Bibliography- Ugandanknuckles

1. Bard, E. (2015, August 04). Why Affirmations Don’t Work (& What You Can Do Instead). Retrieved January, 2018, from

Background: This article talks about how Self-help mantras aren’t as helpful as people once thought they were, and how they can actually be detrimental. It cites a study done by The University of Waterloo and The University of New Brunswick.

How I Used It: This is how I found my initial topic. I had always found psychology to be interesting, and I thought, “Hey, it’d be interesting to further investigate those.” Although my current and final topic is the inverse of what the article is trying to argue, it was still important to starting my research as a whole.

2. Wiseman, R. (2012, June 30). Self help: Try positive action, not positive thinking. Retrieved January, 2018, from

Background: This article talks about how actions have a more profound effect on us than words or thoughts do. “Actions speak louder than words” is the overall message.

How I Used It: Mantras are commonly coupled with yoga, so I used it in my reflective essay as an idea of how yoga can help make mantras more effective for someone who isn’t really feeling the effects.

3. Majewski, L. (2018, March 05). 9 Empowering Mantras to Shift Your Mindset. Retrieved February, from

Background: Lori Majewski talks about her experiences with mantras, and includes stories from other people of how they use mantras.

How I Used It: I used this article at the end of my Research Essay to reference real-world examples of how people discover and utilize mantras.

4. Breeze, S. (2016). The Meaning of World’s Most Popular Mantras. Retrieved April, 2018, from

Background: The mantra community member, “Sunny Breeze,” explains the menaing behind some of the more commonly used mantras, and a few mantras that are a little far out in their spelling.

How I used It: This article was very important because I needed it to explain what mantras mean. If the words have no meaning behind them, they are useless, and this article helped me define the more well known ones most people use.

5. Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. (n.d.). Retrieved February, 2018, from

(2007 is the most recent date on the document, there’s no publication date)

Background: This article contains and talks about the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale.

How I Used It: I used it to help me talk about self-esteem. It’s the most commonly used scale, so I needed to talk about it.

6. Heatherton, T. F., & Wyland, C. L. (n.d.). Assessing Self-Esteem. Retrieved February, 2018, from

(2001 is the most recent date on the document, there’s no publication date)

Background: Heatherton and Wyland talk about the operative part of self-esteem, self-concept, and some of the misconceptions surrounding self-esteem and self-concept. Misconceptions like how the different genders (pardon my lack of PC) build self-esteem, and the differences between them.

How I Used It: I used it to explain the idea of self-concept, and how self-esteem has many factors contributing to it. Mantras can help boost self-esteem, but it can’t help a person’s self-concept, or what they perceive to be true about themselves.

7. How to increase your self-esteem. (2016, June). Retrieved February, 2018, from

Background: This page goes over the traditional ways to diagnose your self-esteem, and ways to combat low self-esteem. It includes help lines and ways to remove yourself from emotionally toxic situations.

How I Used It: Background info/research.

8. Horton, A. P. (2018, February 15). Positive Self-Esteem Is Overrated, Here’s What You Need Instead. Retrieved March, 2018, from

Background: Melissa Dahl explains why self-esteem is overrated, and why the other concept, self-clarity, is more important. Self-clarity being how well someone knows themselves (similar to self-concept).

How I Used It: This was an important piece of my work before I changed my topic, but I used it in my rebuttal essay to help me find what some of the main arguments against my research were.

9. Petherik, S. (2014, August 21). The stuck record: Why mantras feel like bullshit. Retrieved March, 2018, from

Background: Sas Petherick (possibly her first name?) talks about why mantras feel like they’re ineffective, and possible ways to help them seem effective.

How I Used It: For my old topic, this article had been what I thought to be a breakthrough. It was not, and it actually ended up making me rethink my topic.

10. Axel, G. (2013, October 02). Your Brain on Om: The Science of Mantra. Retrieved March, 2018, from

Background: Gariel Axel explains the science of sound on the body, and why mantras are effective because of that.

How I Used It: I used the article to help explain why mantras are effective through the science of sound. It was especially important in the writing of my rebuttal essay to combat the idea that only people who devote a large portion of their lives to mantras can benefit from them.

11. The Science of Mantras: Mantras Work With or Without Faith; Research Supports the Effectiveness of Sanskrit Mantra for Healing – and Even Environmental Transformation. (2017, March 05). Retrieved April, 2018, from

Background: This article by Buddha Weekly explains how sound effects the environment, but more specifically water. Water is in most living things, including humans, and the article goes from that perspective to explain how different types of sounds can effect you based on how they are conveyed.

How I Used It: I didn’t feel like my argument about sound science was effective enough in my rebuttal essay, so I used this article as a last minute boost to my credibility. It as well helped me find out more information on what I was talking about, thus giving me a more robust statement to provide on the topic of sound and the body.

