Rebuttal Argument – anonymous

Every patient diagnosed with Alzheimer’s has died or has been pronounced terminally ill, their life span post diagnosis is estimated between 8 to 10 years. Imagine knowing that eventually everything including family members, friends, and even a significant other will all be forgotten. Lost in the abyss that is the human mind, you lose all sense of self and to the outside world you are near equivalent to a zombie. Unable to communicate with anyone it is unknown if anything is still left of the person that once dwelled with-in the physical body that is still alive. While Alzheimer’s has no current cure that does not justify its victims to be abandoned and left for dead, there are many options to be explored in helping them from digressing further.

Definition Argument – anonymous

Alzheimer’s or AD is a type of dementia that causes problems with memory, thinking and behavior. While AD is now currently gaining more recognition in the medical field we often times we do not see underlying long-term effects AD has on families and society as a whole. By exposing these ugly truths we can gain some support from formerly unaware bystanders. It is not only the disease carrier who is affected by AD, it is the entire familie’s disease. More than 40% of family caregivers report that the emotional stress of their role is high or very high. Imagine the person who raised you from a baby, taught you everything you know, gave you more than anyone now unable to communicate or even feed themselves. That is the ugly truth that plagues more than 15 million Americans on a day to day basis. Alzheimers is a truly despicable disease that takes the very thing that makes us who we are and distorts it until theres nothing left, just a shell of who we once were.

This progressive and incurable disease, like most diseases, comes in varying stages ranging from one to seven in the medical world. During stage one, Alzheimer’s disease is not detectable and no memory problems or other symptoms of dementia are evident. Next comes stage two where the senior may notice minor memory problems or lose things around the house, although not to the point where the memory loss can easily be distinguished from normal age related memory loss. The person will still do well on memory tests and the disease is unlikely to be detected by physicians or loved ones. After that the friends and family members of the senior may begin to notice memory and cognitive problems. After further investigation and testing physicians will recognize a deficiency in memory skills and cognitive functions, and family members will be able to spot it right away. Some signs of this stage are delayed communications, having trouble remembering new acquaintances, and they may find it hard to plan/organize. Stage 4 is where the disease really begins to affect day to day tasks, things such as managing finances and keeping track of valuables become too difficult for them. In stage 5 they become significantly more dependent upon assistance from others, its at this stage that family members realize just how physically and emotionally draining the constant care is on everyone involved. The next two stages, stages 6 and 7, are the most debilitating of the seven stages where the victim basically becomes numb to the world unable to express the simplest emotion. Blank stares into nothing and not being able to control bowels are a few of the symptoms of the final stages of Alzheimer’s disease. At this point in the diseases progression the patient is nearing the end of their life, since the disease is terminal no one has ever survived the tenacity this disease possesses.

Since scientists and doctors have not found the exact cause of AD it is almost impossible to obtain a cure for it. Further research needs to be conducted to evaluate the cause, develop predictors to catch disease in its early stages, and find variables that may play an influential role in the pace the disease accelerates at. This is easier said than done the brain is the single most complicated organ in the human body, it controls everything from feeling the heat of a fire to storing memories from events that happened decades ago.The brain is the most complex organ in a vertebrate’s body. In a typical human, the cere-bral cortex (the largest part) is estimated to contain 15–33 billion neurons, each connected by synapses to several thousand other neurons. No one quite knows how information is encoded in the brain from cell to cell or even if information is encoded differently in different sections of the brain. What this means is we still have years and years of research before we get anywhere near close to finding a cure for this disease. It is not as simple as a vaccination and has nothing to do with bacteria or antibodies. To be truly proactive in reducing the impact the disease has on us we need to look for answers in the here and now, not 20 years from now. The mind is comparable to a tool, and just like any tool it can become dull or rusted, keeping our minds sharp is the quickest and most cost effective method of beating Alzheimer’s. This can be achieved by simple day to day things that some older people do not always keep up with. Simply having a conversation with someone can help keep your wits about you and as common as this may sound some older people do not have that luxury. Cooped up in their house all day or left in a nursing home to wither is the norm for a great number of our elders, they are not treated like the people they are anymore and instead are ignored and ridiculed. It is not clear where or when this mentality of complete apathy for our elders occurred but surely these are not the morals we wish to teach our children less we endure the same fate. There needs to be a government regulated clinic where people of a certain age can retreat if the means are not there for them in their current situation. A place where they can be cared for and talked to like the human beings they are, this would not only supply jobs to thousands of young adults but also create a better environment for everyone to live. No one wants to see an 80 year old abandoned at an emergency room with no place to turn. We can beat this stigma that the elderly have no value, it is beginning to take hold in our younger generation and needs to be eradicated now.

