Bibliography – PaulaJean

1. Bartlett, T. (2013, January 30). Power of Suggestion. Retrieved April 18, 2018, from

Background: This article discusses power of suggestion and how it relates to the way people act after hearing certain things. It focuses on a certain study demonstrated to have people actually walk at a different pace due to words that they unscrambled.

How I Used It: I used this article for background information to form my own opinion and to use it as evidence within my research position paper. It really helped me prove my point on unconscious forces and how things that are said around you can effect your performance and actions. I learned that after hearing or seeing a word, somebody’s actions can literally changed without them knowing based on the subconscious focus on what was heard.

2. Expectancy Bias. Retrieved April 18, 2018, from Bias

Background: This article explains what expectancy bias is and certain examples of it. There is a research study and other facts about the concept.

How I Used It: Although brief, this source gave me a lot of background information to shape my thesis and research around. I learned that expectancy bias is a form of reactivity in which a researcher’s cognitive bias causes them to subconsciously influence the participants of an experiment.

3. Spencer, S. J., Steele, C. M., & Quinn, D. M. (1999). Stereotype Threat and Women’s Math Performance. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 35(1), 4-28. doi:10.1006/jesp.1998.1373

Background: This article was about study where the experimenters tried to see if prior studies where women underperform on difficult tests but do fine on others occurred with the “highly selected” students that were chosen for this study. They conducted two experiments and concluded that stereotype threats really do effect the way women perform on difficult math tests.

How I Used It: I incorporated evidence from this article into my final research paper. I described the study and the results to further prove my point about stereotype threats. This study was really carefully designed to show that women are just as smart, but they are overwhelmed by the stereotype threat that surrounds them in math and science tests. The fact that it was so meticulously created shows a great amount of validity in the source.

4. Why Stereotype Threat Keeps Girls Out of Math and Science, and What to Do About It. (2011, June 01). Retrieved April 18, 2018, from

Background: This article delves in deeper into stereotype threat and Josh Aronson’s study. Usually before taking an AP test, a proctor will ask the students to confirm their gender. (Presumably on the answer sheet with all of the other information.) Aronson wanted to see what would happen if they had the students do this after the test instead of before. When asked before, females had a lower average than the males. When asked after the test, the females actually had a higher average.

How I Used It: I used to article to provide more evidence about stereotype threats. I described the study and results. I also used this article to increase my knowledge on the concept before writing my paper.

5. Vedantam, S. (2012, July 12). How Stereotypes Can Drive Women To Quit Science. Retrieved from -jobs

Background: This article speaks to stereotype threat and women in science professions. Two experimenters, Toni Schmader and Matthias Mehl, put recording devices on male and female science professors. They figured this could show why and how women feel compelled to leave the field. They found that when women talked to women about work/life/etc., they were very engaged. When women talked to men about work, they were very disengaged. They were engaged, though, when talking to men about things that do not have to do with work or research. Mehl believes that the way to fix this is have more women in the field.

How I Used It: I used this article within my essay to show something other than math. Women are also “attacked” at work with these threats by the men around them. Using it really shows just how much women are in danger of the stereotype threat.

6. Reducing Stereotype Threat. (n.d.). Retrieved from

Background: This article presents ideas on how to stop stereotype threat in the classroom. The author discusses different things to establish with students for teachers. Implementing a growth mindset, motivating feedback, and a sense of belonging will help reduce the threats from different stereotypes.

How I Used It: I believe that stereotype threat is a huge issue so including ways to prevent it is very important to me. This article gave me specific ways to stop the threats to include in my research paper and get the word out.

7. Rydell, R. J., Shiffrin, R. M., Boucher, K. L., Loo, K. V., & Rydell, M. T. (2010, August 10). Stereotype threat prevents perceptual learning. Retrieved from

Background: This article includes a study on how stereotype threat does not only effect performance, but the ability to learn in general.

Annotated Bibliography- Myrtle View

  1. Blake, J. (2016, March 31). It’s time to talk about ‘black privilege’. Retrieved from                  Background: This article explains what black privilege is and how it effects white people.

How it is used: I used this in my rebuttal piece as a counter argument.

  1. Music, C. O. (2017, September 22). Report: Black Women Are Responsible for Everything Cool. Retrieved from

Background: This article explains how black women set the trend for many of the worlds fashion trends.

How it is used: I used this in my definition argument to explain how black women a source of inspiration but receive no respect from the world.

  1. Brown, T., & Kopano, B. (2015). Soul thieves : the appropriation and misrepresentation of african american popular culture. Retrieved from

Background: A book that explains how black people are misrepresented and are victims of cultural appropriation towards white people. It also mentions the effects of this misrepresentation.