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Reflective- Dancers

Core Value 1 states that writing is a practice that involves a multi-stage, recursive, and social process.

All of these skills were mastered throughout the semester. Mastering that writing is a multi-stage practice by finding resources, gathering information from the resources, and putting the appropriate resources found into each of the individual arguments written in class. In the beginning of class we were told to brainstorm a hypothesis we took our hypothesis slightly changed and turned them into a proposal for what we will be researching throughout the semester. Showing that writing is done in many stages and not just one. Writing is a recursive process, writing our first draft of any paper and later going back to revise it shows that writing is recursive. I am not one that writes a paper perfectly the first time around, meaning that I had to go back and clean up all my drafts which would have been hard if feedback wasn’t available to me. Luckily it was mastered that writing is also a social process for every draft. Anytime I wrote a draft of one of my arguments I would check feedback please. The feedback that was provided was very helpful and eye opening, being able to discuss my work made my writing better.

Core Value 2, close and critical reading/analysis is necessary for listening and questioning texts,arriving at a thoughtful understanding of those texts, and joining the academic and/ or public conversations represented by those texts.

This skill was mastered by reading different sources of information closely, checking the background of who wrote the sources and how credible they actually are. By bringing each of the sources together into the different arguments and papers showed that I completely understood the texts and would thoroughly bring them together. When reading each source and continuing to find information to back my theory, it showed that I dug and read critically.

Writing is shaped by audience, purpose, and context is Core Value 3.

When writing papers you have to think of who your audience is, in class we have to write professionally because it is being graded. You also have to write in a clear and concise way so your audience doesn’t get lost while reading, or paper is meant to persuade them to think or see as you do. Each student wrote on a different topic making us each have our own purpose something we wanted to show/ prove. Personally my purpose was to show that not all bullies are just malicious and rude kids some are honestly misunderstood and don’t really know how to act around others. The context of my research paper other than it was required to write was that I always wanted to further explore as to why children bully. Bullying is an issue within schools and is only growing, me personally wanting to teach I wanted to gain more information so maybe one day when I in a school I can help.

Core Value 4, information literacy is essential to the practice of writing.

While researching and writing my arguments I had to take the authors ideas and combine them with my own in order to draw a bigger statement. I took the authors ideas combined with mine through the process of synthesis to make claims more substantial and mean something. If I had no background information or ideas to provide into my arguments it would sort of worthless. Being able to pick your own topic made sure that every student had the opportunity to write about something they were interesting. Having existing knowledge and combining it with what you found out while researching showed information literacy was mastered.

Core Value 5 states that writing has power and comes with ethical responsibilities.

When researching and writing each argument we had to cite our sources making us master the ethical responsibility in writing. If we did not cite sources it would mean that we plagiarized and would end up failing, making it unethical. Writing on our own topic of something that interests us, proves that we have power and a voice when writing. We had the power to pick what we wanted to write as well as having the power to try and get our point across as to how we view a certain topic/ situation.  


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Causal Rewrite- Dancers

Bullying is one of the most common traumatizing phenomena among children and adolescents and is recently being recognized as a growing problem.

In grades 6 through 12 one in every five students reports being bullied according to the National Center for Educational Statistics taken in 2016. Out of the students who reported being bullied 33% said they were bullied at least once or twice a month during the year. Statistic of the students that have been subjected to bullying reported that 13% were made fun of, 12% were subjected to rumors, 5% were physically abused, and the last 5% were deliberately left out of activities. The percentage of students who admitted to being bullied is much higher than the percentage of students who report being bullied to someone within the school. Due to this huge gap in the percentages the bullying problem within schools is worse than we thought.

It is difficult to fully determine why children have bully like tendencies when interacting with others. But arguments can be made that children tend to pick up these tendencies at home. When parents treat their children poorly from a young age the child is going to grow up thinking that’s the way to treat others around them. If a child knows nothing about care and affection of course they will treat their peers poorly.

Its stated “Bullies tend to have aggressive behaviors designed to obtain goals and these goals often begin first in their home environment.” from “Four Marker Questions in Identifying Bullying Behaviors.” Children are most vulnerable to learning the appropriate behaviors at a very young age. Most of the behaviors that bullies tend to pick up on are due to the way their family acts. The home situation of most bullies is quite harsh, punishment is often within the home either verbal or physical. If the child makes a minor infraction it could lead the parent to overreact in a verbal, emotional or physical way. Children being raised in an environment like this often don’t gain approval or praise at any time.

