Bibliography – PaulaJean

1. Bartlett, T. (2013, January 30). Power of Suggestion. Retrieved April 18, 2018, from

Background: This article discusses power of suggestion and how it relates to the way people act after hearing certain things. It focuses on a certain study demonstrated to have people actually walk at a different pace due to words that they unscrambled.

How I Used It: I used this article for background information to form my own opinion and to use it as evidence within my research position paper. It really helped me prove my point on unconscious forces and how things that are said around you can effect your performance and actions. I learned that after hearing or seeing a word, somebody’s actions can literally changed without them knowing based on the subconscious focus on what was heard.

2. Expectancy Bias. Retrieved April 18, 2018, from Bias

Background: This article explains what expectancy bias is and certain examples of it. There is a research study and other facts about the concept.

How I Used It: Although brief, this source gave me a lot of background information to shape my thesis and research around. I learned that expectancy bias is a form of reactivity in which a researcher’s cognitive bias causes them to subconsciously influence the participants of an experiment.

3. Spencer, S. J., Steele, C. M., & Quinn, D. M. (1999). Stereotype Threat and Women’s Math Performance. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 35(1), 4-28. doi:10.1006/jesp.1998.1373

Background: This article was about study where the experimenters tried to see if prior studies where women underperform on difficult tests but do fine on others occurred with the “highly selected” students that were chosen for this study. They conducted two experiments and concluded that stereotype threats really do effect the way women perform on difficult math tests.

How I Used It: I incorporated evidence from this article into my final research paper. I described the study and the results to further prove my point about stereotype threats. This study was really carefully designed to show that women are just as smart, but they are overwhelmed by the stereotype threat that surrounds them in math and science tests. The fact that it was so meticulously created shows a great amount of validity in the source.

4. Why Stereotype Threat Keeps Girls Out of Math and Science, and What to Do About It. (2011, June 01). Retrieved April 18, 2018, from

Background: This article delves in deeper into stereotype threat and Josh Aronson’s study. Usually before taking an AP test, a proctor will ask the students to confirm their gender. (Presumably on the answer sheet with all of the other information.) Aronson wanted to see what would happen if they had the students do this after the test instead of before. When asked before, females had a lower average than the males. When asked after the test, the females actually had a higher average.

How I Used It: I used to article to provide more evidence about stereotype threats. I described the study and results. I also used this article to increase my knowledge on the concept before writing my paper.

5. Vedantam, S. (2012, July 12). How Stereotypes Can Drive Women To Quit Science. Retrieved from -jobs

Background: This article speaks to stereotype threat and women in science professions. Two experimenters, Toni Schmader and Matthias Mehl, put recording devices on male and female science professors. They figured this could show why and how women feel compelled to leave the field. They found that when women talked to women about work/life/etc., they were very engaged. When women talked to men about work, they were very disengaged. They were engaged, though, when talking to men about things that do not have to do with work or research. Mehl believes that the way to fix this is have more women in the field.

How I Used It: I used this article within my essay to show something other than math. Women are also “attacked” at work with these threats by the men around them. Using it really shows just how much women are in danger of the stereotype threat.

6. Reducing Stereotype Threat. (n.d.). Retrieved from

Background: This article presents ideas on how to stop stereotype threat in the classroom. The author discusses different things to establish with students for teachers. Implementing a growth mindset, motivating feedback, and a sense of belonging will help reduce the threats from different stereotypes.

How I Used It: I believe that stereotype threat is a huge issue so including ways to prevent it is very important to me. This article gave me specific ways to stop the threats to include in my research paper and get the word out.

7. Rydell, R. J., Shiffrin, R. M., Boucher, K. L., Loo, K. V., & Rydell, M. T. (2010, August 10). Stereotype threat prevents perceptual learning. Retrieved from

Background: This article includes a study on how stereotype threat does not only effect performance, but the ability to learn in general.

4 thoughts on “Bibliography – PaulaJean”

  1. I’ll hold off as long as I can, PJ.
    I have a class tonight in Philly until 9pm, would like to sleep for a few hours, and start my meetings tomorrow morning before 8am. Please text me when it’s OK to grade your stuff. If I have to start before I hear from you, I will. Sorry. Being as human as I can.


    1. You do not have to apologize. I should be done fairly soon. Thank you so so much for being understanding and working with me. It really means a lot!


  2. While you’re working, let me remind you something I said several times in class and in the Lecture posts about Bibliographic notes and White Papers.

    Your claims here need to be just as specific as they are in every other argument.


    I used this article for background information to form my own opinion and to use it as evidence within my research position paper. It really helped me prove my point on unconscious forces and how things that are said around you can effect your performance and actions.

    We want to understand what your “own opinion” is, and how it was useful as “evidence.” We want to know what “point it proved” about unconscious forces, and how things we hear can “affect our performance,” but you need to tell us, PJ.


    Reading this article convinced me that human beings will respond to a set of stimuli as they are expected to respond whenever those expectations are explicit, and particularly when they are reminded of those expectations in advance. The author’s research demonstrated clearly that subjects in an experiment (especially when they don’t know they’re test subjects) will live up to expectations that conform to society’s prejudices. Conversely, their performance on tasks thought to be outside their capabilities will suffer because they unwittingly conspire to prove the prejudices correct.

    If that’s what you learned from Bartlett (unlikely since I just invented it out of my head), then SAY that’s what you learned from Bartlett.

    Liked by 1 person

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