How it is used: I used this in my definition argument to explain how cultural appropriation effects the black community.

  1. Hunter, M. L. (2005). Race, gender, and the politics of skin tone. Retrieved from

Background: An academic book about how the race, gender, and skin tone determines the opportunities that are received and how the world will judge the community.

How it is used: I used this in my definition argument to show how the black community are not provided fairly the same opportunities of white people because of the way they present themselves.

  1. Smith, Jessie Carney, et al. The Complete Encyclopedia of African American History, Visible Ink Press, 2015. ProQuest Ebook Central,

Background: This academic resource is about the history of African Americans from slavery to present day. It also discusses the accomplishment the black community has made and the obstacles that they still face today.

How it was used: I used this in my definition argument and causal argument to explain how far the black community has come and that it is still strive for the betterment of people.

  1. Ford, Tanisha C. Liberated Threads: Black Women, Style, and the Global Politics of Soul. University of North Carolina Press, 2015. JSTOR,

Background: This academic source is about how black women present themselves through fashion and the repercussions they receive from society.

How it was used: This academic source was used in my causal argument to explain how black fashion should not be appropriated.

  1. James, D. (2017, December 07). An Illustrative Identity of Fashion and Style Throughout African-American History and Movements. Retrieved from

Background: This article is about the many contributions to fashion the black community has offered throughout time.

How it was used: I used this article as evidence in my definition and causal argument.

  1. Bubman, M. (2017, February 22). The Double Standards of Cultural Appropriation. Retrieved from

Background: This article is about how wearing black fashion and black hairstyles effects people differently within society based on race.

How it was used: I used this article in my causal argument to demonstrate the difference in treatment black women face as opposed to white women.

  1. Dicker, R. (2017, September 08). Black Culture Appropriation Meets Its Match On ‘The Daily Show’. Retrieved from

Background: This article is about cultural appropriation that was addressed on “The Daily Show” and how this issue is widely known and controversial.

How it was used: I used this in my causal and definition argument as evidence to my claim.

  1. Blay, Z. (2015, August 04). It’s A Slap In The Face When White Women Wear Black Hairstyles. Retrieved from

Background: This article how and why it is disrespectful for white women to style their hair using black hairstyles.

How it was used: I used this as an example in my causal argument to explain what happens when white women wear box braids as opposed to when black women wear box braids.

  1. Rockett, D. (2018, April 23). ‘How to Slay’: Black fashion has made its mark on world culture. Retrieved from

Background: This article is about how black culture continues to inspire the world around them

How it was used: I used this reference in my refutation to show how positive an influence black fashion is on the world on an international level.

Bibliography- Lbirch

1. Brooke, C. (2011, November 08). Fire services on alert after smoke detector is blamed for causing TWO blazes. Retrieved April 05, 2018, from

Background: This article published by Daily Mail provides two cases in the United Kingdom where the smoke detectors actually caught fire. Fire investigators on the case say they are on the side of caution because of these incidents and are taking the situation very seriously. These detectors were installed professionally by fire services for a fire prevention safety campaign.

How I Used It: I used this article to show that there are cases of faulty detectors that do have the potential to start a fire and can cause harm. This also provides an example of an incident where smoke detectors do the complete opposite of what they are made to do. Even if detectors are professionally installed and are picked by fire services because of reliability they still have the risk of a fire.

2. Reports and statistics about smoke alarms. (n.d.). Retrieved April 18, 2018, from National Fire Protection Agency,

Background: This report focuses on the statistics of fatalities in fires and their relation to smoke detectors. This report by the National Fire Protection Association states “smoke alarms were present in slightly less than three-quarters (73%) of reported home fires and operated in roughly half (53%).” It also states that about three out of five respondents of a survey still use battery operated smoke detectors. Lastly, a main piece of evidence that can be used is that a power-failure, shut-off or disconnect was the leading failure reason for failures of hardwired only smoke alarms (46%).

How I Used It: This source was used to show statistics of fire-related deaths in houses. I used the fact that a home with smoke detectors are safer than homes that do not have them.

3. Lee, A., & Lee, D. (2005, October). Considerations For Installation Of Smoke Alarms On Residential Branch Circuits. Retrieved February 13, 2018 from

Background: This report covers the facts of smoke detector in houses today, discussing there may be a problem with battery-only alarms because if one alarm detects smoke, only that one will sound. If there is a fire in a remote section of the house, the alarm may not be heard if you are far away from the alarm. One statement in this report shows that some fires start due to overheated wires in detectors from an overload on its current.

How I Used It: This was used by showing there can be some hazardous things in detectors we may not even think of. This can be the fact that with battery-operated detectors, only one detector will go off in an event of a fire while hard-wired fires all will activate. But one hazard a hard-wired detector may possess is the problem of overheated wires with can lead to electrical fires.