If the primary caretaker has a negative attitude toward the child at a young age with lack of warmth and involvement in this child, it increases the risk that this child will grow up with hostile or aggressive behaviors towards others. Not just people in their family but towards people in general. If the child does become aggressive and the parent becomes permissive of these behaviors, without setting clear limits to the behavior towards peers, siblings, and adults the child’s aggression will most likely increase. If the parent of a child uses physical punishment and violent emotional outburst when trying to get their point across, this child is more likely to become more aggressive than the average child.

It has been concluded that bullies often stem from families where the parents are authoritarian, hostile, and rejecting, have poor problem solving skills and advocate fighting back at least at the least provocation. Children being raised in a hostile home environment could often feel neglected and unwanted. This could lead to the child becoming aggressive and act out in order to try and gain attention from their parents.

The parents of these children probably don’t realize that their behaviors toward their child leads them to act the same way they do towards others. Some of these children who bully may not know any better because they were raised in a home with negativity and where they were constantly put down. So they may see it as normal behavior when they are treating others this way not realizing that they are actually bullying.

According to “Four Marker Questions in Identifying Bullying Behavior” “Out of a home environment of negativity emerges a personality steeped in the belief and justification that intimidation and brute forces are ways to interact with obstacles that are encountered in life.” It has been said that violence begets violence. If a child is treated with violent behaviors they most often turn and treat others with violent behaviors.

The aggression and anger of these children often builds up because they are not able to speak out at home in which it grows. So when they arrive at school and have to deal with some sort of situation they may just explode and go off on others within this environment. It is hard for teachers and peers to deal with children who do not know how to act properly, fearing they will always act out when something bad happens.

Justifying bullies is not what is happening but these children that bullies often can’t take all the blame they are raised in a sense where negativity towards others is normal. Parents of children who bully often don’t acknowledge their tendencies as bullying, just children being children and one sticking up for themself in a situation.

Linda Goldman from “Raising Our Children to be Resilient” claims “Thousands and thousands of boys and girls are sitting in their homes, schools and communities with unresolved, unrecognized grief issues that all too often get projected out in the world in a form of bullying, abuse, violence, and homicide, or inwardly in the form of victimization and low self-esteem, depression, suicidal ideation, and suicide.”

Children could bully just because they have lost someone near and dear to them within their family and aren’t able to cope with the idea and grieve over it. Imagine being put down constantly within the home environment, never having the moment to grieve about how they are treated. If they grieve or look upset within their house about how they are treated it may lead to more violence towards them.

All in all ““Children learn what they live” is a useful phrase to emphasis the huge effect adult modeling has on our youth. Family systems that foster aggression and condone bullying on perpetuate the misconception that bullying toughens kids.” Goldman argued.

Parents often punish their children in order to make them grow up to learn that life isn’t perfect trying to toughen them for what’s to come later in life. Children can misconstrued this and think this is what life is supposed to be like while bullying other children. That they are trying to toughen their peers.

Bullying is not a problem that can be stopped by children alone especially when it may be exposed to them within their home. Schools need to step in with interventions throughout the whole school and within individual classrooms. Staff at schools need to talk to the children one on one in order to help them grieve and be able to discuss what is happening at home or just in life generally.

Children need to feel supported by at least one person and it is up to school districts to provide care for children who may not receive affection at home. Instead of just thinking bullies are horrible children staff should look deeper often they can misunderstood children crying out for attention, or not knowing any better way to act towards others.


Goldman, L. (2004-12-27) Raising Our Children to Be Resilient. Retrieved from

Ma, X. (n.d.). Bullying and Being Bullied. Retrieved February 27, 2018, from

Musu-Gillette, L. (2017-5) Indicators of School Crime and Safety: 2016. Retrieved from

Olweus, D. (n.d.). Bully/Victim problems in school. Retrieved February 27, 2018, from

Roberts, W. B., Jr., & Morotti, A. A. (n.d.). The Bully as Victim. Retrieved February 27, 2018, from

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Rebuttal Rewrite- Dancers

Skepticism occurs about the supposed connection between at-home abuse and the bully children who are raised there. Due to the fact that abuse cannot fully be defined, so the chain between the two can’t be proved.

Child abuse is when a parent or caregiver, whether through action or failing to act, causes injury, death, emotional harm or risk of serious harm to a child. This abuse can come in many forms including neglect, physical abuse, sexual abuse, exploitation and emotional abuse. Physical abuse of a child is when a caregiver causes non-accidental physical injuries to a child. Signs of physical abuse in a child will behave differently they may show signs of aggression toward peers or pets. Cases of sexual abuse is when an adult uses a child for sexual purposes or involves a child in sexual acts. After a child is sexually abused their behavior can become withdrawn, depressed or anxious. They can also show signs of aggression, delinquency, and have poor peer relationships. Emotional abuse is when a parent or caregiver harms a child’s mental and social development or causes severe emotional harm. Behavioral signs for children who have been emotionally abused include destructive or anti-social behaviors, violence and cruelty. (“The issue of Child Abuse”)

Abuse at home does not include a child being reprimanded for the way they were acting by being spanked or yelled at. It means that the child is consistently being hurt at home in which they start to fear for their survival within the home. Abuse within a home can come in many different forms they may have loving parent but abusive siblings or one parent may be caring but the other may not be. It’s difficult to precisely determine what fully qualifies at home abuse.

