The World Around Us Is Creating a Biased Version of Ourselves
From the beginning of time, women have been looked at as inferior to men in one way or another. As the stereotypes slowly diminish, people still find themselves with certain thoughts towards females, whether they are one or not.
Women are strong and independent, but this does not make them immune to expectancy bias and stereotype threat. As extremely emotional beings, women may be seen as weak. And when emotion overrides logic, they can be seen as unintelligent. Although being emotional is nowhere near a bad characteristic, some stereotypes can make society think otherwise. Some of these attributes may not be prevalent in a woman’s head all the time, but there are ways that they can be triggered into becoming entertained.
Expectancy bias is a simple yet interesting concept. Say a sibling “never does anything wrong”, so when the mother sees the broken lamp, she automatically assumes it was the other sibling and grounds them, when it was really the other sibling. The mother expects it to be the other child being that the other one usually is well behaved. An expectation can really control the way we perceive and believe things.
A step further into expectancy bias is stereotype threat. Stereotype threat is a situational predicament in which people are or feel themselves to be at risk of conforming to stereotypes about their social group.
For example, Josh Aronson, a New York University professor, has done multiple studies based around expectancy bias and stereotype threat. A study (by Aronson) was done with high school students who were taking an AP calculus test. They were split up in to two different groups. One group was asked to confirm their gender before the test and the other afterwards. “Females who received the gender inquiry before the test scored an average AP Formula Score of 12.5, while males scored an average of 16.5. In the groups that received the gender inquiry after the test, females scored an average of 15, while males scored an average of 14.” (Anderson, 2011) Aronson’s study really sheds light on the importance of what we say and how.
They immediately start to think about the stereotypes about women and begin to subconsciously conform.These subtle triggers are everywhere and are causing women to become more incompetent in school and work without them even knowing it.
This occurs due to stereotypes created in the early 20th century. Women were not usually the ones going out and getting an education and making money for their family. Nowadays, women are very likely to be the bread winner of the family. Women have just as much potential and drive as men in their career of choice. Women and men are not the same, though. Each gender differs in their own way which is the reason why there is TWO genders, not one. “When women hear men say that women are not the same, they most likely hear that they are not equal, therefore hearing that they are less valued. Men, on the other hand, hear from women that they want equal treatment; however, men filter that to mean that they are ‘the same’.” (Torres, 2016)
We are not the same, yet we are equal. To think that we are not as good at something because of our gender is a very outdated way to think. There are different physical and emotional attributes that may favor one career, but this does not mean that the other gender is not equal or not as good. They could work a little bit harder and be just as good as the other.
“How Stereotypes Can Drive Women Away From Science,” by Shankar Vedantam is another article that proves stereotype threat in women is very real in the math or science field. Toni Schmader and Matthias Mehl are two experimenters who studied women and men at work. These subjects are math professors and were wired with a recording device while at work. The main thing Mehl was trying to record was the interaction between the female and male colleagues. This study was prompted by the fact that women are not only less likely to go in the science field, but less likely to stick with it. Women drop out of this type of career at a much higher rate then the male scientists.
The recording devices recorded 30 seconds of audio every 12 minutes. This was a good size sample for analyzing random and casual conversations between colleagues.
Mehl and Schmader immediately proved one stereotype wrong. They debunked the common thought that women talk a great deal more than men. “When Mehl actually measured how many words men and women speak each day, he found there was practically no difference — both men and women speak around 17,000 words a day, give or take a few hundred.” (Vedantam, 2012)
They also found that the more self conscious or worried a women was about whether or not a man (who they were conversing with) held the stereotype about women not being as competent in this particular field, the more incompetent they sounded.
When a woman spoke to another woman, they were fully engaged no matter what the topic was. Meanwhile, when a woman spoke to a man about work or research they were greatly disengaged. Though they could speak to males about other topics and be just as engaged as they would with another woman. Women who focus on the stereotype end up falling into the stereotype threat trap. They do not realize that their fear of not living up to expectations or their fear of being a stereotype, actually makes them a part of the stereotype.
Stereotype threat is caused by old ways of thinking and we must break through and eliminate all stereotypes to completely eradicate stereotype threat. Stereotype threat is a harmful thing to anybody’s life. Making somebody feel less than or not good enough AND making them act accordingly. It is a crazy concept, but is absolutely real and present in our lives. Society must create a better outlook on women if we want women to succeed to their full potential. Stereotype threat is a very dangerous thing, but with modern views and some perseverance, getting rid of stereotype threat will be simple.