4. McGrath, E. (2017, July 11). What Causes Short Circuits?. Retrieved February 13, 2018 from

Background: Short circuits can be caused by faulty installation of wires. When one wire carrying a current touches another wire, heat, and fire can be made. This is from an overload of current which the wire may not be able to handle.

How I Used It: I used this to show how a short-circuit may cause a smoke detector to catch on fire. Wires may be faulty and can produce extreme heat. I used this to show a professional is needed to safely install smoke detector systems, and if this is not done, the home may be at risk.

5. Cambell, R. (2017, March). Electrical Fires. Retrieved February 3, 2018, from

Background: This report shows statistics about electrical fires in homes. Electrical fires may be the route of detector failures and fires because of the wiring involved. Fire departments responded to over 45,000 reported structure fires which involved electrical failure or malfunction from 2010-2014.  Wiring and related equipment accounted for the great majority of home fires and losses involving electrical distribution and lighting equipment, which was 69% of fires.

How I Used It: I used this to relate detectors to electrical fires, and how common they are. I also used this to show that failure to install wiring correctly will result in a harmful or deadly scenario.


Background: This article shows a time when a fire started in a house with no smoke detectors at all. The fire claimed the lives of four children, and if there were detectors in the house, the children may have been alerted and evacuated the house safely.

How I Used It: I used this to show how smoke detectors are a necessity and this shows a time they would have been very useful in a house. To use this to show why detectors are very important in homes.

7. Nichols, B. (2014, June 30). How 9-Volt Batteries Can be a Home Hazard. Retrieved February 13, 2018 from 

Background: This article written by Fire Protection Team gives is information about 9-volt batteries and how they can cause a fire. 9-volt batteries are used in detectors, but also as backups in hard-wired detectors. If a metal object, which can be as simple as a pen or paper clip touches a post of the battery, it may short the battery causing heat or fire. There have been fires due to batteries reported across the country and cause a concern to many.

How I Used It: I used this article by showing batteries also have a role in detectors and the possibility they can start fires also. I also used this to show how easy it would be to short a battery, causing extensive heat and creates the potential to start a fire.

8. BU-304a: Safety Concerns with Li-ion. (2018, January 4). Retrieved February 27, 2018, from 

Background: This article is written to inform the readers about the possible safety concerns of lithium-Ion batteries. These lithium-ion batteries may cause harm to your home, and even possibly yourself in used incorrectly or installed improperly.

How I Used It: I used this article because lithium-ion batteries are used in smoke detectors, and I show this can be another possible way a smoke detector can cause a fire. these batteries can start a fire in other appliances or devices, they could start a fire in smoke detectors also.

9. Common Causes of Electrical Fires. (2012, December). Retrieved February 27, 2018, from

Background: This article is about how electrical fire can start. They can start from physically damaged wires, overloaded circuits, high temperatures, and from other improper uses.

How I Used It: I use this to show how many ways electrical fires can start and relate back to detectors. If a detector is not installed correctly or not installed by a professional, all of these things have a high chance of happening.

10. Home Electrical Fires. (2015, February 4). Retrieved February 27, 2018, from

Background: ESFI gives us statistics about home electrical fires and gives the reader electrical and fire safety tips.

How I Used It: I use this by stating the fact about electrical distribution equipment is the third leading cause of house fires, accounting for 51,000 fires and nearly 500 deaths. I use this to show how harmful faulty electrical equipment may be.

11. Lee, A. (2002, June 28). Preliminary Test Results on Lithium Batteries Used In Resident Smoke Alarms. Retrieved February 27, 2018, from

Background: This publification gives the reader background on tests done on households with lithium-battries smoke alarms. The things found in these tests show that many households did not have working smoke detectors at all, including some households that had them with no batteries inside.

How I Used It: I used this to show how deadly a home can be if no detectors are inside a house at all. When there are no smoke detectors inside a home, the risk of death from smoke inhalation increases dramatically.



1.Beresin, E. (2017, February 27). The College Mental Health Crisis: Focus on Suicide.

Background: The article gives very alarming and strong facts to support my argument. A credible author, Dr. Beresin published it. He highlights the details of the increase in mental illness on college campuses. Also, he offers some ideas for trying to counteract the issue and reduce the number of lives lost.

How I used it: I used this article to strengthen my paper by giving facts statistically. Upon reading, I got to relate to some of his ideas of increasing access to medical health services. I also got to learn more about the ways we can counteract the stigma that is causing many students to go undiagnosed.