Not every child will grow up to be a bully some of these children may escape their fate. Or it may be argued that some children who bully do not experience abuse at home at all. Making the connection between at home abuse and bullying to be determined fully.

According to a study by researchers from the University of Washington and Indiana University, children who are exposed to violence in the home engaged higher levels of physical bullying than children who were not witnesses to this behavior. This study was the first to examine the association between child exposure to intimate partner violence and the involvement in bullying.

In the study they found the thirty-four percent of children that were studied engaged in bullying and seventy-three percent reported being the victim of some form of bullying with in previous years. It also found that ninety-seven percent of the bullies said that they were also victims of bullying themselves.

Lead author of the study, former UW pediatrician and now an assistant professor of pediatrics at Indian and Riley Children’s Hospital Nerissa Bauer states “Parents are very powerful role models and children will mimic the behavior of parents, wanting to be like them. They may believe that violence is OK and they can use it with peers. After all, they may think, ‘If Daddy can do this, perhaps I can hit this kid to get my way.’ When parents engage in violence, children may assume violence is the right way to do thing.”

Data from the study was drawn from the ongoing Seattle Social Development Project and the Intergenerational Projects, tracing youth development and social/ antisocial behavior. “Participants in these long-term studies were recruited from Seattle elementary schools, and 808 students (generation 2), their parents (generation 1) and their children (generation 3) have been followed since 1985.” The study looked at the behavior of 112 children form the third generation between the ages of six and thirteen, ages who are not normally studied in bullying research.

The study particularly focused on partner violence which is a broader term for domestic violence, physical, emotional or sexual acts of violence including couples who aren’t married or living together.  In 2000 a federal study showed an estimate between 3.3 and 10 million children are exposed to intimate partner violence.

The study found that seeing domestic violence does not lead to children becoming bullies. “Physicians and teachers should be sensitive that when children display behavior issues that the possibility of domestic violence in the family exists. Not all children exposed to violence will respond in the same way, but there are many indirect effects and problems that you can see, such as engaging in bullying, not being able to make friends, not eating or those with extended school absences. But not all bullies come from violent families.”  Bauer stated.

This study shows that in some cases children who are exposed to domestic violence may become aggressive toward other children. It is hard to determine what constitutes at home abuse and effectively take statistics of the children who bully that were also victims of bullying at home. But it shows that children who are exposed to at home violence may be more likely to become aggressive towards others.


Schwarz, J. (2006, September 12). Violence in the home leads to higher rates of childhood bullying. Retrieved March 22, 2018, from

What is Child Abuse. Retrieved from

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Annotated Bibliography- Dancers

Asano, E. (2017, January 4) How Much Time Do People Spend on Social Media? Retrieved from

The essential content of this article: This article discusses how much time the average person spends on social media daily and added up to see how many years it equals up to. The article also discusses each top social media and how much time the average person spends a day on each one of these platforms.

How it was used: It was used in my definition argument to show that people used social media very often which leads to bullying cases online.

Aqab,S. (2015, October 10) 6 Reasons Why Social Networking is Popular Nowadays. Retrieved from

The essential content of this article: This article lists the top six reasons to why social media is popular in this day and age. It gives you an opportunity to meet new people,they are user friendly, they are free, they have a job marker, they allow businesses to reach out to potential customers,and they allow you to join groups.

How it was used: The article was used for my definition argument to show that social media is used for many different reasons not only for children to bully each other on. Social media is not the problem.

Goldman, L. (2004-12-27) Raising Our Children to Be Resilient. Retrieved from

The essential content of this article: This article discusses grief and trauma and the impact it has on children and how to work with kids and trauma within home, school and the community. Traumatized kids feel powerless, hopeless, and helpless.  Children often respond to a traumatic event with fear, terror and extreme vulnerability. Trauma can create distorted perceptions of self in children, commonly produces angry and combative reactions and overriding feeling of terror. When experiencing trauma teenagers may withdraw, bully or resort to drugs and violence  in order to cope.

How it was used: This article was used to show that it is hard for children to deal with trauma in their lives, from death of a family member to abuse at home. Children often can’t cope with their feelings at a young age, proving that they need some help. I used this to state that bullying can’t be stopped by children alone they need help and support.

