2018.

Background: This article gives reasons why letting students choose their own books helps them start reading more often. It also gives reasons why SSR is not an effective method for getting students to read. SThese reasons include how SSR takes up too much time and how there’s a lack of appealing books available in the classroom.

How I used it: The information in this article showed me that Students should read what they want, but not in a SSR setting. The arguments against SSR were very useful to me as well as they increased my knowledge on the subject.




  1. Tmg. “Is Rugby or American Football More Dangerous?The Telegraph, Telegraph Media Group, 25 Jan. 2016,

Background: This article discusses the injuries rugby players face compared to those of football players. It focuses on concussions and the impact the long-term impact it has on player health.

How I used it: This article helped me understand the concussion epidemic in professional football. It also shed light on the injuries that rugby most commonly has and helped to build my argument around that.

2. To, P. B. (2016, June 08). Rugby, like NFL, doesn’t have concussion issue figured out. Retrieved from

Background: This article on the ESPN website focuses on the inherent concussion problem in rugby and comparing it to the concussion problem in the NFL. Kat Merchant was a female rugby player for the English national team, and she suffered 10 or more concussions just to play rugby at the highest level possible. The NFL’s attempt to lessen their concussion problem is also highlighted. Head Coach Pete Carroll with the Seattle Seahawks began teaching a different tackling technique for his players to use. This new tackling technique is based on how rugby players tackle and making sure that the head is not involved in the tackle.

How I used it: This article helped me to see the concussion issue in rugby and how it measures up to that of football. It explains how the tackling techniques in rugby are safer than football’s techniques. This helped me build a solid argument.

3. Leonard, T. (2016, August 21). Is rugby safer than football? Retrieved from

Background: This article from the San Diego Union-Tribune focuses on the long-term effects of playing high-speed contact sports, like rugby and football. There are not many studies done comparing the concussions side by side, but there is plenty of information on injuries. One player on San Diego’s rugby team had suffered numerous concussions and blackouts while playing the game. Studies done in the UK found that high-level rugby players also developed CTE like their NFL counterparts. The studies and stories show proof of a problem, and USA rugby, like the NFL, is working on ways to remedy concussions.

How I used it: CTE is not limited to just football. For both football and rugby to stay around, the concussion percentage needs to be reduced by different rules or better techniques.

4. Moyes, J. (1996, April 22). Risk of spinal injuries highest in rugby. Retrieved from

Background: This article from the Independent focuses on the relation of spinal injuries in rugby compared to those in other sports. By far, rugby has the most spinal injuries compared to any other sport. Out of 98 injuries compiled by the Trevor Jones Tetraplegic Trust, 58 are rugby related. Along with the reported injuries, the Rugby Football Union has withheld information and statistics on spinal injuries for years.

How I used it: Rugby is the least safe sport when it comes to spinal injuries and paralyzation. Compared to every other sport, there are none that have near the same amount of spinal injuries.

5. Khaleeli, H. (2013, January 28). American football or rugby: Which is more dangerous? Retrieved from

Background: This article from The Guardian focuses on the safety concern for players in the NFL. More than 4,000 families have brought lawsuits to the NFL regarding concussions and debilitating head injuries. Players like Junior Seau took their own life because of symptoms brought on by CTE. His family sued the NFL for “wrongful death” and won the lawsuit. Jim McKenna, A professor of physical safety and health at Leeds Metropolitan University, claims that rugby is much safer than football. Football players use their head as a tackling tool, which is never the case with rugby tackles. Football players purposely throw their head into contact to bring down an opponent, and rugby players do their best to keep their head out of a tackle.

How I used it: Rugby players do not suffer as many concussions and head injuries as football players. Football players need to be taught techniques for safer play so they can have a life after the NFL and not suffer from CTE or other debilitating head injuries.

6. American College of Sports Medicine. (2011). ACSM Information On ConcussionPs In Sports[Brochure]. Author.

Background: This article from the ACSM, American College of Sports Medicine, focuses on the symptoms and causes of a concussion. A concussion happens when there is a sudden acceleration or deceleration of the head. It can occur when the head contacts the ground, a ball, or another player. Concussion symptoms are not always obvious and apparent. A couple symptoms are irritability, change in sleeping patterns, dizziness, vomiting, and double vision. Even doctors sometimes struggle in detecting symptoms associated with concussions.

How I used it: Concussions are hard to detect and there needs to be more research done to reveal better detection methods. If someone may have suffered a concussion, it is better to take the preventative measures rather than risk their health and safety.