2. Bowen, S. (03/2014). Relationship between dispositional mindfulness and substance use: Findings from a clinical sampleElsevier.10.1016/j.addbeh.2013.10.026

Background: This article discusses the abuse of substances when trying to cope. The article experiments to try to see if mindfulness has any effect on changing improving the conditions of addictive tendencies.

How I Used It: I used this to explain how mindfulness is an alternate method that has mixed results. The students should try it out with as
a way to clear their minds and lower stress.

3. Brown, J. (n.d.). A Growing Number of College Students are Seeking Help for Anxiety, Depression, Stress, and Psychological Disorders | BU Today | Boston University.

Background: the article talks about the recent rising in students with mental health issues. It gives specific details what type of person is at risk. As well as, it provides a list of warning signs of students who may have a mental illness.

How I Used It: I used this article to compare with the warning sign of another piece. I also incorporated the use of people who are at a higher risk. I found this interesting because after searching for so long many did not have an answer or a specific reason.

4. Emily A. Pierceall & Marybelle C. Keim (2007) Stress and Coping Strategies Among Community College Students, Community College Journal of Research and Practice, 31:9, 703-712, DOI

Background: the article explains stress and what it is. It continues by describing how with college and life stress in a regular occurrence. Students were surveyed to determine their amount of stress, and how they view the impact, it has on them.

How I Used It: this article played along with the other with stress. I didn’t find anything specific that I didn’t use. I mostly used this one for supporting evidence.

5. Downs, M. F., Golberstein, E., Zivin, K., & Eisenberg, D. (n.d.). Stigma and Help Seeking for Mental Health Among College Students.

Background: It explains the main reasons why students are reluctant to get help. It explains that students don’t ask for help because of fear of being perceived differently by others.

How I used it: I used it to point out the reason why the counseling health services are not as efficient. This helped me come up with ideas to help bring down students stigma.

6. Hofmann, S. G., Sawyer, A. T., Witt, A. A., & Oh, D. (2010). The effect of mindfulness-based therapy on anxiety and depression: A meta-analytic review. Journal Of Consulting And Clinical Psychology, 78(2), 169-183. doi:10.1037/a0018555

Background: This explains how they tested the effect of meditation on anxiety and depression. They generally, the observed effect of the treatment. They concluded that although results aren’t considered effective, it does have a slight effect.

How I used it: I explained that this method should be used as an addition to what your medical professional recommends. I’m not ruling out people trying it because although results aren’t excellent, they have slight success.

7. Katz, D. (2013). Community college student mental health: A comparative analysis (Order No. 3572817). Available from ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global. (1434835907).

Background:  It mentions the occurrences how well as the different demographics between community college and traditional universities. Studies mentioned how they found that traditional university students were more likely to report being treated or diagnosed by a professional for anxiety and depression than community college students.

How I Used It: I used this article to explain how community college is not promoting mental services as much. Students at community colleges are being overlooked and under-diagnosed. Community colleges believe its okay because of the fact a small number of students live on campus, and the demographics are different.

8.Kitzrow, M. A. (2003). The Mental Health Needs of Todays College Students: Challenges and Recommendations. NASPA Journal, 41(1).


Background: the journal explains the struggles college students with mental needs go through. They have to deal with academics, social life, fitting in, and their disorders.

How I used it: I used this journal to give examples of these student’s struggles, and they know they deal with obstacles on a daily. I used t to try t persuade the university’s board of education to allow counseling service as a resource. They must help their students and accommodate them on their needs.

9. Moise, G. (2014). Good stress or bad stress? Relationships between stress appraisals and strains in healthcare practitioners (Order No. 3630437). Available from ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global. (1563382680).

Background:  The article covers stress as its main topic. It lets the reader know the definition of stress as well the two different types of stress as well as the effect on the person.

How I Used It: I wrote about the different types of stressors and explained them in detail. I wrote about what they contribute and how they affect someone. I did this so the reader can differentiate the difference between stress and something more serious.

10. Pedrelli, P., Nyer, M., Yeung, A. et al. Acad Psychiatry (2015) 39: 503.

Background: This widespread of mental illness is increasing rapidly. Hundreds of thousands of students are being left untreated. It goes to community college age groups are different they are typically older. Then it goes into substance use done by young adults in college.

How I Used It: I used this resource to explain how alcohol and drug abuse is high in college. This problem combined with rising mental illness is deadly. Students turn to this method of negative coping to deal with a problem.

11. Storrie, K., Ahern, K. and Tuckett, A. (2010), A systematic review: Students with mental health problems—A growing problem. International Journal of Nursing Practice, 16: 1-6.

Background: this journal gives insight into the college mental health epidemic as well as the challenges students face. It explains why students hesitate to get help.

How I Used It: I got to understand the in-depth what their stigma students have is. I got to understand characteristics that put people at risk as well as why certain people deal in certain ways.

