APA Citation and References

In-text APA Citation

In an article at the Center for Disease Control’s website called “Childhood Obesity Causes and Consequences,” the CDC issues the warning that a primary cause of excess weight gain in children is “eating high-calorie, low-nutrient foods and beverages” such as sugary drinks. Most people hearing the term “sugary drinks” think of soda exclusively; however, the category is much broader. According to the National Center for Health Statistics, “sugary drinks consist of fruit drinks, soda, energy drinks, sport drinks, and sicweetened waters.” In an attempt to alert us to the prevalence of sugar in commercial beverages, the Journal of Public Health Dentistry has compiled a list of what it considers sugary drinks, adding sweetened teas to the category. And finally, in the “Advice for Patients” section of the journal Nutrients, examples can be found of several sugary drink types including fruitades such as Gatorade and lemonade, fruit-flavored drinks like Kool-Aid and Fruit Punch, sodas such as Coke, Pepsi and 7Up, and energy drinks like Monster or Red Bull. These drinks are found in most American homes and often considered healthy. But Jennifer Pomeranz in the Journal of Public Health Policy warns that sugary drinks are the largest source of added sugars in most children’s diet and also their main source of calorie intake. When children drink soda, they take in more calories than they can immediately use, and the unspent calories get converted into fat.

References

Childhood Obesity Causes and Consequences. (2016, December 15). Retrieved April 16, 2018, from https://www.cdc.gov/obesity/childhood/causes.html

Keast, D., Fulgoni, V., Nicklas, T., & O’Neil, C. (2013). Food Sources of Energy and Nutrients among Children in the United States: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003–2006. Nutrients5(1), 283–301. MDPI AG. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu5010283

Mallonee, L. F., Boyd, L. D., & Stegeman, C. (2017). A scoping review of skills and tools oral health professionals need to engage children and parents in dietary changes to prevent childhood obesity and consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages. Journal of Public Health Dentistry, 77. doi:10.1111/jphd.12237

Ogden, Cynthia L., et al. Consumption of sugar drinks in the United States, 2005-2008. US Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, 2011.

Pomeranz, J. L., Munsell, C. R., & Harris, J. L. (2013). Energy drinks: An emerging public health hazard for youth. Journal of Public Health Policy, 34(2), 254-271. doi:10.1057/jphp.2013.6

I see the model. Now, how does it work?

When the author of this argument about sugary drinks makes a reference to an academic journal, website, or magazine article in her essay, she quotes or paraphrases the article’s content and provides enough details in the text to help readers find the source in the References list.

Example 1 (Publisher and Title, plus Quote):
In an article at the Center for Disease Control’s website called “Childhood Obesity Causes and Consequences,” the CDC issues the warning that a primary cause of excess weight gain in children is “eating high-calorie, low-nutrient foods and beverages” such as sugary drinks.

Example 2 (Publisher plus quote):
According to the National Center for Health Statistics, “sugary drinks consist of fruit drinks, soda, energy drinks, sport drinks, and sweetened waters.”

Example 3 (Name of Journal, plus Paraphrase):
In an attempt to alert us to the prevalence of sugar in commercial beverages, the Journal of Public Health Dentistry has compiled a list of what it considers sugary drinks, adding sweetened teas to the category.

Example 4 (Name of Journal, Title of Article, plus Paraphrase):
And finally, in the “Advice for Patients” section of the journal Nutrients, examples can be found of several sugary drink types including fruitades such as Gatorade and lemonade, fruit-flavored drinks like Kool-Aid and Fruit Punch, sodas such as Coke, Pepsi and 7Up, and energy drinks like Monster or Red Bull.

Example 5 (Author, Name of Journal, plus Paraphrase):
But Jennifer Pomeranz in the Journal of Public Health Policy warns that sugary drinks are the largest source of added sugars in most children’s diet and also their main source of calorie intake. When children drink soda, they take in more calories than they can immediately use, and the unspent calories get converted into fat.

Exercise

FOR REVIEW: In a Reply below, import a paragraph from one of your arguments that contains a citation, along with its accompanying Reference note.

Comment that you believe your citation and Reference comply with academic standards or that you’re having trouble and need help creating good citations.