Works Cited

“Learning How Little We Know About the Brain.” The NewYork Times. N.p., n.d. Web. 14 Dec. 2016.

“Alzheimer’s Statistics.” N.p., n.d. Web. 13 Dec. 2016.

Mayo Clinic Staff Print. “Alzheimer’s Disease.” Treatment – Alzheimer’s Disease. N.p., 22 Dec. 2015. Web. 13 Dec. 2016.

Bibliography – anonymous

 1.  Egan, Timothy. “Old, Ailing and Finally a Burden Abandoned.” The New York Times. The New York Times, 25 Mar. 1992. Web. 07 Dec. 2016.

Background: This article highlights the side of Alzheimer’s that doesn’t come to mind for most. When the struggle of taking care of a family member with AD becomes too much many resort to this.

How I used it: I used this article to really bring my thesis to a solid foundation. Within this article I was able to draw out personal stories that really hit home as to just how serious this disease is.

2. “Alzheimer’s Disease & Dementia.” Alzheimer’s Disease & Dementia. N.p., 07 Dec. 2016. Web. 07 Dec. 2016.

Background: Not many people even know the basics of Alzheimer’s. Establishing this website is crucial for not only my reader and I but it also helps the world.

How I used it: This was a website post that gave me the basic foundation I needed to accurately describe the fundamentals of what Alzheimer’s is and how it effects your body.

3. “Stages of Alzheimer’s & Symptoms.” Stages of Alzheimer’s & Symptoms. N.p., n.d. Web. 07 Dec. 2016.

Background: This web article addressed in more detail the steps and stages Alzheimer’s can take during its progression.

How I used it: I used this piece of material to further my readers understanding on AD.

4. Rebecca Ley for the Daily Mail. “Why DO so Many Children Abandon Parents in Their Darkest Hour?” Daily Mail Online. Associated Newspapers, 28 May 2014. Web. 13 Dec. 2016.

Background: This was an article that I needed to use to touch on the emotional side of the reader. I reached out to get some empathy from my reader and give my paper a humanistic approach.

How I used it:

 5. Mayo Clinic Staff Print. “Alzheimer’s Disease.” Treatment – Alzheimer’s Disease. N.p., 22 Dec. 2015. Web. 13 Dec. 2016.


How I used it:

6. “Alzheimer’s Statistics.” N.p., n.d. Web. 13 Dec. 2016.

Background: This was purely a website to provide my research paper with legitimate statistics regarding AD in modern America.

How I used it: I used these statistics to further my point in my sub-topic of why AD sufferers need programs that provide them with advanced care and treatment. Some statistics such as 1 in 9 Americans over the age of 65 have some form of dementia was staggering to hear.

 7. “Midlife Vascular Risk Factors and Alzheimer’s Disease in Later Life: Longitudinal, Population Based Study.” Midlife Vascular Risk Factors and Alzheimer’s Disease in Later Life. N.p., n.d. Web. 13 Dec. 2016.


How I used it:

8. “Learning How Little We Know About the Brain.” The NewYork Times. N.p., n.d. Web. 14 Dec. 2016.

Background: This article highlighted just how little we really know about the thing that controls our every thought emotion or feeling. The brain is said to be less explored than even space, with this much room for research its hard to say we will ever find a cure.

How I used it: I used it to expose the truth that Alzheimer’s is a disease that effects the brain, the most complex organ we have, and a cure will take years and years of work. I counterintuitively used this argument to actually help aid my position that patients with AD need treatments that are available now.

A08: Definition Argument – anonymous

Global Warming by definition is a gradual increase in the overall temperature of the earth’s atmosphere generally attributed to the greenhouse effect caused by increased levels of carbon dioxide, chlorofluorocarbons, and other pollutants. The name “Global Warming” can give off a less than threatening vibe to many young adults, seasoned old timers, or to anything in between.