7. Tong, E., & Almquist, J. (n.d.). Concussion- The Invisible Injury. Retrieved from

Background: The article written by Emily Tong and John Almquist focuses on the diagnosis and legislation related to concussions. Many high school and college athletic programs have the players take a baseline test for normal cognitive function. When a player may have gotten a concussion, they go back and have them take the same test and compare the scores. If the cognitive function of the athlete is not 100% they will not score as well as they did the first time. All 50 states have passed laws to protect young athletes from returning to play before their ready. The players are to be educated on concussions and symptoms, and they are told to refrain from playing if they have any symptoms. After a player is diagnosed with a concussion, the law requires the player to be cleared by a medical professional.

How I used it: Concussion issues are important enough to be written into the state legislature of all 50 states. Player safety is more important than any aspect of the game, and the brain is a delicate and important piece that players need to take better care of.

8. Johna Register-Mihalik, Christine Baugh, Emily Kroshus, Zachary Y. Kerr, and Tamara C. Valovich McLeod (2017) A Multifactorial Approach to Sport-Related Concussion Prevention and Education: Application of the Socioecological Framework. Journal of Athletic Training: March 2017, Vol. 52, No. 3, pp. 195-205.

Background: This article was written by Johna Register-Mihalik, Emily Kroshus, and Tamara C. Valovich McLeod. It focuses on the different levels of change that must occur to improve the concussion problem. From the interpersonal role all the way out to society’s role. Players need to be educated on concussions, coaches and parents need to be educated on identifying the symptoms, and schools and governments need to put policies in place to protect player’s future health.

How I used it: Understanding and fixing the concussion problem is not a one-step process, but a long and tedious approach that involves the individual players all the way up to the state government.

9. Armour, K. S., Clatworthy, B. J., Bean, A. R., Wells, J. E., & Clarke, A. M. (1997, December 12). Spinal injuries in New Zealand rugby and rugby league–a twenty year survey. Retrieved from

Background: This article was done by the Christchurch of Medicine and it focuses on spinal injuries rugby players suffered in New Zealand. The scrum produced the highest percentage of spinal injuries. Forwards and heavier players suffered more spinal injuries compared to backs and lighter players.

How I used it: Spinal injuries are a part of rugby and may not be avoidable, but there are precautions and techniques players can implement to reduce their chances.

10. Royston, A., & Ramey, L. (2013, September 20). Stingers and Burners. Retrieved March 20, 2018, from

Background: The article has statistical and factual information about stingers and burners. The author explains how the injury happens, what it does to the body, how to treat it, what the symptoms are, and the possible outcomes of the injury.

How I used it: I used this article to explain stingers and learn how exactly they damage the body and what to do for treatment and prevention. This helped me to build an argument about tackling techniques and how safe they are.

11. Wilkerson, R. (n.d.). Our knowledge of orthopedics. Your best health. (S. J. Fischer, Ed.). Retrieved March 20, 2018, from–conditions/burners-and-stingers/

Background: The article explains the anatomy of a stinger as it travels through the body and explains the causes and risk factors for getting a stinger.

How I used it: I used this article to understand stingers and relate the risk factors to the tackling techniques most football players use.

12. Pilon, M., & Belson, K. (2013, January 10). Seau Suffered From Brain Disease. Retrieved April 1, 2018, from

Background: This article explains that cumulative head injuries lead to CTE. It is about a well-known player that took his life and was found to have CTE.

How I used it: The article helped me to build a case against the football style of tackling. CTE is a horrible disease and the information the article provided about it and it’s effects, helped me to explain CTE and why it must be eliminated from athletes lives, starting with player safety.

13. Bodenner, C. (2016, October 14). Which Is More Dangerous, Rugby or Football? Retrieved April 1, 2018, from

Background: This article explains the ways that football and rugby compare on injuries and the dangerousness of both sports compared to each other.

How I used it: I used this article to explain the false sense of security football players have because of their padding. It helped me build an argument explaining how football is more dangerous overall, and especially in the tackle.

14. “USA Rugby Injuries” [One slide in a presentation received by email]. (n.d.). Referred to a study purported to have been conducted by USA Rugby. Origin unknown.

Background: This is a powerpoint put out by the national governing body for rugby in the United States. It compares injuries in rugby and football. Specifically, colligate athletes are monitored throughout the study. It focuses on injuries as a whole and then mentions a comparison of concussions.

How I used it: I used the information in this powerpoint to support my claims about rugby being safer compared to football. There is a specific study mentioned in the powerpoint that touches on the concussion rates comparing both sports.