 

30 Responses to APA Citation and References

  1. dublin517 says:

    For most people when the thought of sugary drinks comes to mind the though of soda and energy drinks are what constitutes as a sugar drink, however it is actually so much more. According to a Center for Disease Control study titled Consumption of sugar drinks in the United States, 2005-2008, “Sugary drinks consist of fruit drinks, soda, energy drinks, sport drinks, and sweetened waters.” A.S. Go writing titled “Sugar-sweetended beverages initiatives can help fight childhood obesity” contains a list of what is included in sugary drinks, including sweetened teas to the list as well.In the Advice for Patients section of the Arch Pediatric Medical Journal they give examples of some of the types of sugar drinks and examples to go with it. Within the piece titled “Sugary Drinks and childhood obesity provided by Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med, the type of drink classified under fruitades they gave examples such as Gatorade and lemonade, for fruit juices they give examples like Kool-Aid and Fruit Punch, for Soda they give the example of Coke, Pepsi and 7Up, and for Energy Drinks they give the examples of Monster or Red Bull. The drinks mentioned above are a lot of times considered to be healthy or good for you, and are in many American homes. The problem is that sugary drinks are the largest source of added sugars in a youth’s diet and also the main source of calorie intake, according, to Jennifer Harris’s work “Evaluating sugary drink nutrition and marketing to youth.” What this means is that when a child drinks a soda they are taking in a lot of calories at one time, often more than a body needs which then is not processed and becomes fat.

    Like

  2. scarletthief says:

    According to A.S. Go’s and his associates’ study titled “Sugar-sweetened beverages initiatives can help fight childhood obesity,” the American Heart Association also gives a list of what is included in sugary drinks, including sweetened teas to the list as well. In the Advice for Patients section of the Arch Pediatric Medial Journal they give examples of some of the types of sugar drinks and examples to go with it. In Arch Pediatr Adolsc Med’s web article “Sugary Drinks and Childhood Obesity,” some examples for drinks classified under fruitades are Gatorade and lemonade, for fruit juices they give examples like Kool-Aid and Fruit Punch, for Soda they give the example of Coke, Pepsi and 7Up, and for Energy Drinks they give the examples of Monster or Red Bull. The drinks mentioned above are a lot of times considered to be healthy or good for you, and are in many American homes. Jennifer Harris, in her study titled “Evaluating sugar drink nutrition and marketing to youth,” she states that the sugary drinks are the largest source of added sugars in a youth’s diet and also the main source of calorie intake. What this means is that when a child drinks a soda they are taking in a lot of calories at one time, often more than a body needs which then is not processed and becomes fat.

    Like

  3. edwardnihlman says:

    According to A. S. Go in their article, “Sugar-sweetened beverages initiatives can help fight childhood obesity,” the American Heart Association also gives a list of what is included in sugary drinks, including sweetened teas on the list as well.

    For the type of drink classified under fruitades, Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med gave examples such as Gatorade and lemonade, for fruit juices they give examples like Kool-Aid and Fruit Punch, for Soda they give the example of Coke, Pepsi and 7Up, and for Energy Drinks they give the examples of Monster or Red Bull.

    The problem is that, according to Jennifer Harris in her essay “Evaluating sugary drink nutrition and marketing to youth,” sugary drinks are the largest source of added sugars in a youth’s diet and also the main source of calorie intake (Harris, 2).

    Like

  4. thathawkman says:

    The American Heart Association also gives a list of what is included in sugary drinks, including
    In the article, “Sugar-sweetened beverages initiatives can help fight childhood obesity,” A.S. Go states that the American Heart Association also explicitly lists what is considered to be a sugary drink, including drinks such as sweetened teas.

    According to the web article “Sugary Drinks and Childhood Obesity,” Arch Pediatric Adolescence Medicine classifies and gives example for different drinks: Gatorade and lemonade for fruitades; Kool-aid and Fruit Punch for fruit juices; Coke, Pepsi, and 7up for soda; and Monster and RedBull for Energy Drinks.

    However, according to Jennifer Harris in her essay “Evaluating sugary drink nutrition and marketing to youth,” the issue is that the sugary drinks are the largest source of added sugars in a youth’s diet and is also the main source of calorie intake.