White Paper – anonymous

Ignorance; Global Warming’s Ally

A Practice Opening:

The future is closer than we think, and our planet is in imminent danger of becoming an inhospitable place. Since the beginning of the industrial revolution we have been spiraling downwards into a society that uses its natural resources at an unsustainable rate. Research has shown the amount of green house gases that are being released into our atmosphere has been growing at an exponential rate. Humans have increased the amount of CO2 in the atmosphere by 40% over the past 150 years, primarily through the combustion of fossil fuels. The developed “Western World” has made some very progressive break-throughs in  moving towards using cleaner energy more consistently. Methods of capturing “Renewable Energy” has become more realistic in recent years. Establishing sites where energy is derived solely from solar or wind is becoming more and more common. It’s efficiency is on the rise and is only getting better with four U.S. cities already running on 100% renewable energy.

Purposeful Summary: 

“MAULVIWALA, India — Desperate to reduce the pollution that has made New Delhi’s air quality among the worst in the world, the city has banned private cars for two-week periods and campaigned to reduce its ubiquitous fireworks during holiday celebrations.

But one thing India has not seriously tried could make the most difference: curtailing the fires set to rice fields by hundreds of thousands of farmers in the nearby states of Punjab and Haryana, where much of the nation’s wheat and rice is grown.”

The burning of crops in countries like India has been a leading source of air pollution for decades, but only until now is it being recognized. Conditions for people living in New Delhi are among the worst in the world as far as air quality goes. The government has set regulations to try and bring emissions to a controllable rate. They include regulations on private car use, bringing large construction operations to the outskirts of the city, and mandating its fleet of taxis and buses use compressed natural gas. All across India’s northern plains affects of the crop burning are being felt, the damage is not caused by a few farms but by hundreds of thousands of farmers setting ablaze all within the same time period.

Working Hypothesis 1:

If we come together in a global effort to halt the progression of global warming it is possible to save what we have left of our earth. The only way this can be done is through cooperation, progressive advocates in the justice system, and ending the corruption that plagues government bodies every where.


Safer Saws – anonymous

1A. Manufacturers

“When you’re cutting wood, if you accidentally run your hand into the blade, it’ll stop it so quickly that you just get a little nick instead of maybe taking some fingers off.”

1B. An ordinary saw would cause severe injury if your hand touched the blade, but this saw is different. It can save your fingers.

1C. This statement is factual, the blade will stop when touched by your finger.

1D. The statement by itself has no factual evidence and is casual at best. The only reason I know the sentence is factual is from the video that is part of the article.

2A. Customers

“To hold Bosch liable for not making a bad business decision that would cost them lots of money seems a bit unreasonable if not ludicrous.”

2B. Pinning the blame on Bosch for not incorporating this new technology is not fair considering it would be detrimental to their business.

2C. This a statement of opinion concluding holding Bosch liable is “unreasonable.”

2D. While poorly worded and not quite a rhetoric this is an opinion. The only problem I have with this statement is the jump from “a bit unreasonable” to “ludicrous”. The point he is trying to make becomes convoluted and a lot less stable when he tries to equate unreasonable to ludicrous.

3A. Industry Spokespeople

“SawStop is currently available in the marketplace to any consumer who chooses to purchase it.”

3B. SawStop can be purchased by any customer who wants it.

3C. This is a factual opinion, stating that anyone who feels the need to purchase this additional safety measure.

3D. This sentence is very subtly hinting at the fact that if the consumer wants to get the additional safety of SawStop it is “available” for purchase.

4A. Consumer Safety Advocates

“As I have stated many times before—and as is now reflected in the agency’s new strategic plan—one of the CPSC’s primary goals is a commitment to prevention.”

4B. The CPSC has a strategic plan which includes the goal to prevent future table saw injuries.

4C. This is a well versed clinical response to the safety advocates core values and goals.

4D. They claim they have gone over this many times and it should be common knowledge. Although they go on to say the agency is incorporating a “new strategic plan”. Is this new plan different than the original? At the end they do instill their primary goal is still the same, “commitment to prevention.”