1. Lazar, R. (n.d.). Project MUSE – Negotiating Sex: The Legal Construct of Consent in Cases of Wife Rape in Ontario, Canada. Retrieved from

Background: This article explores the way that cases of wife/partner rape are viewed and handled by the criminal justice system. The author seeks to show the extent to which “societal and cultural beliefs about sexuality, intimate relationships and marriage, and rape myths,” are reflected in how actors in the criminal justice system determine cases. She examines this by conducting a study of “fifteen defence counsel and seventeen Crown attorneys,” from different cities in Ontario, who (other than one) have dealt with numerous cases of sexual assault.

How I used it: This article informed me as to how difficult it is for judges to determine consent, particularly in cases of wife/partner rape. The terminology used in such cases is very different from that used in cases of violent rape and cases of stranger rape. The people interviewed in this article tended to identify with the rapist and worried about their own sexual relationships, rather than considering the victim’s point of view. It contributed to my understanding that societal views and personal views sometimes affect the criminal justice system’s ruling on rape cases, and also affect what terminology is used in these cases. This added to my argument that the terminology affects what is counted in the statistics and creates a huge disparity in statistics. 

2. Ehrlich, S. (2016, July 26). The Discursive Reconstruction of Sexual Consent – Susan Ehrlich, 1998. Retrieved from

Background: This paper evaluates the ideologies that frame court proceedings in a sexual assault trial. It states that although the court has updated its perception of rape from the victim needing to actively resist in order for it to be rape, the standard of communication required for it to be rape is similarly constructed. In the trial that the writer examines, the defendant argues that the level of communication between himself and the women was insufficient for non-consent to be determined.

How I used it: This paper contributed to my understanding that before the definition of rape was updated to its current one, actors in the criminal justice system had difficulty determining whether or not miscommunication about consent could discredit charges for rape. The views of the courtroom were mostly reflective of the CJ actors’ interests in not restricting their own sexual relationships.

3. Travis, C. B., & White, J. W. (2000). Re-examining the issue of nonconsent in acquaintance rape. In Sexuality, society, and feminism (pp. 355 – 376). Washington, DC: American Psychological Assoc.

Background: This chapter examines consent as a social construct. It explains in detail the effect of cultural attitudes, cultural metaphors, societal myths, sexual scripts, and the legal system on the definition of consent and rape.

How I used it: This chapter contributed to my knowledge about what informs the definition of rape, which helped me to understand why so many different definitions for rape exist.

4. Travis, C. B., White, J. W., & American Psychological Association. (2000). Understanding the Unacknowledged Rape Victim. In Sexuality, society, and feminism (pp. 377 – 403). Washington, DC: American Psychological Assoc.

Background: This chapter seeks to explain how some victims of rape do not consider themselves to be rape victims even though they experienced what would legally be considered rape. It argues that personalities, sexual attitudes and experience, affective reactions, reactions of peers, use of alcohol or drugs, and counterfactual thinking affect whether or not a victim will consider himself/herself to be a victim.

How I used it: This chapter informed me as to the factors that influence a person’s perception of his/her own sexual experiences. It identifies the problem that no one’s numbers can be trusted due to confusion even by victims as to what constitutes rape.

5. Jordan, S. (2017, February 27). Rape culture is normalized across college campuses. Retrieved from

Background:  This article argues that college students are desensitized to rape and therefore perpetuate rape culture. It states that “rape is about power, control and dominance.” It also cites that 1.2 percent of male students and 3.1 percent of female students at ASU have reported attempted or completed sexual assault.

How I used it: This article served only to inform me of potential societal responses to the concept of sexual assault and how some feminists may define it. The article makes bold claims that either have little to no basis in fact or that the author has not even attempted to prove.  

6. Carter, N. M. (2012). Intimacy without Consent: Lynching as Sexual Violence. Politics & Gender, 8(03), 414-421. doi:10.1017/s1743923x12000402

Background: This scholarly journal seeks to show that lynching has a tendency to involve not only violence, but also sexual violation of the victim, regardless of the victim’s gender. In addition, the race of the victim plays a large role; if the victim is black and male, the case is treated very differently than if the victim is white and male.

How I used it: This journal helped to prove that the definition of rape changes in different contexts; here, because the victim was a black male, something that by law would obviously be considered rape became a question.

7. Kelly, O. (2015). Party Rape, Nonconsensual Sex, and Affirmative Consent Policies. Americana : The Journal of American Popular Culture, 1900 to Present; Hollywood, 14(2). 