12. Stressed or Depressed? Know the Difference. (2015, October 08). Retrieved from

Background: the article gave you information to distinguish normal stress and depression.

How I Used It:  I examined the compare and contrast list to see if I could determine the difference between stressed and depressed. This is important now since most of the signs are similar. Many of us think that they might be the same thing or is that depressed might be someone being sad when it’s much bigger than that.

Bibliography- Nreina34

  1. Adams, J. C., Belin, C., Toucas, B., Roberts, J., Brattberg, E., & Corre, P. L. (n.d.). Forget Criminals, Police Now Fear Activists and the Media.

Background:  This article published by The National Interest provides a case in Alabama where a man was pulled over by a police officer but instead of cooperating he decides to beat the officer as others join in and video the helpless man.  The officer didn’t fight back in fear of repercussions of the media and said, “I hesitated because I didn’t want to be in the media like I am right now. It’s hard times right now for us.”  


How I used it:  This article proved that the media has an affect on the mindset of a police officer now and is now altering decisions that can risk their life.  This is a perfect example of how unwanted prejudice leads to attacks against law enforcement, which is happening all around the country.


  1. Bejan, V., Hickman, M., Parkin, W. S., & Pozo, V. F. Primed for death: Law enforcement-citizen homicides, social media, and retaliatory violence.

Background:  PLOS ONE was a research studied designed to see if violence exists between the police and the public and see if it has a connection with social media.  They discovered ties between Black Lives Matter movements on the internet and how they were related to the amount of police officers and minorities killed in a certain time district.  


How I used it:  I used this article to prove that social media does have an influence on the livelihood of police officers and even the public too.  This research directly backs up thesis in regards to how the media is the fuel to the fire.


  1. Carlson, D. (2017, June 22). Exclusionary Rule.

Background:  This article which was published by the Cornell Law School is just a basic overview of the law and everything that it entails.  The exclusionary rule doesn’t let the government use evidence that is obtained during an unreasonable search, which violates your 4th amendment.  Supreme Court case Mapp v. Ohio was the cause for the exclusionary rule and took place in 1961.

How I used it:  This article was used to support my rebuttal argument that police officers are not allowed to make mistakes.  The exclusionary rule backs police officers on the mistakes they make and protects both them and the public.

  1. Gramlich, J., & Parker, K. (2017, January 25). Most officers say the media treat police unfairly.

Background:  Pew Research Center ran surveys in 2016 to get the opinion of police officers on how they feel the media treats the police.  The results were shocking, with 81% of them saying the media treats them unfairly, and half of that saying they strongly agree.  Also, this survey also showed that about 50% of police officers feel that the public doesn’t understand the risks and hardships they go through and could be another potential reason for their tarnished image.


How I used it: This research backs up the theory that media is influencing law enforcement and all of it is undeserved.  Society believes that the news headlines that ridicule police officers do not alter them, but how would you feel if you had to be the “bad guy” all the time when you’re just trying to do your job?  


  1. Gwendolyn Waters. Social Media and Law Enforcement. (2012, November 01)

Background:  The impact social media has on law enforcement has made the interactions between them erratic.  A big example is how the police are affected by the attacks on their credibility. Social media gives information to irrelevant people which is how things get escalated, and at the same time police officers are verbally attacked on social media at all times.  In addition, the rise of “questionable” videos online poses a threat to departments and is called cop baiting. By doing this, it makes police officers second guess their decisions which can end up hurting themself.


How I used it: This proves that there are people out there on social media that want to expose police officers for their every move.  Cop baiting is a serious epidemic among our country and is


  1. Keller, Jared. (2016, December 01). Why Are Ambush Killings of Police on the Rise?

Background:  There is a sudden increase in police ambush killing and it is starting to concern a lot of people, especially police officers.  This releases a mid-year report from the National Law Enforcement Officer Memorial Fund which keeps track of officer deaths. The numbers shocked people to see how much the number have increased in just a year.  

How I used it:  Ambush killings are definitely not something someone should take lightly and they are creating a major issue for policemen.  This article goes to show that law enforcement is receiving direct hatred and how much of a major threat to policing this is.


  1. Libaw, O. Y. (n.d.). Police Face Severe Shortage of Recruits.

Background:  Some cities around the country are seeing drops in applicants with rates up to 90 percent and it is a problem within the law enforcement industry.  This article recalls some possible reasons as to why people are not as attracted to the job anymore and gives multiple examples around the country where applicant numbers are dropping.

How I used it:  I utilized this article because I felt that it showed that since the police are starting to have more of a tarnished image, people are not wanting to be cops anymore.  The media can be blamed a reason for the low amount of police applicants around the country.