Ma, X. (2001) Bullying and Being Bullied: To What Extent Are Bullies Also Victims? Retrieved from

The essential content of this article: “concluded that bullies come from families where parents are authoritarian, hostile, and rejecting, have poor problem-solving skills, and advocate fighting-back at the least provocation. Bullies have aggressive behavior histories, and they often take advantage of their physical strength (Olweus, 1991b). There are no significant socioeconomic differences among bullies. Bullies do not have low self-esteem as many educators expect (Rigby & Slee, 1991), and bullying behaviors are not a result of academic failure in school (Olweus, 1991a, 1993, 1994; Rigby & Slee, 1991). Bullying in school varies with grade levels (Whitney & Smith, 1993), but researchers are divided in their findings. Bran white (1994) reported more incidents of bullying in secondary school than in elementary school. On the other hand, some researchers suggest that the percentage of students being bullied decreases significantly with age or grade, although the decline in rate is less substantial during junior and senior”

How it was used: This article provided information stating that bullies come from families where parents are authoritarian, hostile, and rejecting which gave me more support for the claim that I am trying to prove.

Musu-Gillette, L. (2017, May) Indicators of School Crime and Safety: 2016. Retrieved from

The essential content of this article: This article shows the statistics of bullying cases and what the effects of bullying are. As well as discussing statistics of cyberbullying cases, students with disabilities, students of color, and students who identify with LGBTQ. Bullying and suicide rates are discussed and interventions places have put into place due to bullying.

How it was used: This was used to show how many cyberbullying cases occur, while my paper did not end up going down the cyberbullying route it still provided valuable information that was used in my definition argument.

Olweus, D. (1997, May) Bully/victim problems in school: Facts and intervention. Retrieved from

The essential content of this article: “1. The basic emotional attitude of the primary caretaker(s) toward the child during early years (usually the mother). A negative emotional attitude, characterized by lack of warmth and involvement, increases the risk that the child will later become aggressive and hostile toward others. 2. Permissiveness for aggressive behaviour by the child. If the primary caretaker is generally permissive and “tolerant” without setting clear limits to aggressive behaviour towards peers, siblings, and adults, the child’s aggression level is likely to increase. 3. Use of power-assertive child-rearing methods such as physical punishment and violent emotional outbursts. Children of parents who make frequent use of these methods are likely to become more aggressive than the average child. In other words, “violence begets violence”

How it was used: It was used to show that if children don’t often gain affection at home they tend to grow up to be more aggressive. Children who grow to be aggressive may result in becoming a bully.

Pappas, S. (2010, April 9) Behind Bullying: Why Kids Are So Cruel. Retrieved from

The essential content of this article: This article discusses why kids are so cruel. It discusses how bullies are looking to gain admiration and dominance by bullying other children. It states that bullies also want affection and look for approval in their own group of friends. Due to this they strategically pick victims they know few other classmates will defend. Some children who bully struggle with aggression may be abuse victims themselves, others just think its the cool thing to do.

How it was used: It was used to provide background as to why children bully other students within their class. To gain support and dominance proving that bullying is a prevalent issue.  

Roberts, W. B., Jr., & Morotti, A. A. (2000.December). The Bully as Victim. Retrieved from

The essential content of this article: “Bullies are well-versed in aggressive behaviors designed to obtain goals, and these lessons most often originate first in the home environment (Brody, 1996; Craig, Peters, & Konarski, 1998; Pepler & Sedighdel lami, 1998). Greenbaum et al.(1989), Hazier (1996a), and Oliver, Oaks, and Hoover (1994) noted many of the difficult characteristics encountered and learned by bullies in the home environment. The home situation of the bully is quite harsh (Craig et al., 1998; Espelage, Bosworth, Karageorge, & Daytner, 1996; Pepler & Sedighdellami, 1998). Hazier (1996a) is explicit: “[Humans] are most vulnerable to learning appropriate behaviors when they are very young. The vast majority of what [bullies] see and hear … is from their family” (p. 34). Punishment is often capricious and physical. Minor infractions may bring violent verbal, emotional, or physical overreactions from one or both parents, after which the child is often ignored for long stretches of time. Praise, encouragement, and humor are rare in the life of the bully. Put-downs, sarcasm, and criticism are more the rule than the exception (Greenbaum et al., 1989). Parents exhibit little in the way of positive role modeling behaviors. Bullies are seldom monitored for their whereabouts or activities (Roberts, 1988) or disciplined for antisocial behaviors. Out of this home environment emerges a personality steeped in the belief and justification that intimidation and brute force are ways to interact with the obstacles encountered in life. Indeed, the parents of bullies often support their children’s behavior as “‘standing up’ for oneself” (Ross, 1996, p. 73). Additionally, bullies empower themselves through aggression toward others”

How it was used: This was used to show that bullies often pick up on bullying tendencies within their household. Bullies are often misunderstood and victimized as bad kids, when sometimes they actually don’t know any other way to act toward their peers.