5A. Injured Plaintiffs

“Wec says his permanent and “traumatic injury” could have been prevented if Bosch and its competitors had not rejected and fought against the safety technology.”

5B. This is a really opinionated statement, quoting “Wec”, saying his injury could of been prevented if only Bosch had not denied the new technology.

5C. This is a opinionated view from a victim that is obviously very biased. It sets out to demonize the big corporation that is “Bosch”.

5D. This claim is paraphrased and can be easily disputed. It gives off a personal and clearly biased vibe, and to me seems almost phony. There is no evidence and no face to put on the injury so for all intensive purposes its a fairy-tale.

6A. Personal Injury Lawyers

“Although SawStop safety technology has been around for more than ten years, not all table saw manufacturers have adopted it.”

6B. Although SawStop safety technology has been around for more than ten years, not all table saw manufacturers have adopted it.

6C. This is a clear cut statement verbalizing how long SawStop has been around and letting the reader know not everyone has adopted it.

6D. Not the most persuasive statement ever made but what it lacks in details it makes up for in simplicity. Sometimes a clear cut statement can be more influential than a million different metaphors and statistics.

7A. Government Officials

“The benefits of improving table saw safety clearly outweigh the costs.”

7B. There are many benefits of improving the table saw, cost should not be an issue.

7C. This is a opinionated claim. It insinuates that incorporating this new technology is a situation of morality. We shouldn’t negotiate price when it can save someone from traumatic injury.

7D. Again, not very well defined in the wording and reasoning. What are the benefits? What are the costs?

8A. News Reporters

“But as well as the technology works, the major tool companies have failed to put this kind of device on any of their table saws — even eight years after Gass offered to license it to them.”

8B. This technology is proven to work yet major tool companies refuse to use it, even after Gass offered them the license.

8C. This is another opinionated claim backed by some fact. The blame is directed toward these tool companies suggesting they are neglectful for not accepting the license.

8D. This statement is persuasive enough but gives no statistics to help convince the reader the companies are indeed neglectful. “Failed” is a strong word and was used pretty tactfully in this claim.

A05: Proposal+5 – anonymous

For my research essay I will be examining to what degree or if at all race plays in the justice system. This topic of debate cannot and should not be avoided; understanding all of its complex variables is critical in maintaining a functional society. The majority of the African American population (and other minorities) living in the U.S. today believe that racial profiling is as real as any war. Movements such as Black Lives Matter have taken off with incredible force and along with it a very strong influence. Is the brutality focused in on the black community? Or is the media portraying it that way just to get a story?

The essential content of the article: This article gives present day statistics related to race and incarceration percentages. This is an extremely important topic of discussion when analyzing faults in the justice. The fact is 1 in 3 African American babies born will expierince incarceration in their life time at our current rates. This is a troubling statistic to hear but it is important to not take every statistic at face value

What it proves: “National surveys conducted by the U.S. Department of Justice find that while African Americans may be subject to traffic stops by police at similar rates to whites, they are three times as likely to be searched after being stopped.” It prove that whether it is done consciously or not there can be discriminations found in earlier stages of the processing of the law.

Critical Reading – anonymous

Is PTSD Contagious?

“Brannan Vines has never been to war. But she’s got a warrior’s skills: hyperawareness, hypervigilance, adrenaline-sharp quick-scanning for danger, for triggers.”

  • Who is Brannan Vines and why is it important that she has never been to war?
  • What attributes really describe a warriors skills? Hyperawareness, hypervigilance, etc.? Or instead a steady-hand, clear thoughts, and adaptability.
  • Why is she being triggered? Is it sparked by situations that are stressful or is she always like this. Perhaps she is just having a rough day and this only happens from time to time. (Personality Trait)

“Like Brannan’s symptoms. Hypervigilance sounds innocuous, but it is in fact exhaustingly distressing, a conditioned response to life-threatening situations.”

  • The author is referring to the disposition of Brannan as a symptom of something. Its then described to be a conditioned response, which means that the cause of these symptoms must have happened countless times.
  • The situations were described as life threatening. What made the situations life threatening? There were no stories to describe the life threatening decisions.

