1. Brooke, C. (2011, November 08). Fire services on alert after smoke detector is blamed for causing TWO blazes. Retrieved April 05, 2018, from http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2058922/Firefighters-forced-stop-handing-smoke-alarms-catches-alight-nearly-burns-house.html
Background: This article published by Daily Mail provides two cases in the United Kingdom where the smoke detectors actually caught fire. Fire investigators on the case say they are on the side of caution because of these incidents and are taking the situation very seriously. These detectors were installed professionally by fire services for a fire prevention safety campaign.
How I Used It: I used this article to show that there are cases of faulty detectors that do have the potential to start a fire and can cause harm. This also provides an example of an incident where smoke detectors do the complete opposite of what they are made to do. Even if detectors are professionally installed and are picked by fire services because of reliability they still have the risk of a fire.
2. Reports and statistics about smoke alarms. (n.d.). Retrieved April 18, 2018, from National Fire Protection Agency, https://www.nfpa.org/Public-Education/By-topic/Smoke-alarms/Reports-and-statistics-about-smoke-alarms
Background: This report focuses on the statistics of fatalities in fires and their relation to smoke detectors. This report by the National Fire Protection Association states “smoke alarms were present in slightly less than three-quarters (73%) of reported home fires and operated in roughly half (53%).” It also states that about three out of five respondents of a survey still use battery operated smoke detectors. Lastly, a main piece of evidence that can be used is that a power-failure, shut-off or disconnect was the leading failure reason for failures of hardwired only smoke alarms (46%).
How I Used It: This source was used to show statistics of fire-related deaths in houses. I used the fact that a home with smoke detectors are safer than homes that do not have them.
3. Lee, A., & Lee, D. (2005, October). Considerations For Installation Of Smoke Alarms On Residential Branch Circuits. Retrieved February 13, 2018 from https://www.cpsc.gov/s3fs-public/acfismoke.pdf
Background: This report covers the facts of smoke detector in houses today, discussing there may be a problem with battery-only alarms because if one alarm detects smoke, only that one will sound. If there is a fire in a remote section of the house, the alarm may not be heard if you are far away from the alarm. One statement in this report shows that some fires start due to overheated wires in detectors from an overload on its current.
How I Used It: This was used by showing there can be some hazardous things in detectors we may not even think of. This can be the fact that with battery-operated detectors, only one detector will go off in an event of a fire while hard-wired fires all will activate. But one hazard a hard-wired detector may possess is the problem of overheated wires with can lead to electrical fires.
4. McGrath, E. (2017, July 11). What Causes Short Circuits?. Retrieved February 13, 2018 from https://www.thespruce.com/what-causes-short-circuits-4118973
Background: Short circuits can be caused by faulty installation of wires. When one wire carrying a current touches another wire, heat, and fire can be made. This is from an overload of current which the wire may not be able to handle.
How I Used It: I used this to show how a short-circuit may cause a smoke detector to catch on fire. Wires may be faulty and can produce extreme heat. I used this to show a professional is needed to safely install smoke detector systems, and if this is not done, the home may be at risk.
5. Cambell, R. (2017, March). Electrical Fires. Retrieved February 3, 2018, from https://www.nfpa.org/-/media/Files/News-and-Research/Fire-statistics/Major-Causes/osHomeElectricalFires.pdf
Background: This report shows statistics about electrical fires in homes. Electrical fires may be the route of detector failures and fires because of the wiring involved. Fire departments responded to over 45,000 reported structure fires which involved electrical failure or malfunction from 2010-2014. Wiring and related equipment accounted for the great majority of home fires and losses involving electrical distribution and lighting equipment, which was 69% of fires.
How I Used It: I used this to relate detectors to electrical fires, and how common they are. I also used this to show that failure to install wiring correctly will result in a harmful or deadly scenario.
6. Krasnow, B. S. w. (1995, October 29). FIRE STARTS DURING ANNUAL SMOKE DETECTOR WARNING OFFICIALS URGE PEOPLE TO CHECK BATTERIES WHILE CHANGING CLOCKS. Retrieved February 13, 2018 from https://search-proquest-com.ezproxy.rowan.edu/docview/394791605/abstract/4BF70D91880C41AFPQ/1?accountid=13605
Background: This article shows a time when a fire started in a house with no smoke detectors at all. The fire claimed the lives of four children, and if there were detectors in the house, the children may have been alerted and evacuated the house safely.
How I Used It: I used this to show how smoke detectors are a necessity and this shows a time they would have been very useful in a house. To use this to show why detectors are very important in homes.
7. Nichols, B. (2014, June 30). How 9-Volt Batteries Can be a Home Hazard. Retrieved February 13, 2018 from http://fireprotectiontesting.com/dangers-of-9-volt-batteries/
Background: This article written by Fire Protection Team gives is information about 9-volt batteries and how they can cause a fire. 9-volt batteries are used in detectors, but also as backups in hard-wired detectors. If a metal object, which can be as simple as a pen or paper clip touches a post of the battery, it may short the battery causing heat or fire. There have been fires due to batteries reported across the country and cause a concern to many.
How I Used It: I used this article by showing batteries also have a role in detectors and the possibility they can start fires also. I also used this to show how easy it would be to short a battery, causing extensive heat and creates the potential to start a fire.
8. BU-304a: Safety Concerns with Li-ion. (2018, January 4). Retrieved February 27, 2018, from http://batteryuniversity.com/learn/article/safety_concerns_with_li_ion
Background: This article is written to inform the readers about the possible safety concerns of lithium-Ion batteries. These lithium-ion batteries may cause harm to your home, and even possibly yourself in used incorrectly or installed improperly.
How I Used It: I used this article because lithium-ion batteries are used in smoke detectors, and I show this can be another possible way a smoke detector can cause a fire. these batteries can start a fire in other appliances or devices, they could start a fire in smoke detectors also.
9. Common Causes of Electrical Fires. (2012, December). Retrieved February 27, 2018, from http://cmrris.com/news-manufacturing-details/20/common-causes-of-electrical-fires.html
Background: This article is about how electrical fire can start. They can start from physically damaged wires, overloaded circuits, high temperatures, and from other improper uses.
How I Used It: I use this to show how many ways electrical fires can start and relate back to detectors. If a detector is not installed correctly or not installed by a professional, all of these things have a high chance of happening.
10. Home Electrical Fires. (2015, February 4). Retrieved February 27, 2018, from http://www.esfi.org/resource/home-electrical-fires-184
Background: ESFI gives us statistics about home electrical fires and gives the reader electrical and fire safety tips.
How I Used It: I use this by stating the fact about electrical distribution equipment is the third leading cause of house fires, accounting for 51,000 fires and nearly 500 deaths. I use this to show how harmful faulty electrical equipment may be.
11. Lee, A. (2002, June 28). Preliminary Test Results on Lithium Batteries Used In Resident Smoke Alarms. Retrieved February 27, 2018, from https://www.cpsc.gov/s3fs-public/lithiumfinal.PDF
Background: This publification gives the reader background on tests done on households with lithium-battries smoke alarms. The things found in these tests show that many households did not have working smoke detectors at all, including some households that had them with no batteries inside.
How I Used It: I used this to show how deadly a home can be if no detectors are inside a house at all. When there are no smoke detectors inside a home, the risk of death from smoke inhalation increases dramatically.