Schwarz, J. (2006, September 12) Violence in the home leads to higher rates of childhood bullying. Retrieved from

The essential content of this article: A study conducted to see whether or not children who are exposed to violence within their home are more prone to bullying behaviors.

How it was used: This article was used to show that children who are exposed to abuse between parents don’t grow into bullies. The study showed that the children prone to at home violence did not necessarily become more aggressive.

Social Media Bullying Has Become a Serious Problem. (2016, October 13) Retrieved from

The essential content of this article: The article discusses what constitutes bullying on social media some examples include posting negative comments on pictures, posting abusive posts on a user’s wall, and using social media to stalk. A significant amount of cyberbullying takes place on Facebook. Other social media accounts are becoming more used in order to bully as well such as Twitter, Ask.FM, and SnapChat.

How it was used: This article was used in my definition argument to show what is considering online bullying and what isn’t. I used to information to show what websites are typically used for cyber bullying, the most prevalent websites seen.

What is Child Abuse.(n.d) Retrieved from

The essential content of this article: This article provides the different types of abuse children experience and how children react to such abuse.

How it was used: This was used in order to prove the point that abuse at home is a very hard term to define, their is not a clear indicator as to whether a child is abused or not. Abuse comes in many different forms from verbal to physical making it hard to constitute what abuse at home really is.

What is Cyberbullying. (n.d.) Retrieved from

The essential content of this article: This article discusses what cyberbullying actually is and how it takes place over digital devices like cell phones, computers, and tablets. Cyberbullying can occur through SMS, Text, and app, or online in social media forums. Common places where cyberbullying occurs are Facebook, Instagram, Snapchat and Twitter for social media accounts. But also can occur through text messages a lot of the time as well. It also talks about the special concerns when it comes to cyberbullying cases. Such as how it can be persistent, permanent, and or hand to notice.

How it was used: To provide background information as to what cyberbullying actually is. I used the definition for cyberbullying to provide information to readers that may not know what constitutes a bullying case.



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Research- Nreina34

Research Position Paper

In today’s society, almost everything is driven by the media promoting it.  Whether it be on television, the radio or on a mobile device, people use the media to collect daily information and headlines throughout the country.  This influence is having a negative impact on the law enforcement field and their relationship with the public because of the way the media misjudges and accurately portrays incidents on the news.  Those primetime stories that inaccurately portray a police officer’s actions just for a “juicy headline” is the reason why the media is an antagonizing factor within the police and community relations.

The media has a lot more influence than a lot of people think, everyone believes what they read on the internet and other news outlets.  Social media acts as a driving factor of the crime between the public and law enforcement by not getting the right message across to its viewers which in turn can cause major controversy.  In the article “Retaliatory violence between police and citizens is primed by social media” it unfolds the results of a new study that was published in the scientific journal in January of 2018 named PLOS ONE.  This study was conducted to understand the ties between police officers that were killed in the line of duty, situations where fatal use of force was used, and all the buzz on social media regarding the Black Lives Movement.  Veronica Pozo, who works at Utah State University and helped publish this study, stated that,

“Black Lives Matter-related tweets were associated with increases in both the numbers of minorities and law enforcement officers killed. This implies that that social media can rapidly spread a negative message and act as a contagion.”

This study shows a first-hand account of how people actions on social media really can influence crime in society.  If these issues continue to be publicized in the manner they are today, there may never be a resolve with this conflict.  But that is why we must stress that news outlets not stretch the truth for a better headline, the headlines clearly can have an important influence on individuals.  This happened during the media coverage of George Zimmerman and his call to 911 before the incident with Trayvon Martin occurred. In an article posted by USA Today called “Media got Zimmerman story wrong from start” it says,

NBC News edited Zimmerman’s comments during a phone call to inaccurately suggest that he volunteered that Trayvon seemed suspicious because he was black.  In fact, Zimmerman was responding to a question (from the dispatcher) when he mentioned the teenager’s race.  The network apologized for the error”.

This case was the result of hundreds of protests that swept throughout the country in what almost seemed overnight.  This incident sparked a flame and police were afraid that it was going to be the start of more acts of violence against the police.  By the news outlets changing Zimmerman’s comments to sound racist, all it does it just anger more people and cause unnecessary mayhem.  Overall, the media should be very cautious about what they do due to the fact that their audience is so grand, telling untrue things to the majority creates uncertainty and at the end of the day gives law enforcement a bad name.  