  1. McLaughlin, E. C. (2015, April 21). There aren’t more police shootings, just more coverage.

Background:  I decided to utilize this article to show an opposing side to this argument.  This article published by CNN preaches upon that their haven’t been more “controversial” police incidents, there has just been more media coverage on them giving them more exposure.  A big part to this more exposure is cell phones because it gives eye witnesses the ability to record everything that goes on.


How I used it: This could prove that this type of behavior from law enforcement can be a recurring thing dating back way farther to Eric Garner and Ferguson, Missouri.  Maybe more exposure to these incidents will educate the public about what is really going on in our police departments around the country. Starting to make police officers question if things are a set up sometimes, it’s really sad.  Social media makes police officers the biggest public figures it also comes along with the fact that the barrier between their professional and personal is no longer existent.


  1. Rieder, R. (2013, July 15).Column: Media got Zimmerman story wrong from start.

Background:  This article posted by USA TODAY  recalls an instance during the time when the George Zimmerman and Trayvon Martin case was buzzing everywhere.  This instance involved NBC News and how they edited Zimmerman’s comments on television to make them sound racist.

How I used it:  I used this article to prove that major news outlets, such as NBC News, skews information on television.  They do this to create more publicity and make the story explode because that is what they do, they are the news.


  1. Utah State University. Retaliatory violence between police and citizens is primed by social media. (January 11, 2018.)

Background:  This was another article regarding the research study PLOS ONE because it was so vital to my research essay.  This study proved that when there were deaths with minorities there were also deaths with officers, which ties the both of them together meaning retaliatory actions took place.

How I used it:   This study helped persuade my readers that social media negatively impacts the violence in the streets against police officers and the public.  If this is not put to a stop then violence will just continue and that is no way to live.


  1.  Vandita. The Real Reasons Nobody Wants To Be A Police Officer In America

Background:  The main point of this article is that numbers in the police force have been declining rapidly around the country.  Entrance exam numbers have gone down tremendously, for example in Fairfax County, Virginia, there were 4,000 applicants for their exam in 2011, but now will only catch the eye of 300.  


How I used it:  There must be a major cause to this 90% drop of applicants and people are now looking to the media to be that influence.  Ultimately, this is proving that not only does the media affect day to day officers, it is trickling down into the young minds making them not want to pursue their dreams anymore in law enforcement.



Annotated Bibliography- AmongOthers13

1) Carter, C. J. (2013, May 19). Why Aren’t Low-Income Students Succeeding in School? Retrieved from
Background: Many low income first-generation college students are reading and doing math at a seventh or eighth grade level and are admitted into college. Annually, as many as 1.7 million first-year students entering both two- and four-year colleges have to take remedial courses to learn the skills they need to enroll in a college-level course.Academic challenges they face are due to the past education they have received. Lack of exposure to books, language barriers, lack of stability, lack of role models, and first generation are all aspects of their struggles put on them from early on in education.
How I Used It: I used it to show that the problem does not end after high school. The effects get worse as we get older. These are the reasons why these children sometimes do not excel in school.
2) How Does Poverty Affect Education? | LSU Online. (2017, April 10). Retrieved from
Background: Poverty puts a toll on a child’s physical readiness, social-emotional readiness, and cognitive readiness. When a child is raised in a low-income home, they are often left alone to fend for themselves while their parents work multiple jobs. They can only provide fast, easy food to make for themselves, which is usually junk food. This leads to unresolved health conditions, which cause major problems in the future. What a child endures at home could be so distracting that they can not pay attention in school, leading to poor performance and an emotional cut-off from everybody in the classroom and the school. If a child does not understand what is in the text book, they feel foolish and silly and do not ask questions. They would rather act up than to be embarrassed in front of the whole class for something they don’t know.
How I Used It: Growing up in a low-income area has a major impact on the children living there. The schools are not good enough to have quality learning and teaching. These children suffer in many ways each and every day. These factors listed are all detrimental to a child’s life, well-being, and to their success.
3) Isaacs, J. B., & Magnuson, K. A. (2016, July 29). Income and Education as Predictors of Children’s School Readiness. Retrieved from

Background: Studies have shown huge gaps when testing school readiness in young children due to income of their families and also material education. Most children from a poor, low-income family perform poorer than those from a high-income family. A test is being conducted to test how children perform and why- what causes the poor performance>

How I Used It:  This article shows how income plays a huge role in the success of young children, as it is the deciding factor for their success. It explores the idea of parent’s education and family income and how they come into play when it comes to children’s education.