Background: This article delves into the prevalence of rape on college campuses. It explains the mindset of perpetrators and how often victims are discredited. It also describes how frequently victims of sexual assault are asked what they were wearing at the time of the assault, as well as the percentage of males that misinterpret the meaning of rape.

How I used it: The statistics involving how many males understood rape to be different from forcing a woman to have sex helped explain to me the power of terminology and the reason that many institutions change the words from rape to “sexual assault” or “sexual violence.” This furthered my understanding as to why different institutions will adopt differing definitions of rape and will utilize different terminology. It also pointed me to another valuable source.

8. Burgess, A. W. (1985). Rape and sexual assault: A research handbook. New York, NY: Garland Pub. 

Background: This book explores rape victims, their families’ responses and legal responses to the rape, the aggressors, and the mass media’s response to rape.

How I used it: This book largely contributed to my understanding of rape as it relates to everyone involved. It also provided useful statistics as to college-age men’s understanding of rape.

9. Burgess, A. W. (1988). Rape and sexual assault II. New York, NY: Garland Pub. 

Background: This book explores sexual victimization in colleges, factors involved in rape of prostitutes, self-blame of rape victims, sexual attitudes toward rape, and more.

How I used it: This book examined rape myths and sexually aggressive attitudes of college males. These determined how the college males defined rape, furthering my understanding that the definition of rape varies from institution to institution and person to person.

10. Ali, K. (2017). Concubinage and Consent. International Journal of Middle East Studies, 49(01), 148-152. doi:10.1017/s0020743816001203

Background: The text explains that wives and slaves in Islamic history had very different rights, even though slaves could be married off without their consent. Slaves could be treated far worse than wives and it would be perfectly permissible. However, their husbands needed to treat them better than their owners did.

How I used it: This text served only to contribute to my understanding of differences in definitions of rape.

11. De la Ossa, A. C. (2016). ‘Talk, listen, think’: Discourses of agency and unintentional violence in consent guidance for gay, bisexual and trans men. Discourse & Society, 27(4), 365-382. doi:10.1177/0957926516634549

Background: This article explains the focus on men in the explanations of sexual assault and consent made by Galop. It helps to put into words the traumatic experiences people in the LGBT community have.

How I used it: This article proves that there is always a neglected race, gender or sexual orientation when it comes to defining rape and consent. Because one type of person is always left out, the definition of consent always falls short of its intended meaning. In this way, the definition of consent is not universal and results in disagreeing definitions of consent, which greatly contributed to my understanding of my argument.

12. Young, H. (2010). R. v. A. (J.) and the Risks of Advance Consent to Unconscious Sex. Canadian Criminal Law Review, 14(3), 273-306.

Background: This article describes the risk of agreeing to sex before one of the partners becomes unconscious. It explains that any misunderstandings in the advance consent or mistreatment of the partner during the unconscious sex could result in rape and therefore unconscious sex should be automatically considered rape.

How I used it: This contributed to my understanding that even those who consent to sex can switch to nonconsent in a number of situations. This helped formulate my argument that rape is hard to define, which results in an array of differing definitions.

13. An Updated Definition of Rape. (n.d.). Retrieved from

Background: This archive explains the FBI’s updated definition of rape compared to its older definition.

How I used it: This source contributed to my understanding of the differences in definitions between the FBI and other institutions.

14. Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS) – Rape and Sexual Assault. (n.d.). Retrieved from

Background: This source details the Bureau of Justice Statistics’ definition of rape and sexual assault.

How I used it: I used this source to compare its definition of rape to that of the FBI and other institutions.

15. Definitions|Sexual Violence|Violence Prevention|Injury Center|CDC. (2018, April 10). Retrieved from

Background: This source details the CDC’s definition of sexual violence.

How I used it: I used this source to compare its definition to that of the FBI and other institutions.

16. Eichelberger, E. (2017, June 25). Men Defining Rape: A History. Retrieved from

Background: This source explains the history of the definition of rape as defined by men.

How I used it: I used this article to explain how society has struggled with the definition of rape over time.

17. Bekiempis, V. (2015, January 9). When Campus Rapists Don’t Think They’re Rapists. Retrieved from

Background: This article discusses the way that terminology affects how a perpetrator will report intentions for sexual violence or how a victim of sexual violence will report an incident. It examines the oddity that men will agree with sexually violent or coercive behaviors but will deny rape.

How I used it: This article led me to scholarly sources that more effectively contributed to my argument.