When signing up to be a police officer, you are signing a contract taking the risk that you can lose your life anytime on the job.  Police officers pursue a job in law enforcement to protect communities so that the places they live in and the people around them are safe.  At the same time, they are regular people just like everyone and they wish to go home at the end of their shift, they don’t want to cause harm on someone for no reason.  In certain situations, things can escalate when a police officer gives an order, some people do not like being told what to do and then can lead to altercations. The number of crimes against the police have been rising compared and the numbers don’t like.  In an article named “Why are ambush killings of police on the rise?, it released the results of a mid-year report from the National Law Enforcement Officers Memorial Fund and stated,

“That 67, federal, state, and local law enforcement officers were killed as of July 20th, 2016, up 8 percent over last year; more alarmingly, some 14 officers were fatally targeted in ambush killings, a 300 percent increase”

This report was recorded starting at the beginning of the year and already 67 officers were killed halfway through the year.  On the other hand, what is really concerning police officers is the dramatic rise in police ambush killings, a 300% percent increase will definitely get some people’s attention.  Unfortunately, line of duty deaths are something that a law enforcement agency is always going to have to deal with, it is just part of the job. All of these factors are really something we should take into consideration because it can potentially affect the future of law enforcement.  These rising numbers can potentially deter people from starting a career in law enforcement. In fact, there has been a recent drop in applicants in the United States and there are a couple reasons for this. An ABC News article called “Police face severe shortage of recruits” said that people are not attracted to “the job’s low pay, tarnished image, increasingly tougher standards for new recruits and limited job flexibility.”  Their tarnished image can only be blamed on one source, which is the media because they create the image the public sees. With all the disregard for authority nowadays, at this rate nobody is going to want to be a police officer, it only makes sense.  Therefore, as you can see by media broadcasting “lies” it sort of has a trickle down effect with crime and law enforcement. If these type of antics continue there will definitely be a major problem for law enforcement in the future.

A common misconception among the public is that the police are not allowed to make mistakes but the reality is that they are human too.  Not everyone is going to be perfect at their profession and it is normal to mess up sometimes. In fact, there are rules that back policemen and the people for mistakes made by law enforcement.  The Exclusionary Rule is a legal rule tied to the Fourth Amendment in the Constitution. In an article published by the Legal Information Institute it states,

The decision in Mapp v. Ohio established that the exclusionary rule applies to evidence gained from an unreasonable search or seizure in violation of the Fourth Amendment”.

This both protects the officer and the defendant by freeing of them of their mistakes from this situation.  The officer would probably be disciplined accordingly for violating a constitutional right and at the end of the day the officer made a mistake and they’ll learn from it. This also protects the person because they are freed of the possible charges that would have been brought upon them, the law enforcement violated their rights and they were compensated for it.  Policemen know that their mistakes can be costly but again, it’s just another thing that comes along with a career in law enforcement. When a police officer makes a mistake, it is very common in today’s society that everyone will pop out their mobile devices and start taking a video. The media tends to blow these things out of proportion and that is when things get out of hand and there is potential retaliation.   We need the media, including social media, to spread more positive things about law enforcement officers rather than the slanders that are thrown all around the internet or else there may never be a resolve in the horizon.

To conclude, there is clear evidence that the media negatively portrays to the point where they can be named as an antagonizing factor within the police and community relations. The anti-police groups that spread through social media and news companies changing information for the better headline are two prime examples of how these media outlets can negatively portray law enforcement.  There must be a stop and resolve between these two or else there is a lot of potential for things to get out of hand. At the end of the day it is clear to see who is the real “bad guy” in this situation and hopefully the right will be done and police officers can have the image they once held before.




(n.d.). Retrieved from

Adams, J. C., Belin, C., Toucas, B., Roberts, J., Brattberg, E., & Corre, P. L. (n.d.). Forget Criminals, Police Now Fear Activists and the Media. Retrieved from

Bejan, V., Hickman, M., Parkin, W. S., & Pozo, V. F. (n.d.). Primed for death: Law enforcement-citizen homicides, social media, and retaliatory violence. Retrieved from

Carlson, D. (2017, June 22). Exclusionary Rule. Retrieved from

Gramlich, J., & Parker, K. (2017, January 25). Most officers say the media treat police unfairly. Retrieved from

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The Real Reasons Nobody Wants To Be A Police Officer In America. (2016, June 01). Retrieved from

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Posted in NReina, P13: Research Position Paper | 1 Comment

Rebuttal rewrite- jdormann

American football players have been plagued with concussions, unknown to them for years. Typically, these concussions occur during tackles. The padding that players wear gives them a false sense of security and some players use their head as a tackling device. Rugby also gets a lot of criticism because of injuries players receive, but the concussion rate of rugby players is far lower than football. They wear no padding or head protection, yet there are fewer concussions. The difference comes down to the technique. The tackling technique rugby players use is safer for the head and spine. There are some football coaches and teams that have adopted the rugby-style of tackling, but not all coaches believe it is practical for their team to follow suit.