4) Poverty and Education. (n.d.). Retrieved from

Background : The lack of education could lead to a lifetime full of struggles, hardships, and difficulties. It is hard for children to accomplish more things when they lack a full education. A program called ChildFund India raises money for children’s needs for schooling. In most areas where ChildFund is, schooling itself is free, but the uniforms, books, buses, are often too expensive for families to pay.

How I Used It: The significance of a good education and what it can do for children in the long run. Without a quality education, children are steered onto the wrong path, and it is hard to get out of.

5) Reardon, S. F. (2017, July 24). The widening academic achievement gap between the rich and the poor: New evidence and possible explanations. Retrieved from

Background: Discusses family socioeconomic characteristics and the difference in academic success over the last 50 years. Income achievement gap is the “Average achievement difference between a child from a family at the 90th percentile of the family income distribution and a child from a family at the 10th percentile”. It is now double the black-white gap, a gap that used to be one and a half to two times larger than the income achievement gap.

How I Used It: The relationship between income and achievement has grown tremendously and income is now a deciding factor for children’s success.


6) Richmond, E. (2015, June 08). How Ineffective Government Funding Can Hurt Poor Students. Retrieved from
Background: Fourteen states are currently spending less money on public school funding to poor areas and communities. The states are forcing schools to make do with the bare minimum for their students, as well as give no extra money to support funding in classrooms. Public school funding remains unfair and unequal for the 11 million poor students in the U.S
How I Used It: Property tax to support public school funding is tearing down the fundamentals of education. Students are left with little to nothing in schools and acquire not all of the necessary materials. They are forced to make do with what they have. These children are simply not receiving a quality education that will help them today, and in the future.
7) Schaeffer, U. (n.d.). Knowledge is power: Why education matters | DW | 03.05.2012. Retrieved from
Background: No other resource will ever be able to live up to the benefits of education. Education empowers students and gives them the confidence to participate in society. All human beings should have direct access to an education, but in 2009 only 89% of children attended school, and the process has slowed down since then. In many poor communities, every 4 out of 10 students stop going to school before they reach elementary school. Children in rural areas have a less chances to be educated.
How I Used It: In my opening paragraph I used quotes to show the importance of education so that my reader was thinking about how much they have grown from education, and then introduced the fact that low-income students are struggling in poor conditions in schools. I was hoping to hit their emotions with this one.
8) Skinner, K. (2015, April 13). How does underfunding actually affect schools? Four questions with Greene County Superintendent Richard Fleming. Retrieved from
Background: Richard Fleming, the Superintendent of a school in Mississippi, states that his school has barely enough materials to get by. His program has been underfunded for years, he claims. He has had to cut positions that he really needed to have in his schools. His schools is in survival mode, and is in “nuts and bolts”, about to fall apart. They cannot offer extra-curricular activities or clubs to children. The textbooks are old and falling apart, always behind in technology, buildings from the 1930’s.
How I Used It: Money is essential to give students a quality education. When the spending is unequal for different schools, it creates diverse problems between the students and their success is impacted negatively.
9)  Taboh, J. (2017, August 27). Lack Of Materials Hinders Student Success. Retrieved from
Background: We cannot obtain a quality education if it is not offered to us. Schools lack funding, which in turn creates a lack of materials. The ability to give proper materials to students is a recurring problem. There is not enough collection of data to tell schools what they need and what they are doing okay with. There is a deficiency of staff, which results in an inadequate number of supplies
How I Used It: Without the right materials, children have difficulty learning and understanding to their fullest extent. Children are suffering in schools because they are not funded enough in order for them to be successful.
10) Zhao, E. (2012, February 14). Dropout Rates For Minority And Poor Students Disproportionately High. Retrieved from
Background: As badly as administrators yearn for the minorities and poor students to graduate, a large number of them dropout. Someone who drops out of high school will make about $630,000 less than someone who got their high school diploma. High school dropouts are not able to work in 90% of America’s jobs. In October of 2009, 3 million 16-24 year-olds were not enrolled in high school and did not have their GED. Minority students dropped out at extremely higher rates than their White classmates in 2009, when 4.8 percent of of blacks and 5.8 percent of Hispanics between 15 and 24 dropped out of grades 10-12, compared with 2.4 percent for white students. Low-income dropouts was 5 times greater than high-income students- comparing 7.4 percent to 1.4 percent.
How I Used It: I used these facts to show how dramatic the difference in dropout rates are between low-income and minorities than high-income and white students. These students do not dropout because school is hard, they dropout simply because they are in low-funded schools with not enough materials or teachers to supply their learning. They decide to dropout and get a job to start supporting themselves, since they have given up on school due to their conditions.

Bibliography – picklerick

  1. Amanda Christy Brown and Katherine Schulten. (2012, December 13). Fiction or Nonfiction? Considering the Common Core’s Emphasis on Informational Text. Retrieved March 02, 2018.