Men and Women Are Equal, But Not The Same. (2016, March 15). Retrieved from http://nquotient.com/2016/03/men-and-women-are-equal-but-not-the-same/
Vedantam, S. (2012, July 12). How Stereotypes Can Drive Women To Quit Science. Retrieved from https://www.npr.org/2012/07/12/156664337/stereotype-threat-why-women-quit-science-jobs/
Why Stereotype Threat Keeps Girls Out of Math and Science, and What to Do About It. (2011, June 01). Retrieved April 18, 2018, from http://theglasshammer.com/2011/06/01/why-stereotype-threat-keeps-girls-out-of-math-and-science-and-what-to-do-about-it/
Stereotype threat is an interesting concept that not many are aware of. It is a very common phenomenon that unfortunately happens to everybody everywhere. Stereotype threat is simply defined as a situational predicament in which people are or feel themselves to be at risk of conforming to stereotypes about their social group. For example, there are a group of students, male and female, taking a standardized math/science test. Before they begin the test, the proctor asks them to fill in their gender on the sheet given to them. This immediately switches on a stereotype in the girls’ minds to which they subconsciously need to conform to. Therefore, the girls in the room do worse than the boys.
In our society, stereotypes towards women are definitely not as prominent as they used to be. Decades ago, women were supposed to stay home to cook and clean and tend to the children. Since they were home all day, women weren’t in school and learning. Being 2018, more women have amazing educations and jobs which would not have been expected in the early twentieth century. From housewives to CEO’s, women are still affected by stereotypes from the past and the present. By confirming one’s gender prior to a math/science exam, the girls in the class mindlessly begin to conform to the stereotype that was preexisting in their head. Their performance on the test is not exactly accurate. A study done by Josh Aronson shows that women actually receive higher scores when they are not asked to confirm their gender until after the test is completed.
Stereotype threat is very dangerous thing. Society has increased its open-mindedness a great amount, but why are women (and other minorities as well) being demeaned just by mentioning a biological trait? Why are there still women in 2018 still believe that they are not smart enough to pursue a mathematical or scientific career? At this point in time it is hard to put blame on a single party for what is happening due to the passing down of certain beliefs in different cultures. Society could blame our ancestors but that would not do women any good because it is in the past.
Aforementioned, the definition of stereotype threat is a situational predicament in which people are or feel themselves to be at risk of conforming to stereotypes about their social group. To the people effected, though, it is so much more than just a predicament. It could be defined as an extremely inhibiting situation that many are not even aware of where stereotypes are brought to the surface and lead individuals to conform to them without their knowledge.
It is hard to blame somebody nor would that do women any good. Society can expose us to more powerful women. There are many powerful men in our society. Basically, our whole country is run by men. Little girls growing up in a world where all of the people in charge are men can really sway them the wrong way. Parents can tell their daughters about how powerful women can be, but it will be so hard for them to believe it when they don’t see it around them. When they don’t believe it, they will be affected by stereotype threat just as much as the older generations of women were.
In the study “Stereotype Threat and Women’s Math Performance,” done by Steve J. Spencer, Claude M. Steele, and Diane M. Quinn, different types of situations were created to see how the scores compared against both genders. “The aim of the present research has been to show that this threat can quite substantially interfere with women’s math performance, especially performance that is at the limits of their skills, and that factors that remove this threat can improve that performance.” (Spencer, Steele, & Quinn, 1999)
The study lead the experimenters to conclude when women are told prior to a test that this test was designed to have no gender differences, the women did better and the men did worse which was the opposite of what happened in the control group. That blunt reassurance that women have an equal chance to good on the test really effected their scores.
“How Stereotypes Can Drive Women Away From Science,” by Shankar Vedantam is an article about a study that was done by Toni Schmader and Matthias Mehl. They basically recorded parts of science professors days with a sound recording device. They found that women were not as engaged in a conversation with men (about work) then they were with other women (about anything). When the women would discuss things other than work and research with men they were perfectly engaged in the conversation. They only became disengaged when they were discussing work. Women became overwhelmed and actually started becoming the stereotype (in that conversation, not permanently). Being that the stereotype is women are not as competent in a math or science career, the women started sounding more incompetent than they were when conversing with their male colleagues.