18. Branch, J. (2018, April 12). Another Former N.F.L. Cheerleader Files a Complaint. Retrieved from

Background: This article details the claims made by Kristan Ware, a former NFL cheerleader, of sexual harassment within the NFL.

How I used it: This article helped to provide a real world situation in which my argument applied.

19. The Enliven Project – Sarah Beaulieu. (n.d.). Retrieved from

Background: This website provided a graphic detailing rape statistics.

How I used it: This graphic was useful in analyzing the inaccuracy of rape statistics.

20. Marcotte, A. (2013, January 8). This Rape Infographic Is Going Viral. Too Bad It’s Wrong. Retrieved from

Background: This article analyzes the flaws in an infographic displaying rape data.

How I used it: I used this to contribute to my argument that rape statistics cannot be trusted, especially if different sources are combined to draw conclusions.

21. Matthews, D. (2013, January 7). The saddest graph you’ll see today. Retrieved from

Background: This article analyzes an infographic to state how rare false rape accusations are. It admits that the infographic is misleading, according to a more recent analysis by Amanda Marcotte.

How I used it: This source was used in an analysis by Amanda Marcotte, that I used in my paper.

22. Tolentino, J. (2017, June 14). Bill Cosby’s Defense and Its Twisted Argument About Consent. Retrieved from

Background: This is an article detailing the defense that Bill Cosby is using to deny rape charges brought against him.

How I used it: I used this as a real world example of why imprecise language to describe rape is harmful.

23. The Latest: Cosby jury ends Day 1 without a verdict. (2018, April 25). Retrieved from

Background: This article details the ongoing retrial of Bill Cosby in regards to his alleged sexual assault of Andrea Constand.

How I used it: The article states that the judge was asked for the legal definition of consent but was unable to answer. This contributes to my point that no one has an answer.

24. NCVS 1 [survey]. (n.d.). Retrieved from

Background: This is a survey conducted by the BJS seeking to gather statistics about unreported victimizations.

How I used it: I used this survey to explain how definitions vary simply based on wording.

25. New DOJ Data On Sexual Assaults: Students Are Less Likely To Be Raped. (2014, December 11). Retrieved from

Background: This article reports data found in a new study by the Department of Justice regarding whether students or non-students are more likely to be victimized.  

How I used it: I used this article to question the accuracy of its claim that non-students are more likely to be raped than students.

26. Rape statistics. (2018, April 3). Retrieved from

Background: This is an article by Wikipedia detailing rape statistics from around the world.

How I used it: This source pointed me to a number of other valuable sources of information and also contributed to my understanding of the disparity in rape statistics.

27. NISVS Summary Reports|National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey|Funded Programs|Violence Prevention|Injury Center|CDC. (2017, September 25). Retrieved from

Background: This is a state report summarizing rape data gathered from a survey conducted by the CDC.

How I used it: I used this to explain what percentage of women are raped according to the CDC.

Annotated Bibliography-DoubleA

Source 1: NFL panel finds some knee, ankle injuries more common on turf. (n.d.). Retrieved from

Background: This article talks about the increase specifically in ACL injuries on Fieldturf surfaces. The article started off by saying that in an annual study conducted by the NFL that knee injuries on Fieldturf surfaces increased the rate of knee injuries by 88 percent. The study was conducted in the 2003-2008 seasons.

How I Used It: I used the statistics from the 2003-2008 seasons to talk about the increase Fieldturf fields had on the number of knee injuries.

Source 2: Turf Battle in the NFL: Natural vs. Artificial. (2017, March 11). Retrieved from

Background: The article talks about the struggle of running a fantasy team with all the injuries that occur now a days on turf fields. It also names multiple key players that got hurt in the preseason due to turf fields.

How I Used It: I used this in my writing by talking about my own struggles in fantasy football from injuries. Every year big name players go down early in the season and it messes up owners entire seasons.

Source 3: Todd Neale Todd Neale. (2010, March 15). AAOS: Artificial Turf Injuries Still More Likely in NFL. Retrieved from

Background: The article once again brings up the number that the articles brought up. I can continue to use the number of 88% more likely to get a knee injury on turf fields a lot.

How I Used It: This article also mentioned the 88% increase stat so I used both this and the first source in my writing almost to back each other up.

Source 4: BANSCH, J. (1993, Oct 17). Knee injuries call for abolishment of artificial turf fields. Indianapolis Star Retrieved from

Background: This article describes the moments in a game between the Eagles and the Colts where 3 separate season ending knee injuries occurred all on turf. The article quotes a trainer Otho Davis, a physical trainer for the Philadelphia Eagles. It quotes him saying that he normally does not take sides between turf and grass fields but this season has been something else to him.