    Like

  5. lmj20 says:

    In the article “Sugary Drinks and Childhood Obesity,” the Arch Pediatric Medical Journal gives examples of some of the types of sugar drinks and examples to go with it. For the type of drink classified under fruitades they gave examples such as Gatorade and lemonade, for fruit juices they give examples like Kool-Aid and Fruit Punch, for Soda they give the example of Coke, Pepsi and 7Up, and for Energy Drinks they give the examples of Monster or Red Bull. According to Jennifer Harris’s article “Evaluating Sugary Drink Nutrition and Marketing to Youth,” the problem is that sugary drinks are the largest source of added sugars in a youth’s diet and also the main source of calorie intake.What this means is that when a child drinks a soda they are taking in a lot of calories at one time, often more than a body needs which then is not processed and becomes fat.

    Like

  6. lbirch141 says:

    New and improved detectors are always coming onto the market, usually advancing with technology. In a article by Haramis Electric, these detectors will alert emergency services automatically if a smoke detector is activated in your home. Also, if a homeowner is away from the house, an alert will still be sent to the police dispatch before the fire can spread. However, there are some disadvantages to these “smart” detectors.

    I believe I cited this source correctly and follow all academic standards.

    Like

    • davidbdale says:

      That’s a good start, LB, and I agree you probably did meet the requirement for citing the original source, but I have a couple of notes.

      1. The “signal phrase” is missing.
      —You say:

      In an article by Haramis Electric, these detectors will alert emergency services . . . .

      This is the equivalent of saying:

      In Einstein’s speech, E=mc2.

      Obviously, the correction needed there would be to add some indication that somebody SAID something.

      In Einstein’s speech, HE REVEALED the famous formula, E=mc2.

      So, for your citation, the correction is:

      In an article by Haramis Electric, THE AUTHOR CLAIMS THAT these detectors will alert emergency services . . . .

      Any language that indicates that the AUTHOR SAID, or that the ARTICLE CLAIMS, or that the SURVEY SHOWS, or a host of other possibilities, will fill the need.

      2. Without the References section, I can’t tell whether readers will be able to identify which of your sources you’re referring to here. Will you include either the entire References section, or at least the pertinent entry, in a Reply below, please?

      Like

  7. picklerick13 says:

    As Mark Pennington explains in his article from the Pennington Publishing Blog, “Students often choose books with reading levels far below or far above own their reading levels and so do not experience optimal reading growth.” A better way to help these kids develop their reading skills is to assign them books that the teachers have already read. This ensures the teacher’s ability to guide their students down the right path.

    Pennington Publishing Blog. (n.d.). Retrieved March 17, 2018, from http://blog.penningtonpublishing.com/reading/why-sustained-silent-reading-ssr-doesnt-work/

    Like

    • davidbdale says:

      That looks just about perfect, Picklerick. If all your citations are this good, you’ll have no trouble demonstrating your ability and your integrity. Only one thing could make it better, and I admit it’s a very picky point. Assuming Mark Pennington writes the articles on the Pennington Publishing Blog, he hasn’t taken his article FROM the blog. (Very picky, yes.) Instead, he explains in an article ON his blog.

      Do you have any questions about citation or References?

      Like

  8. dancers8 says:

    I am currently working on my intext citations for both of my short arguement papers. Which means I could use some help, I am adding citations into my paper due to the fact that I left some citations out. Help would be apprecaited but after adding in text citations I will definitely ask for feedback.

    Like

    • davidbdale says:

      Since you haven’t posted anything here, Dancer, I’ll wait until you share some citations with me or request specific help. Drop me a Reply on a particular post, or put something into Feedback Please so I know where to start.

      Like

  9. amongothers13 says:

    An article from The Atlantic titled How Ineffective Government Funding Can Hurt Poor Students claims that 14 states are currently providing less money to poor community schools with a lot of students coming from poor areas. It also states that 19 states have a funding system that does just enough to meet the standards in schools that lack valuable resources and are unable ensure a quality education.

    The article title is in italics, it won’t work on my phone. 🙂

    Like

    • davidbdale says:

      I don’t know if you’re wrong or merely expressing your correct opinion incorrectly, AO. The Article Title should be in quotation marks. The name of the publication, The Atlantic, should be in italics. I’ve made that correction in your Reply. Here’s the perfected version:

      An article from The Atlantic titled “How Ineffective Government Funding Can Hurt Poor Students” claims that 14 states are currently providing less money to poor community schools with a lot of students coming from poor areas. It also states that 19 states have a funding system that does just enough to meet the standards in schools that lack valuable resources and are unable ensure a quality education.