All in all, women need to be depicted differently in society. Big changes are being made, but bigger changes are needed to eliminate this stereotype threat. Gender does not deem whether somebody will be sufficient in any given career. Both genders can work hard to become whatever they want in whatever field they want.
Stereotype threat will hopefully be eliminated completely in our society in the near future. Men and women will, hopefully, coexist as equals with no negative connotations to any one gender.
Spencer, S. J., Steele, C. M., & Quinn, D. M. (1999). Stereotype Threat and Women’s Math Performance. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 35(1), 4-28. doi:10.1006/jesp.1998.1373
Vedantam, S. (2012, July 12). How Stereotypes Can Drive Women To Quit Science. Retrieved from https://www.npr.org/2012/07/12/156664337/stereotype-threat-why-women-quit-science -jobs
Why Stereotype Threat Keeps Girls Out of Math and Science, and What to Do About It. (2011, June 01). Retrieved April 18, 2018, from http://theglasshammer.com/2011/06/01/why-stereotype-threat-keeps-girls-out-of-math-and-science-and-what-to-do-about-it/
When a person is born their childhood is already defined what jobs their parents have and what they have. As they grow older they are more and more defined by whatever their parents are able to give them. they are influenced by what their parents go through, because until they are old enough to understand what they have or who they are they are defined by the previous upbringing of their parents.
When a child is brought up in a multiracial household they face the discrimination that both parents endure. They see the struggle of each race or skin color faces. They are told stories of the oppression and have to hold that on their back for the rest of their life.
These children grow up to face many uncomfortable situations that many monoracial people would see as insulting and rude, these situations have an effect on their psyche. In an article by Astrea Greig, Understanding the Stressors and Types of Discrimination that can Affect Multiracial Individuals, situations discussed include being forced to choose one race rather than being able to identify as mixed, or being called an “other”, situations come up where you are assumed as one race and the group of people starts making racial slurs against a race you identify as.
A research article, Understanding the Unique Experiences of Multiracial Individuals, raises awareness about the importance of understanding multiracial people when they are receiving therapy. When dealing with multiracial clients a tool used is the Multiracial Challenges and Resilience Scale, MCRS. A study was conducted asking multiracial people in urban areas to answer a series of questions concerning; others disbelief regarding racial background, lack of family acceptance, multiracial discrimination, appreciation of human differences, challenges with identity, and pride with racial background. The three studies conducted showed that on average 75% experienced discrimination specifically related to being multiracial.
So what nobody dares to talk about is the possibility of other ethnicities having the privilege or if privilege is even a real thing.
Privilege is believed to be an advantage that you are born with, you are not acquired privilege. When applying the idea of privilege to race a person’s advantage varies from being hired over another based on skin color to have an easier time buying groceries at a grocery store. It is defined by Merriam Webster dictionary as “a right or immunity granted as a peculiar benefit, advantage, or favor”, with this definition it is assumed that only white people experience privilege or experience more privilege than another race.
Privilege is not even brought up when being raised because privilege is what your parents can provide you. Privilege has nothing to do with skin color because of how broad the subject is. In the research of privilege done by Linda L. Black and David Stone it cannot be determined whether “birthright” privilege is real because by definition privilege is “…any entitlement, sanction, power, and advantage or right granted to a person or group” multiracial people are being more discriminated against as they are believed to have more of an advantage over someone else who is part of one of their races. Nature Duran-Smith from Affinity Magazine has experienced first hand “Being… the black sheep” and being “…exposed to stereotypes of every race you are mixed with.”
Duran-Smith shares her experience with Affinity Magazine about her problems with accepting herself and trying to explain that being multiracial has been hard for her to deal with. She has experienced being outcasted and questioned if she really is the ethnicity she claims to be. It is something many others are not asked even if they are darker. This is a question that people who do not fit one category are asked and that is not fair.
When translating that into privilege we hit a wall where it is believed that because multiracial people are considered exotic and more desirable that they receive more privilege but that is insulting. It is insulting to judge anyone by their skin color and to assume that they receive more advantages based on the fact that they are lighter.
Privilege is a hard pill to swallow but skin color and race are not the only things people need to stop and think about. A study group by Black and Stone showed that there were 20 categories of privilege. The category of privilege is broadened by gender, sexuality, age, religion and so forth. The idea of privilege is too broad to believe that because a person is multiracial that they face more privilege than the less desired race.
When growing up in a multiracial household you are accepted by both families as soon as they leave that safety they become an outcast. Multiracial people do not belong anywhere they do not face the same amount of discrimination as anyone race because they are not in the same position as anyone race person. Being multiracial causes discomfort and makes them question themselves as people.