Football requires a team to move the ball a minimum of 10 yards for a first down and they have four tries to do this. Each and every yard in a football game matters. Stopping an opponent from getting one more yard can make or break a game. Football players will dive head first into opponents crushing their neck, compressing their spine, and smashing their brain against the inside of their skull just to stop them from getting one yard. There is no first down in rugby, so there is nothing bad about giving up a couple yards. Rugby players can sacrifice yards and it will not affect the game. Not all rugby tackles involve tackler stopping the runner immediately. The runner will normally get another one to five yards during the tackle. The goal between the two games is to score at the end of the field, but it should not require players to destroy their brains in order to win the game.

In a rugby match, the attacking player will not try to squeeze every last inch out of a run because it will not greatly affect the game, and they do not want to risk getting injured. Football players need to push for the extra inches and get the most out of every play. The battle for that extra little bit can cause injuries and unsafe play. Although it may be dangerous at times, football players must hold the attacking team to the minimum amount of yards on every play. The tackling technique football players employ is to stop the runner as soon as possible, with them gaining the least amount of yards. This requires tremendous force to be output by the defender and does not always result in safe play. The risk of personal safety is a price that football players pay to be good athletes. If a player is giving up the slightest amount of yardage, they are not doing their job to the best of their ability. The Seattle Seahawks have adopted the rugby style of tackling, and they are one of the best defenses in the NFL. The Ohio State University Buckeyes have also adopted the rugby-style technique. Jeanna Thompson wrote an article on that reads, “Ohio State’s defense jumped from No. 47 in the country in 2013 to No. 19 the next year. In 2015, the Buckeyes boasted a top-10 defense, surrendering just 311.3 yards per game.” For any college football team to move up twenty-eight spots for defense is very difficult. The team attributed their success to the newly adopted tackling tehnique. A safer and more effective tackling method did not lose a collegiate football team any games.

When rugby players attempt to make a tackle, they are risking their body without padding, and are careful and follow the proper technique. Players risk gruesome injuries in a tackle that could be prevented by using proper technique. The rugby tackle is a wrap technique that is not aimed at stopping the attacker immediately but by safely stopping the attacker and keeping the defender in a safe position. It eliminates the use of the head in the tackle and does not force excessive pressure on the spine. Living With Sports Injuries, a book written by Elizabeth Shimer Bowers and Clifford D. Stark, reads, “Players frequently experience concussions, as well as neck and shoulder injuries, usually as a result of open field tackling.” Open field tackling typically results in high-speed collisions and poor technique. When an attacker is running full speed and the defender must make the stop, they will do it by any means necessary and not pay attention to technique. The lack of a safe technique often leads to injuries. The injuries that football players suffer from include fractured bones, dislocations, concussions, and “stingers”, the loss of feeling and inability to move the arm.

USA Rugby is the national governing body for rugby in the United States. They oversee national, collegiate, and high school teams. The organization is always working towards educating themselves and athletes to make the game more competitive and safe. A study done by USA Rugby compared concussions in collegiate rugby and collegiate football. Out of one thousand players in the study, an average of two percent of rugby players received concussions and four and a half percent of football players received concussions. Based on USA Rugby’s study, football’s concussion rate is more than double that of rugby’s. The rugby tackling technique is effective for tackling the player and keeping them safe.

Although the fate of a football game may be decided from a few yards, the impact of how players tackle can leave a mark on them forever. Football has a major concussion problem because of how the athletes tackle, and the false sense of security equipment gives them. Every inch matters to them, but not every brain cell. If careless tackling techniques continue to be utilized by football players, the sport may not exist due to the health hazards it poses.

The rugby style of tackling is much safer for the brain. Rugby players suffer from concussions and will continue to do so, but it is the fault of the tackler and the improper use of safe techniques. Players can be taught and encouraged to use the safest method of tackling, but they may continue to resort to easier approaches. Safe technique starts with the coaches not accepting laziness and dangerous tackling at practices, then it continues to the referees game-time decision to remove players or penalize a team. If football adopts the rugby-style tackling technique, it may result in the loss of a couple yards, or even the loss of a game. The sacrifice of losing one game can save a player the sacrifice of destroying their brain.


Stark, C. D., & Bowers, E. S. (2010). Living with sports injuries. New York: Facts On File.

Thomas, J. (2016, September 06). Rugby-style tackling could be the future of a safer NFL. Retrieved April 5, 2018, from

Posted in JDormann, P11: Rebuttal Rewrite | 4 Comments