Why a Refutation Argument?

The Turing Test

The test was introduced by Turing in his 1950 paper, “Computing Machinery and Intelligence“, while working at the University of Manchester (Turing, 1950; p. 460).[3] It opens with the words: “I propose to consider the question, ‘Can machines think?'” Because “thinking” is difficult to define, Turing chooses to “replace the question by another, which is closely related to it and is expressed in relatively unambiguous words.”[4] Turing’s new question is: “Are there imaginable digital computers which would do well in the imitation game?”[5] This question, Turing believed, is one that can actually be answered. In the remainder of the paper, he argued against all the major objections to the proposition that “machines can think”.[6]

This is a note to my future self.
Make a lecture about the need to address “all the major objections” to one’s premise when one’s premise sounds absurd, as all the best counterintuitive premises do.

Class Canceled THU MAR 07

Keep Calm

One advantage of the blog is that we can communicate even when nasty weather keeps us apart.

I will post my Rebuttal Argument here for your benefit. I’ll also update today’s Agenda to reflect the fact that we did not meet in person.

Enjoy your break. Return refreshed. I’ll bring donuts, beverages, and breakfast sandwiches for all voters when we return on MON MAR 19.

Barter Explained, Poorly

Bartering is trading services or goods with another person when there is no money involved. This type of exchange was relied upon by early civilizations. There are even cultures within modern society who still rely on this type of exchange. Bartering has been around for a very long time, however, it’s not necessarily something that an economy or society has relied solely on.

A barter system is an old method of exchange. This system has been used for centuries and long before money was invented. People exchanged services and goods for other services and goods in return. In ancient times, this system involved people in the same area, however today bartering is global. The value of bartering items can be negotiated with the other party. Bartering doesn’t involve money which is one of the advantages. You can buy items by exchanging an item you have but no longer want or need. Generally, trading in this manner is done through Online auctions and swap markets.

The history of bartering dates all the way back to 6000 BC. Introduced by Mesopotamia tribes, bartering was adopted by Phoenicians. Phoenicians bartered goods to those located in various other cities across oceans. Babylonian’s also developed an improved bartering system. Goods were exchanged for food, tea, weapons, and spices. When money was invented, bartering did not end, it become more organized. Due to lack of money, bartering became popular in the 1930s during the Great Depression. It was used to obtain food and various other services. It was done through groups or between people who acted similar to banks. If any items were sold, the owner would receive credit and the buyer’s account would be debited.

Just as with most things, there are disadvantages and advantages of bartering. A complication of bartering is determining how trustworthy the person you are trading with is. The other person does not have any proof or certification that they are legitimate, and there is no consumer protection or warranties involved. This means that services and goods you are exchanging may be exchanged for poor or defective items. It may be a good idea to limit exchanges to family and friends in the beginning because good bartering requires skill and experience. At times, it is easy to think the item you desire is worth more than it actually is and underestimate the value of your own item.

On the positive side, there are great advantages to bartering. As mentioned earlier, you do not need money to barter. Another advantage is that there is flexibility in bartering. For instance, related products can be traded, or items that are completely different can be traded. Another advantage of bartering is that you do not have to part with material items. Instead, you can offer a service in exchange for an item. With bartering two parties can get something they want or need from each other

Evaluate your teacher, please

Please complete the Instructor Evaluation

The Writing Arts Department very much appreciates receiving feedback from students about the quality of its instructors and strives for 100% participation.

Please do your part to assure that your schoolmates receive quality instruction by evaluating your professors, including me.

The Email Invitation.

At the end of November, you were sent (along with 1000 other emails) an email requesting that you Complete a Survey at Banner Self Service. Many of you told me at your Grade Conferences that you have already done so. Others don’t remember seeing the email.

If you can find it, around November 28-30, it should give you good instructions.

What to do without an Invitation.

Lacking a student account, I can’t verify the procedure, but I believe this will work:

  • Go to Banner Self Service
  • https://ssb.rowan.edu/
  • Open your Student Account
  • Look for “Take a Survey” or “Answer a Survey”
  • Jacob says “just search for Survey and it pops right up.”
  • Proceed to the Instructor Evaluation
  • Let me know in a Reply below that you’ve completed the survey.
  • Thank you very much.
  • Enjoy your holidays.
  • Don’t forget to reach out to your Professor-for-Life when you need help.