When a multiracial person is put in a position when examining themselves being in the world where they are viewed as being privileged they feel uncomfortable because being light skinned is considered being privileged but yet they still face the same struggles that darker skinned people face.
Multiracial people may hold feature of one race but the skin color of another because of that they should not be held in a position where they are put in one category. Race does not equal skin color. Many times when multiracial people are asked what race they are they face forced to pick what matches their skin color this is wrong. In an article by Huffington post, Does Race Equal Skin Color by Aurelie Mathieu she discusses the problem she faced when applying for jobs and colleges. The fact that they ask what ethnicity you are. Mathieu recalls when she was asked by her employer during an interview if she mistakenly put down Black as she has light skin and green eyes. Stories like these are shared by many as people are judged when they are first seen. Because of this skin color becomes a big indicator for race which is a habit that will be hard to break but should indeed be broken.
Being multiracial is seen as the best of both worlds in many people’s eyes as they can experience a culture without the oppression that comes with it. But in reality, multiracial people are born into the world with the idea that they are more privileged than the race that is generally more oppressed. This is not true, they are experiencing if not more discrimination as they cannot express themselves. They are told they dress wrong or talk too much like one race when they appear to be from another.
Multiracial people suffer from identity problems from being told what they are and they are not. Going back to the study of Multiracial challenges and resilience scale, the study showed that many of the people interviewed suffered from identity problems. On average 63% showed that they suffered from racial identity. Psychologically this isn’t right that multiracial people are being put in these uncomfortable racial situations that make them question their identity. This than makes people think what is the difference between being discriminated against as a multiracial person versus an oppressed monoracial person.The difference is that multiracial people do not belong, they do not look like either race, they are put down by both races where as a monoracial person only deals with the privilege given to the majority of the population.
Privilege given to white people has nothing to do with a race thing it is because they are the majority of the population. When examining the article, White Privilege: Unpacking the Invisible Knapsack, many privileges suggested to be given to white skin colored people are privileges because they are the majority of the population. There are simply more lighter skin tones people in this world.
When examining the life a multiracial people we may see that they are only discriminated against based on their skin color and only by the lighter colored race, but this is wrong. Multiracial people are discriminated against by everyone and a lot of the time they do not get treated equally to who they are talking to.
In 1989 an article was published titled, White Privilege Unpacking the Invisible Knapsack, this article was written by Peggy McIntosh. This was the earliest article found introducing the idea of privilege. Considering this it is a fairly recent article. McIntosh introducing the idea that people of color have an unfair advantage that white people do not have to deal with.
Throughout the article privileges listed are things such as having hair products found easily for your hair type, or bandages matching your skin color. These examples are used and are talked about in reference to race, not skin color. McIntosh goes back and forth using race and Skin color interchangeably when really they are different. They do not mean the same thing and you can not make an argument when using them as if the mean the same thing.
You cannot look at someone and assume their race. A light-skinned multiracial person does experience things that would be considered unprivileged and that can be proved through examples given by multiracial people such as Sierra Fang-Horvath. She is an Asian American where she can be considered white passing who shared her experience with KQED Radio, in this interview she shares her experience when she took a survey to measure how much privilege she had. In this survey she came across the question asking if Bandaids matched her skin color, she responded by saying ” should they?”. In this one sentence alone she explains how people should think. After the survey, she felt like she would be looked at differently because in her eyes she never questioned her identity. Before the interview, a picture of Fang is shown and you would assume that she would not have a problem with privilege based on McIntosh’s article but you really have no clue how a multiracial people think or feel.
When you read the article by Fang you are shown that you really we’re not aware how unprivileged you were until you are told to check it. This makes multiracial people feel more uncomfortable because then they will be seen by others as having something they do not. You are no longer yourself and are a label of your skin color how is that in anyway considered being more privileged than a darker skin toned person who knows who they are and others do not question them are who they are.
Privilege is sometimes a difficult concept to pinpoint and identify in culture but as a community we have to realize that not everything is about race. Many people are treated differently than other but that is because many factors go into it. Multiracial people have a very difficult time connecting with people around them because they are viewed as an ideal but in reality they are just being judged for something they aren’t. Being brought up in a multiracial family can be tough but they are the perfect people to ask about the perspective of both races. They see hatred from both sides and they see that they are pulled to be something they are not. This is not a privilege and neither is the mental health issues that go with the identity.