Background: This article debates whether or not the new version of the Common Core Standards is beneficial in its emphasis on informational text. It relays the opinions of teachers and journalists about what students should be reading.

How I used it: This article helped me realize that both fiction and nonfiction literature are important in the classroom. It also taught me how the Common Core Standards are always changing.

  1. Bartlett, B. (2014, June 20). 4 Bad Side Effects of Reading Fiction According to the 19th Century. Retrieved March 02, 2018.

Background: This article discusses how reading for fun isn’t quite as beneficial as reading to gain knowledge. It goes over four “bad side effects” of reading fiction.

How I used it: Although I do not agree that these side effects will happen to anyone who reads fiction, the article did give me some good points toward what happens when you skim text and don’t get the full benefits out of it. It helped me in my paragraph where I compare books to film.

  1. Dakin, C. (2013). The Effects of Comprehension Through Close Reading (Unpublished masters thesis). St. John Fisher College.

Background: This dissertation discusses, in depth, the effect close reading has on students’ levels of comprehension. It provides studies and interviews that compare how teaching close reading differs from general reading education.

How I used it: This paper helped me realize how important close reading is in the classroom. I used the quote from Caitlin Dakin, “It is essential in today’s educational world that teachers begin to transform their classroom instruction of fiction literature into short informational complex texts to give the students the opportunity to meet the demands of the common core learning standards.”

  1. Goodwin, B., & Miller, K. (n.d.). Research Says / Nonfiction Reading Promotes Student Success. Retrieved April 17, 2018.

Background: This article gives statistics that show how children, on average, spend less that four minutes a day reading nonfiction. It discusses the new emphasis on nonfiction in the Common Core Standards. It also gives advice on how teaching should change to meet these standards.

How I used it: This article gave me solid examples to how the change in the  Common Core Standards will affect teaching in the future. It also helped show me that informational texts are as important for student success as narrative texts.

  1. Is fiction good for you? How researchers are trying to find out. (2016, July 19). Retrieved April 17, 2018.

Background: This article challenges the idea that reading fiction encourages empathy. It ultimately proves that fiction does, indeed, improve empathy.

How I used it: I used this article to help strengthen my argument that books are just another form of media. It says books are merely “a piece of consciousness being passed from mind to mind” which made sense to me.

  1. Matthews, C. E., Chen, K. Y., Freedson, P. S., Buchowski, M. S., Beech, B. M., Pate, R. R., & Troiano, R. P. (2008). Amount of Time Spent in Sedentary Behaviors in the United States, 2003-2004. American Journal of Epidemiology, 167(7), 875-881.

Background: This study reveals how much time people really spend doing sedentary behaviors on a day to day basis. It gives statistics from the 2003-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey which show that people spend an average of 7.7 hours each day doing sedentary behaviors.

How I used it: I used statistics from this article to prove my argument that there is a growing problem of adults staying sedentary for too long.

  1. Owen, N., Healy, G. N., Matthews, C. E., & Dunstan, D. W. (2010). Too Much Sitting. Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews,38(3), 105-113.

Background: This article discusses how being sedentary for to long is bad for metabolic heath. It points out the difference between too much sitting and too little exercise.How I used it: I used this information to explain why activities like watching TV or readig books should be done in moderation in order to maximize metabolic health.

  1. Pennington Publishing Blog. (n.d.). Why Sustained Silent Reading (SSR) Doesn’t Work. Retrieved March 17, 2018.

Background: This article points to why SSR is not a good use of class time and how there are better, and more effective ways to get kids to benefit from reading.

How I used it: I used the quote from Mark Pennington, “Students often choose books with reading levels far below or far above own their reading levels and so do not experience optimal reading growth.” to prove that when you give kids SSR they won’t make the most out of their class time.

  1. Shanahan. (2012, June 18). What is Close

Background: This blog explains what close reading is and what it is meant to help with. It points out how to close read in three main steps. It also discusses why the Common Core Standards have such an emphasis on close reading.

How I used it: I used this post to gain a wider knowledge on the subject of close reading. It informed me on how to practice close reading, as well as how teachers should teach it. This mainly improved my paragraph where I offer advice on how teachers should teach close reading to their students.

  1. Strauss, V. (2014, September 08). Why kids should choose their own books to read in school. Retrieved March 17, 2018.

Background: This article gives reasons why letting students choose their own books helps them start reading more often. It also gives reasons why SSR is not an effective method for getting students to read. SThese reasons include how SSR takes up too much time and how there’s a lack of appealing books available in the classroom.

How I used it: The information in this article showed me that Students should read what they want, but not in a SSR setting. The arguments against SSR were very useful to me as well as they increased my knowledge on the subject.