      Otherwise you did a fine job of including your Signal Phrase [An article claims that], a Publication [The Atlantic], a Title [“How Ineffective Government Funding Can Hurt Poor Students”], and two paraphrases.

      Do you have any questions at all about Citation or References?

      Like

    • davidbdale says:

      Special Note: Notice that within a blockquote, which turns all text into italics, items that would ordinarily be in italics, like the publication The Atlantic, are converted to Roman text.

      Like

  10. thenaturalist201 says:

    I have been having trouble fitting the citation in the paper and I don’t know what gets citated and when I can just drop it in my references and use it as inspiration.

    Like

    • davidbdale says:

      There are three simple rules, TheNaturalist.
      1. If you refer to the Author, Article Title, Publication Title, or Publisher by name, or if you place someone else’s words into quotes, you have made at least a partial Citation, and you must provide a proper Bibliographic Entry for that material in your References list.
      2. If you merely make your own claims that you have synthesized from broad experience and reading, and owe nothing in particular to any one source, you don’t need to Cite anything, and you won’t need a References area at all.
      3. Without a References list, you don’t have a Research Paper.

      Liked by 1 person

  11. Knuckles the Enchilada says:

    Wildmind, a site about Buddhist meditation defines mantras as “words or phrases that are chanted out loud or internally as objects of meditation” Many cultures throughout the ages have believed in the power of words whether it be for meditation or for spiritual reasons.
    I have the publisher plus the quote, and the quote serves to help define a critical word in my definition argument.
    B. (2006, October 23). Mantra meditation. Retrieved February 5, 2018, from http://www.wildmind.org/mantras.

    Like

    • davidbdale says:

      This is nice, Knuckles. Thank you for the explanation. If you’re not going to refer to the website in your article as Wildmind.org, it would be more informative to use italics for the domain since it is in fact the name of the publication. You’re missing a period, too, at the end of your quote. I recommend:

      Wildmind, a site about Buddhist meditation, defines mantras as “words or phrases that are chanted out loud or internally as objects of meditation.” Many cultures throughout the ages have believed in the power of words whether for meditation or for spiritual reasons.

      Like

  12. doublea413 says:

    In an article written by NFL.com, they bring up the amount of ACL injuries that occur on turf fields. The number was staggering high when they found the results. The author states, “The panel started to notice a higher rate of injuries on the new turf in evaluating the data that the NFL compiles each season, Hershman said. Once enough games had been played on the newer surfaces to do a scientific analysis, the panel found that anterior cruciate ligament injuries and a more serious type of ankle sprain occurred at a higher rate that is statistically significant.”

    *I think I referenced this quote somewhat correctly but there is some minor changes that have to be done. I should have referenced “Hershman in my first sentence because the quote lists him but the readers do not know who that is. Next, the quote should be a block quote because it is longer than 3 lines.
    My reference for this article at the bottom of my paper was:
    NFL panel finds some knee, ankle injuries more common on turf. (n.d.). Retrieved April 12, 2018, from http://www.nfl.com/news/story/09000d5d816e77f1/article/nfl-panel-finds-some-knee-ankle-injuries-more-common-on-turf/
    I think this citation is correct but I am not sure because it only lists a couple things and I do not remember what site I used to cite the source. I will double check it on citation machine like I will with all my other sources. I usually do not have trouble with referencing but the new format of using APA has got me a little fazed.

    Like

    • davidbdale says:

      Agreed, the switch to APA has me scrambling a bit too, AA.

      Let’s look carefully at what you’ve done:

      In an article written by NFL.com, they bring up the amount of ACL injuries that occur on turf fields. The number was staggering high when they found the results.

      “They” is very clumsy and can probably be eliminated. You can say that “NFL.com reports,” for example. No people have to be attributed unless the author gets a byline.

      The author states, “The panel started to notice a higher rate of injuries on the new turf in evaluating the data that the NFL compiles each season, Hershman said.

      This is more confusing. Without seeing the original, I don’t know if Hershman is the author of the NFL.com article, or someone who the article is referencing.