1. Bartlett, T. (2013, January 30). Power of Suggestion. Retrieved April 18, 2018, from https://www.chronicle.com/article/Power-of-Suggestion/136907
Background: This article discusses power of suggestion and how it relates to the way people act after hearing certain things. It focuses on a certain study demonstrated to have people actually walk at a different pace due to words that they unscrambled.
How I Used It: I used this article for background information to form my own opinion and to use it as evidence within my research position paper. It really helped me prove my point on unconscious forces and how things that are said around you can effect your performance and actions. I learned that after hearing or seeing a word, somebody’s actions can literally changed without them knowing based on the subconscious focus on what was heard.
2. Expectancy Bias. Retrieved April 18, 2018, from https://psychlopedia.wikispaces.com/Expectancy Bias
Background: This article explains what expectancy bias is and certain examples of it. There is a research study and other facts about the concept.
How I Used It: Although brief, this source gave me a lot of background information to shape my thesis and research around. I learned that expectancy bias is a form of reactivity in which a researcher’s cognitive bias causes them to subconsciously influence the participants of an experiment.
3. Spencer, S. J., Steele, C. M., & Quinn, D. M. (1999). Stereotype Threat and Women’s Math Performance. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 35(1), 4-28. doi:10.1006/jesp.1998.1373
Background: This article was about study where the experimenters tried to see if prior studies where women underperform on difficult tests but do fine on others occurred with the “highly selected” students that were chosen for this study. They conducted two experiments and concluded that stereotype threats really do effect the way women perform on difficult math tests.
How I Used It: I incorporated evidence from this article into my final research paper. I described the study and the results to further prove my point about stereotype threats. This study was really carefully designed to show that women are just as smart, but they are overwhelmed by the stereotype threat that surrounds them in math and science tests. The fact that it was so meticulously created shows a great amount of validity in the source.
4. Why Stereotype Threat Keeps Girls Out of Math and Science, and What to Do About It. (2011, June 01). Retrieved April 18, 2018, from http://theglasshammer.com/2011/06/01/why-stereotype-threat-keeps-girls-out-of-math-and-science-and-what-to-do-about-it/
Background: This article delves in deeper into stereotype threat and Josh Aronson’s study. Usually before taking an AP test, a proctor will ask the students to confirm their gender. (Presumably on the answer sheet with all of the other information.) Aronson wanted to see what would happen if they had the students do this after the test instead of before. When asked before, females had a lower average than the males. When asked after the test, the females actually had a higher average.
How I Used It: I used to article to provide more evidence about stereotype threats. I described the study and results. I also used this article to increase my knowledge on the concept before writing my paper.
5. Vedantam, S. (2012, July 12). How Stereotypes Can Drive Women To Quit Science. Retrieved from https://www.npr.org/2012/07/12/156664337/stereotype-threat-why-women-quit-science -jobs
Background: This article speaks to stereotype threat and women in science professions. Two experimenters, Toni Schmader and Matthias Mehl, put recording devices on male and female science professors. They figured this could show why and how women feel compelled to leave the field. They found that when women talked to women about work/life/etc., they were very engaged. When women talked to men about work, they were very disengaged. They were engaged, though, when talking to men about things that do not have to do with work or research. Mehl believes that the way to fix this is have more women in the field.
How I Used It: I used this article within my essay to show something other than math. Women are also “attacked” at work with these threats by the men around them. Using it really shows just how much women are in danger of the stereotype threat.
6. Reducing Stereotype Threat. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://teachingcenter.wustl.edu/resources/inclusive-teaching-learning/reducing-stereotype-threat/
Background: This article presents ideas on how to stop stereotype threat in the classroom. The author discusses different things to establish with students for teachers. Implementing a growth mindset, motivating feedback, and a sense of belonging will help reduce the threats from different stereotypes.
How I Used It: I believe that stereotype threat is a huge issue so including ways to prevent it is very important to me. This article gave me specific ways to stop the threats to include in my research paper and get the word out.
7. Rydell, R. J., Shiffrin, R. M., Boucher, K. L., Loo, K. V., & Rydell, M. T. (2010, August 10). Stereotype threat prevents perceptual learning. Retrieved from http://www.pnas.org/content/107/32/14042
Background: This article includes a study on how stereotype threat does not only effect performance, but the ability to learn in general.