“You can hear the cat padding around. The air conditioner whooshes, a clock ticks.”

  • Descriptive phrases and words help give an eerie feel to the house and make it seem as if their living in a tomb.

“Their German shepherd, a service dog trained to help veterans with PTSD, is ready to alert Caleb to triggers by barking, or to calm him by jumping onto his chest.”

  • The severity of Brannan’s disorder is again stressed now in the visualization of a service dog. Further implanting the idea that PTSD is serious illness and needs to be treated as such.

“Sometimes I can’t do the laundry,” Brannan explains, reclining on her couch. “And it’s not like, ‘Oh, I’m too tired to do the laundry,’ it’s like, ‘Um, I don’t understand how to turn the washing machine on.’ I am looking at a washing machine and a pile of laundry and my brain is literally overwhelmed by trying to figure out how to reconcile them.”

  • The effects of the PTSD encompasses anything and everything. Even day to day tasks are stressful for Brannan and are to the point of being over-whelming.
  • Moments spent on the couch reclining back seem to be few and far between.
  • Normal tasks that require little to no cognitive abilities are now too much to handle.

Stone Money Rewrite – anonymous

Money at its Roots

To me the idea of stone money is strange but curiosity provoking at the least. These huge stones hold value but cannot be moved, transferred, or even hold a practical value. I cannot feed my family with the stone or use it for shelter but to some they were valuable. The same system used by a group of un-civilized tribesman over a hundred years ago bares a striking resemblance to what we use today in modern society; is it not? We walk around exchanging pieces of paper that can easily be ripped or destroyed for goods of value and necessity. It is true that the monetary system we use today is working and has worked for a period of time, but is it really the best way to sustain an economically diverse and often times unpredictable society? After reading the article by Milton Friedman, “The Island of Stone Money”, and listening to the in class lecture I have a new perspective on money and am starting to ask myself these kinds of questions.

Our belief in money is slowly turning into, in a sense, the same sort of values and beliefs religion is based upon. Being that money in today’s society is basically as abstract and meaningless as trading goods in a video game, it is taken on faith that transactions online that produce X amount of zeros come with equal value in reality. For fear of losing the value of their “money” the French asked the federal reserve to convert the dollar value of their assets into gold. Once the U.S. had done this the French were content with leaving those same assets in a foreign territory. Who really keeps track of all this virtual money today? How is the U.S. over 13 trillion dollars in debt if that amount of actual currency doesn’t even exist? We determine the value of labor and distribution of products by dollar signs but the government can’t guarantee that the money you hold today will posses any value tomorrow. As we create more and more physical currency to match the demands of the public the value the world perceives our money at and the value the government says its worth is ever-changing. Decreasing actually. This is the basic premise behind inflation; price of goods increasing and value of the dollar decreasing. How can we hope that this system will continue to work when inflation cannot be stopped? It was surprising to me to find out that the same item you bought in 1913 for 20 dollars now today would cost over 480 dollars. Everything back in those days was so cheap because there was so much less currency in circulation.

In conclusion, I believe there is a serious problem with not only the concept of our monetary system but also the ethics behind it. Government spending needs to be critically monitored for multiple reasons. The first reason, the government is its own entity and has an enormous amount of power at its disposal. The second reason that our system is flawed is that there are not nearly enough organizations that monitor the governments decisions. Behind all the smoke and mirrors our government puts up for us I believe there is a direct answer as to what the permanence of our current monetary system is. At the rate we are currently traveling now there is no way any rational person could say that the system we have can be sustained. In our lifetimes and for a couple of generations maybe, but every great empire in history has shown us prosprerity doesn’t last forever. We need to be thinking about the future, if we don’t who will?

Works Cited

Friedman, Milton. “The Island of Stone Money.” Diss. Hoover Institution, Stanford University , 1991.

Joffe-Walt, Chana . “How Fake Money Saved Brazil.” 4 Oct. 2010. 30 Jan. 2015. <;.

“The Invention of Stone Money.” 423: The Invention of Stone Money. This Is American Life, WBEZ. Chicago . 7 Jan. 2011.

Morley, By Robert. “Why the U.S. Dollar Constantly Loses Value.” – N.p., n.d. Web. 19 Sept. 2016.