      Once enough games had been played on the newer surfaces to do a scientific analysis, the panel found that anterior cruciate ligament injuries and a more serious type of ankle sprain occurred at a higher rate that is statistically significant.”

      I’m still uncertain, but it seems Hershman is being paraphrased, not quoted, and that the rest can be attributed to an unnamed author at NFL.com.

      If that’s true, then a reasonable version of your paragraph would look like this:

      NFL.com reports a staggering number of ACL injuries on turf fields.

      The panel started to notice a higher rate of injuries on the new turf in evaluating the data that the NFL compiles each season, Hershman said. Once enough games had been played on the newer surfaces to do a scientific analysis, the panel found that anterior cruciate ligament injuries and a more serious type of ankle sprain occurred at a higher rate that is statistically significant.

      That works IF NFL.com is the original source of the material and IF they’re reporting something that someone named Hershman reported about a panel’s findings.

      HOWEVER, I’ve just followed your link and discovered that the NFL is posting on its website an article from the Associated Press. THAT MEANS the Associated Press is most likely your actual source. I’ll let you decide how far to pursue this, AA, but we should probably make this a test case and resolve the apparent confusion.

      Your call. Let me know.

      Like

  13. paulajean5 says:

    I am still working on my citations! I know how to cite for the most part, but I may be asking for more help soon! 🙂

    Like

  14. dohertyk9 says:

    The video “Tea and Consent” on consentiseverything.com claims that consent is ‘as simple as tea’.

    #Consentiseverything. (n.d.). Retrieved March 18, 2018, from http://www.consentiseverything.com/

    I mentioned the video title and the website, not sure if this is a correct citation though.

    Like

    • davidbdale says:

      It’s OK as a Citation, DK9, but it has punctuation problems that echo several you’ve been making (mysteriously considering your overall capability) for weeks.

      Watch the Punctuation:
      The video “Tea and Consent” on consentiseverything.com claims that consent is “as simple as tea.”

      There’s no such thing as “single quotes” in American English, except inside a set of “double quotes.” And the periods go inside ALWAYS.

      I’ve italicized the website since it’s the publication. (Not everybody would do this, but it’s logical.)

      Liked by 1 person

      • davidbdale says:

        Would a demonstration of single and double quotes help?

        Prof said, “I’ve always loved the quotation, ‘The “least-advanced” people will be the ones who save us.’ ”

        There’s one quotation here, contained within double quotes.
        Within it, Prof quotes Noam Chomsky, who has an opinion about people. The quote-within-quotes is handled with single quotation marks.
        Within the inside quote, the word least-advanced is placed inside double quotes to indicate it’s being used ironically.

        The double-single-double-single-double-single, etc., sequence can go on forever.

        Prof said, “Words, ‘Words, “Words, ‘Words, “Words,” words,’ words,” words,’ words.”

        Like

  15. pATricKStar123 says:

    “According to a 2013 American Psychological Association survey, about one-third of college students have experienced depression within the past year and had difficulty functioning because of it”. Depression and anxiety are one of the most common mental illnesses you can see on campus. Students reported bipolar disorder, obsessive compulsive disorder, schizophrenia, substance abuse or addiction, and “other addictions.” Colleges fail in helping because they rarely promote their services. furthermore no one wants to seem different and or judged so but making these services seem not welcoming most students will hesitate to go.

    Katz, D. (2013). Community college student mental health: A comparative analysis (Order No. 3572817). Available from ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global. (1434835907).

    Like

    • davidbdale says:

      This is a very confusing reference, PS.
      You don’t attribute the quotation to any person. It’s not a quote from the APA. It’s a quote ABOUT the APA, and we can’t tell from your paragraph who said it.

      The Reference you provide is the 2013 doctoral thesis of D. Katz. Presumably, somewhere in her thesis, Katz quoted an APA survey, using the words you put into quotation marks without telling us it was her who used them.

      The right way to credit Katz would be:
      In her 2013 doctoral thesis, D. Katz quoted an American Psychological Association survey, which said that “about one-third of college students have experienced depression within the past year and had difficulty functioning because of it.”

      Please note, the period that ends the quote, like ALL PERIODS ALWAYS, goes INSIDE THE QUOTATION MARKS.

      Sorry for the CAPSLOCK.

      Does all of this make sense to you, PS?

      Like

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