For my research essay, I will be arguing that multiracial people of a lighter skin color, in fact, do not have “White Privilege” and that they are put down for their skin color by races that they are actually part of. I will be using a study done by Salahuddin and O’Brien as their study shows that multiracial people specially suffer discrimination and that they have more problems with identifying themselves. This is a major social problem around the world and really should be considering how far we as people have had to come to believe that people are “equal”, but because of this stigma of color people are unable to really be equal. This includes all people of color who may not appear that way because of their skin color.
I propose that multiracial people with lighter skin color do not receive privilege that is believed to be given to people with white skin color. I propose that these people are made uncomfortable because they are being discriminated by both races whether they are lighter or darker than them. Because of this uncomfortable state they start to develop identity problems.
The content of the article: In this article, the author discusses their own personal struggle of being multiracial with her social life as well as how she is treated by her own family.
Proves: that multiracial people have problems just as much as a one race person
The content of the article: Explains the idea of white privilege and that anyone of white color has these privileges
Proves: not all multiracial have these privileges and even if they have a lighter skin color they don’t always have these privileges
Content of the article: interviews with Brazil’s residents as well as the history of the background of their “races”
Proves: the definition of race versus skin color is a problem. It proves that everyone has this idea that the shade of your skin has a level of privilege.
Content: Defining privilege. Expanding the idea the of privilege to different categories. The article explains that there are 20 categories of privilege
Proves: this proves that skin color is a small portion of privilege and should not be treated as that is the only factor of privilege.
Content: This article provides a personal experience to the table
Rebuttal is to prove that skin color is not everything
- Duran-Smith, N. (2017, July 10). Being Biracial/Multicultural: An Identity Crisis. Retrieved from http://affinitymagazine.us/2017/07/10/being-biracialmulticultural-an-identity-crisis/
Background: In this article, Nature Duran-Smith shares her personal experiences dealing with being Multiracial. She explains that being biracial is not as easy as it seems and that she feels like an outcast as she does not fit into one category when comparing traits such as hair and cultural upbringing. Explaining that the upbringing of a multiracial/biracial person is different than other households. You are learning two cultures and are the black sheep of the family as she says. She explains that this creates identity issues within herself.
How I used it: I use this article to show experiences first hand from the perspective of a multiracial person. I use this to explain the identity issue related to being multiracial/biracial
2. On Racism and White Privilege. (2017, July 27). Retrieved from https://www.tolerance.org/professional-development/on-racism-and-white-privilege
Background: This article defines what white privilege is and explains that it is not something that people generally do on purpose. It is something given to you at birth you are granted these privileges based solely on your skin color. In the article examples of this privilege is having things named nude matches your skin color, band-aids matching, and your hair care is not separated from the others. The article goes on to address how skin color works in favor for people of white skin color and isn’t brought to the public’s attention like it should.
How I used it: I used this Article to help guide my understanding of white privilege and used it to spark interest in helping to gather an argument towards the idea of white privilege affecting multiracial people
3. Nolen, S. (2017, June 19). Brazil’s colour bind: How one of the world’s most diverse countries is just starting to talk about race. Retrieved from https://www.theglobeandmail.com/news/world/brazils-colour-bind/article25779474/
Background: In Brazil, the idea of race is just starting to come into the conversation. In the video people within one family are asked a series of questions. They are asked how many races there are in which they reply that there are two: black and white. Even though they are all from Brazil and belong to the same family they all identified differently. They related skin color to race as well as not seeing themselves for who they are. Some talked about the struggles that they face as being black. The ironic thing is that they were no darker in skin color than the people who identified as being white
How I used it: I use this as an example to show how silly the idea of race is and how race is not universal, different cultures identify each other differently and it can create conflict with how people view themselves and can hurt people when thinking about how they are viewed by others. I also address that it creates an identity problem because they feel that they are burdened but it is unnecessary.
4. Black, L. L., & Stone, D. (2011, December 23). Expanding the Definition of Privilege: The Concept of Social Privilege. Retrieved from http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/j.2161-1912.2005.tb00020.x/epdf
Background: In this paper social privilege is defined. Not only demonstrating privilege through skin color but other categories, it was determined that there are 20 different categories of privilege. throughout the paper, the main categories of social privilege are defined such as religion, race, gender, and sexual orientation.
How I used it: I use this paper to define racial privilege and also use it to explain that you cannot base a person’s privilege based solely on skin color and race because many things go into a person’s privilege. This is proven by the 20 categories given in the paper.
