- Duran-Smith, N. (2017, July 10). Being Biracial/Multicultural: An Identity Crisis. Retrieved from http://affinitymagazine.us/2017/07/10/being-biracialmulticultural-an-identity-crisis/
Background: In this article, Nature Duran-Smith shares her personal experiences dealing with being Multiracial. She explains that being biracial is not as easy as it seems and that she feels like an outcast as she does not fit into one category when comparing traits such as hair and cultural upbringing. Explaining that the upbringing of a multiracial/biracial person is different than other households. You are learning two cultures and are the black sheep of the family as she says. She explains that this creates identity issues within herself.
How I used it: I use this article to show experiences first hand from the perspective of a multiracial person. I use this to explain the identity issue related to being multiracial/biracial
2. On Racism and White Privilege. (2017, July 27). Retrieved from https://www.tolerance.org/professional-development/on-racism-and-white-privilege
Background: This article defines what white privilege is and explains that it is not something that people generally do on purpose. It is something given to you at birth you are granted these privileges based solely on your skin color. In the article examples of this privilege is having things named nude matches your skin color, band-aids matching, and your hair care is not separated from the others. The article goes on to address how skin color works in favor for people of white skin color and isn’t brought to the public’s attention like it should.
How I used it: I used this Article to help guide my understanding of white privilege and used it to spark interest in helping to gather an argument towards the idea of white privilege affecting multiracial people
3. Nolen, S. (2017, June 19). Brazil’s colour bind: How one of the world’s most diverse countries is just starting to talk about race. Retrieved from https://www.theglobeandmail.com/news/world/brazils-colour-bind/article25779474/
Background: In Brazil, the idea of race is just starting to come into the conversation. In the video people within one family are asked a series of questions. They are asked how many races there are in which they reply that there are two: black and white. Even though they are all from Brazil and belong to the same family they all identified differently. They related skin color to race as well as not seeing themselves for who they are. Some talked about the struggles that they face as being black. The ironic thing is that they were no darker in skin color than the people who identified as being white
How I used it: I use this as an example to show how silly the idea of race is and how race is not universal, different cultures identify each other differently and it can create conflict with how people view themselves and can hurt people when thinking about how they are viewed by others. I also address that it creates an identity problem because they feel that they are burdened but it is unnecessary.
4. Black, L. L., & Stone, D. (2011, December 23). Expanding the Definition of Privilege: The Concept of Social Privilege. Retrieved from http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/j.2161-1912.2005.tb00020.x/epdf
Background: In this paper social privilege is defined. Not only demonstrating privilege through skin color but other categories, it was determined that there are 20 different categories of privilege. throughout the paper, the main categories of social privilege are defined such as religion, race, gender, and sexual orientation.
How I used it: I use this paper to define racial privilege and also use it to explain that you cannot base a person’s privilege based solely on skin color and race because many things go into a person’s privilege. This is proven by the 20 categories given in the paper.
5. Mathieu A. (2012, April 29). Does Race Equal Skin Color? Retrieved from https://www.huffingtonpost.com/uloop/race-identity_b_1303787.html
Background: This article is a personal experience from a female who appears different from her other race. She asks the question if race equals skin color. She shares her experiences about being judged or asked inappropriate questions based on her appearance.
How I used it: I use this article to prove that even if you do not look like a race that it has no effect whether you are actually that race or not. This is used in my paper to relate to multiracial individuals that do not look like the race they claim to be.
6. Rudolph, D. (1989). “White Privilege: Unpacking the Invisible Knapsack” and “Some Notes for Facilitators”. Retrieved from https://nationalseedproject.org/white-privilege-unpacking-the-invisible-knapsack
Background: Originally posted in a magazine in the late 80’s this article was one of the firsts to address the idea of white people receiving more than people of color to the public. In the article Rudolph shares examples of privileges that white people face that people of color do not have. Examples are given to support her idea of unnoticed rights that are given to white people.
How I use it: I use this article to create an argument as this is the best source to prove wrong and to show that it does not apply to multiracial people even though some of them fall under the “white” category. I combine this with the article that asks if skin color is the same as race because it helps strengthen my argument and prove that people with lighter skin do not benefit from these privileges.
7.(2017, June 01). Retrieved April 28, 2018, from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ysi5IqlIVoE
Background: This video provides the idea that white privilege does not even exist and is made to create a safety blanket for people who have been oppressed by white people. The narrator explains that whenever a white person shows pride in his or her heritage that they are called being racist but in reality, they are just embracing themselves.
How I used it: I used this video to use as inspiration and to spark my argument towards the idea of multiracial being made to feel more uncomfortable for “not understanding” the struggle of being darker.
8. Your American Dream Score. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://movingupusa.com/survey-results-test/?sid=487403
Background: This website is used as a resource to check how you compare to others living situations. This asks general questions like how was your school experience and did you grow up with any benefits? The higher the score the harder you have had to work for success calling it the American Dream score.
How I used it: I used this tool as a way to put in perspective of a multiracial person and to see whether or not my score was measured on the color of my skin. I noticed that no questions were asked about skin color and this helped me confirm that privilege is not based on skin color but how you are brought up.
9. Grieg, A. (2018, March 11). Understanding the Unique Experiences of Multiracial Individuals. Retrieved from http://societyforpsychotherapy.org/understanding-the-stressors-and-types-of-discrimination-that-can-affect-multiracial-individuals-things-to-address-and-avoid-in-psychotherapy-practice/
Background: This journal explains the way to treat multiracial clients when they are receiving therapy. They explain that certain things shouldn’t be said because he can worsen the state of the client. They also talk about the Multiracial Challenges and Resilience Scale, this scale is used to determine how multiracial people view themselves and how it can hurt them.
How I used it: I mainly used this journal to find the study on multiracial people and how they were affected by others. And to prove that being multiracial you face challenges too.
10. Fang- Horvath, S. (2017, March 08). Mixed Race Privilege? Retrieved from https://www.kqed.org/perspectives/201601135618/mixed-race-privilege
Background: In this article, Fang is interviewed about her experience as an Asian- American descendant. She shares her experience when taking a survey in class that was about checking your privilege. These questions consisted of ones similar to the Unpacking Your Invisible Knapsack like “do band-aids match your skin color” Fang questions this by responding whether band-aids should match your skin color.
How I used it: I use this interview to bring a personal experience into my paper. I use this article for my casual argument. prove that these tests make multiracial people feel disconnected within themselves and they feel like people will be judging them based solely on their skin color and race. This creates identity problems.
11. Salahuddin, N. M., & O’Brien, K. M. (2011). Challenges and resilience in the lives of urban, multiracial adults: An instrument development study. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 58(4), 494-507.
Background: This research paper provided a study done on multiracial people in urban areas. The study conducted consisted of six categories: disbelief regarding racial heritage, Lack of family acceptance, multiracial discrimination, appreciation of human difference challenges with racial identity, and multiracial pride. They conducted 3 studies and discussed how multiracial people react to certain situations. This then helped them develop the Multiracial Challenges and Resilience Scale. Which is used when helping multiracial people when receiving therapy
How I used it: I used this paper for the study conducted, I use it as a source to back up the idea multiracial face discrimination for being multiracial and that they don’t receive the type of privilege that other races think.