How I Used It: I used this article to describe how bad turf can impact the season of a team. Also, the quote from the trainer was useful because it brought a first hand source who sees these injuries daily into my writing.

Source 5: NRG Stadium’s Playing Surface An ‘Abomination’. (2014, September 09). Retrieved from

Background: This article talks about the grass turf on Reliant Field home of the Houston Texans. The article talks about the square panels that the field uses for play. These panels are set up and when you get a cleat stuck in the side of a panel it can bend your knee the wrong way. This is what happened in Jadeveon Clowney’s first game where he planted in one of the seams and bent his knee the wrong way. According to his teammate Swearinger he also believes this is a problem because there has been a big injury bug around the Texans and knee injuries for years.

How I Used It: I can use the quotes from this article in a useful way in my writing. These players are playing on these fields every game so if one field is like this it may be the case for others. I used the quotes from players to decline the image of the artificial fields of play.

Source 6: Is an ACL tear more common on artificial turf or grass? (2018, March 03). Retrieved from

Background: This article talks about a question Dr. David Geieir was brought. It was brought to him because a kid had 3 injuries on his football team all on turf fields away games. . When answering the question Dr. said that the best results were from this study made from NFL teams from 2000-2009 where the results showed that there was not an increase in MCL injuries on turf but there was a 22% increase in knee sprains altogether and a 67% higher chance of getting an ACL sprain on turf than grass.

How I Used It: I used the study Dr. Geieir brought up to bring up more statistics in my writing. I mentioned the “67% higher chance of getting an ACL on turf than grass” statistic in my writing.

Source 7: Hershman, E. B., Anderson, R., Bergfeld, J. A., Bradley, J. P., Coughlin, M. J., Johnson, R. J., . . . Tucker, A. (2012, 09). An Analysis of Specific Lower Extremity Injury Rates on Grass and FieldTurf Playing Surfaces in National Football League Games. The American Journal of Sports Medicine, 40(10), 2200-2205. doi:10.1177/0363546512458888 

Background: This article is the results that Dr. G used in his answer to his blogger. The results are the same as stated above but it tells us what stats they used to find this data. The article says that they literally used every game from 2000-2009 seasons and made a graph and analyzed the data to find the results. The results were from 2680 games which is 5360 team games played so it is without a doubt a lot of data.

How I Used It: I used the statistics multiple times because there was a lot of games played throughout that time so there was a long period of important collective data.

Source 8: Iacovelli, J. N., Yang, J., Thomas, G., Wu, H., Schiltz, T., & Foster, D. T. (2013, August 01). The effect of field condition and shoe type on lower extremity injuries in American Football. Retrieved from

Background: This article talked about a 130 game span where they analyzed the lower extremity injuries. In this time the data was found that there was an increase in lower extremity injuries on turf but not during practice.

How I Used It: I would use this in my arguments by saying and proving that in game play there is an increase in lower extremity injuries and game play is where there is more injuries and higher intensity contact.

Source 9: 6 – Risk of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury as a Function of Type of Playing Surface. (n.d.). Retrieved from

Background: This article states how there is indeed an increase in the number of lower extremity injuries on the football field due to the playing surface. The article states a lot of causes though like surface hardness, rotational stiffness, and release torque. These physical characteristics may interact with other environmental factors such as cleat design, surface moisture levels, and ambient temperature. Altogether, these causes are what causes these  player to twist/turn their knees on the turf. It describes how the strongest evidence in field turf play injuries comes from football because of the size of players and level of play.

How I Used It: I plan on using this article to bring up the argument in my rebuttal argument that people may have problems with the fact that my evidence is from 2009. Also, this article brings up a lot of information on torque and the movement of players which causes the turf injuries.

Source 10:

A Review of Synthetic Playing Surfaces, the Shoe-Surface Interface, and Lower Extremity Injuries in Athletes. (n.d.). Retrieved from

Background: This article talks about how the versatility and durability of artificial playing fields but, are they really that safe. It states that research over time has shown an increase in injury on artificial playing surfaces and that biomechanical data suggests that both the torque and strain experienced by lower extremity joints generated by artificial surfaces may be more than those generated by natural grass fields.

How I Used It: This article is more of a recent article too and I also used this article to refute some points in my rebuttal argument. I used it to bring up the biochemical data that it describes in the article about torque to back up my other source.