5. Mathieu A. (2012, April 29). Does Race Equal Skin Color? Retrieved from https://www.huffingtonpost.com/uloop/race-identity_b_1303787.html
Background: This article is a personal experience from a female who appears different from her other race. She asks the question if race equals skin color. She shares her experiences about being judged or asked inappropriate questions based on her appearance.
How I used it: I use this article to prove that even if you do not look like a race that it has no effect whether you are actually that race or not. This is used in my paper to relate to multiracial individuals that do not look like the race they claim to be.
6. Rudolph, D. (1989). “White Privilege: Unpacking the Invisible Knapsack” and “Some Notes for Facilitators”. Retrieved from https://nationalseedproject.org/white-privilege-unpacking-the-invisible-knapsack
Background: Originally posted in a magazine in the late 80’s this article was one of the firsts to address the idea of white people receiving more than people of color to the public. In the article Rudolph shares examples of privileges that white people face that people of color do not have. Examples are given to support her idea of unnoticed rights that are given to white people.
How I use it: I use this article to create an argument as this is the best source to prove wrong and to show that it does not apply to multiracial people even though some of them fall under the “white” category. I combine this with the article that asks if skin color is the same as race because it helps strengthen my argument and prove that people with lighter skin do not benefit from these privileges.
7.(2017, June 01). Retrieved April 28, 2018, from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ysi5IqlIVoE
Background: This video provides the idea that white privilege does not even exist and is made to create a safety blanket for people who have been oppressed by white people. The narrator explains that whenever a white person shows pride in his or her heritage that they are called being racist but in reality, they are just embracing themselves.
How I used it: I used this video to use as inspiration and to spark my argument towards the idea of multiracial being made to feel more uncomfortable for “not understanding” the struggle of being darker.
8. Your American Dream Score. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://movingupusa.com/survey-results-test/?sid=487403
Background: This website is used as a resource to check how you compare to others living situations. This asks general questions like how was your school experience and did you grow up with any benefits? The higher the score the harder you have had to work for success calling it the American Dream score.
How I used it: I used this tool as a way to put in perspective of a multiracial person and to see whether or not my score was measured on the color of my skin. I noticed that no questions were asked about skin color and this helped me confirm that privilege is not based on skin color but how you are brought up.
9. Grieg, A. (2018, March 11). Understanding the Unique Experiences of Multiracial Individuals. Retrieved from http://societyforpsychotherapy.org/understanding-the-stressors-and-types-of-discrimination-that-can-affect-multiracial-individuals-things-to-address-and-avoid-in-psychotherapy-practice/
Background: This journal explains the way to treat multiracial clients when they are receiving therapy. They explain that certain things shouldn’t be said because he can worsen the state of the client. They also talk about the Multiracial Challenges and Resilience Scale, this scale is used to determine how multiracial people view themselves and how it can hurt them.
How I used it: I mainly used this journal to find the study on multiracial people and how they were affected by others. And to prove that being multiracial you face challenges too.
10. Fang- Horvath, S. (2017, March 08). Mixed Race Privilege? Retrieved from https://www.kqed.org/perspectives/201601135618/mixed-race-privilege
Background: In this article, Fang is interviewed about her experience as an Asian- American descendant. She shares her experience when taking a survey in class that was about checking your privilege. These questions consisted of ones similar to the Unpacking Your Invisible Knapsack like “do band-aids match your skin color” Fang questions this by responding whether band-aids should match your skin color.
How I used it: I use this interview to bring a personal experience into my paper. I use this article for my casual argument. prove that these tests make multiracial people feel disconnected within themselves and they feel like people will be judging them based solely on their skin color and race. This creates identity problems.
11. Salahuddin, N. M., & O’Brien, K. M. (2011). Challenges and resilience in the lives of urban, multiracial adults: An instrument development study. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 58(4), 494-507.
Background: This research paper provided a study done on multiracial people in urban areas. The study conducted consisted of six categories: disbelief regarding racial heritage, Lack of family acceptance, multiracial discrimination, appreciation of human difference challenges with racial identity, and multiracial pride. They conducted 3 studies and discussed how multiracial people react to certain situations. This then helped them develop the Multiracial Challenges and Resilience Scale. Which is used when helping multiracial people when receiving therapy
How I used it: I used this paper for the study conducted, I use it as a source to back up the idea multiracial face discrimination for being multiracial and that they don’t receive the type of privilege that other races think.