Comp II Blog for Spring 2018 students of David Hodges
The Writing Arts Department very much appreciates receiving feedback from students about the quality of its instructors and strives for 100% participation.
Please do your part to assure that your schoolmates receive quality instruction by evaluating your professors, including me.
At the end of November, you were sent (along with 1000 other emails) an email requesting that you Complete a Survey at Banner Self Service. Many of you told me at your Grade Conferences that you have already done so. Others don’t remember seeing the email.
If you can find it, around November 28-30, it should give you good instructions.
Lacking a student account, I can’t verify the procedure, but I believe this will work:
Core Value I. My work demonstrates that I used a variety of social and interactive practices that involve recursive stages of exploration, discovery, conceptualization, and development.
Every individual has their own unique ideas and interpretations of the world. Writing gives people the chance to convey their thoughts to their peers. Constantly, the writer must participate in daily activities and apply it to their writing. While writing my definition argument, I had to use my everyday activities to aid my writing. Every Tuesday this semester, I observed a first-grade classroom with a full hands-on experience. The things I learned helped me write what it means to be an effective teacher. By observing a very effective teacher, I used those moments and inserted portions into my paper. I have found that the more one knows about a topic, the easier it is to convince an audience of a specific point of view.
Core Value II. My work demonstrates that I placed texts into conversation with one another to create meaning by synthesizing ideas from various discourse communities.
An integral part of writing is researching other pieces of writing to gain new knowledge on the topic. During my research for my causal argument, I would read an article and connect it to another article that I previously read. My best strategy for finding new sources was to read about ideas in one article and then research a specific topic within that original source. This method has helped me find most of my sources by identifying new questions within a specific text. Essentially, I jumped from article to article finding new ideas from the previous one. Also while reading, I found myself understanding the ideas proposed through an article, at the same time, I created new ideas and arguments on my own. A number of sources played an important role in the causal argument. Combining all of their ideas and my own made for one large argument on why standardized testing has negative effects on the educational community.
Core Value III. My work demonstrates that I rhetorically analyzed the purpose, audience, and contexts of my own writing and other texts and visual arguments.
Posting to a public blog for this class was the first time I have ever done anything like this. We all had to be mindful of what we posted because anyone with the website address is able to read our work. Before anyone begins the writing process, they must decide who their audience will be. The visual rhetoric assignment taught all of us how to rhetorically analyze. As writers, it is imperative that we describe with such detail so that the audience create a mental image while reading. This allows the reader to retain more information about the topic. While I was writing the visual rhetoric, I must have watched the 30-second ad 1,000 times. I described every second of the video with so many visual details until I could read it and see the commercial in my mind. If the audience can mentally view the scene the writer is describing; the reader will most likely never forget what they have read.
Core Value IV: My work demonstrates that I have met the expectations of academic writing by locating, evaluating, and incorporating illustrations and evidence to support my own ideas and interpretations.
I chose the topic of my research paper because of all the opinions I kept on the subject of standardized testing. I found it to be an interesting subject in which I felt strongly about. Of course, I only had my opinions. The more I researched and read other points of view, the stronger I felt on my position. Reading about the ideas and experiences of educators really helped in supporting my thesis. To bring everything together, I would introduce my audience to one of my source’s experience, and then explain the event in my own words and add my opinion. I could not have manufactured such writing without the knowledge of other professionals.
Core Value V. My work demonstrates that I respect my ethical responsibility to represent complex ideas fairly and to the sources of my information with appropriate citation.
Not citing someone else’s ideas is not only unethical, but also disrespectful to the original author. My annotated bibliography demonstrates true academic integrity because of how much I explain about each source. I explicitly recognize the owners of the ideas that I used in my research. Writers must understand the negative connotations that come with plagiarizing. Not only do students represent themselves, but they represent their university as well. Plagiarizing can lead to serious sanctions such as expulsion. As a writer, I never intend on taking another author’s idea and crediting it as my own.
The overdiagnosis of Attention Deficit-hyperactivity Disorder is becoming more prevalent causing patients to be mistreated for the disorder
1A. Working Hypothesis 2
Greater clinical evaluations can help determine the accuracy of the given diagnosis
Attention Deficit- Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disease that affects one’s ability to sustain attention and involves excessive activity and deficiencies in impulse control. ADHD is diagnosed during early childhood and can follow an individual into adulthood, and for the rest of their life.
Although there is no specific cause of ADHD, there are many factors that can possibly contribute to a child developing the disorder. First, there are many pregnancy complications a mother can have while carrying her child. The health and dietary habits of a mother who is carrying a baby also has a potential impact on the baby’s mental and physical health. For example, mothers who drank alcohol or smoked cigarettes during their pregnancy could result in birth defects to the baby. More causes could include environmental factors and high educational expectations placed on very young children.
While there is an apparent rise in the diagnosis of ADHD, some argue that the disorder is underdiagnosed. The belief that ADHD is underdiagnosed comes from the fact that other disorders, such as bipolar disorder, dyslexia, anxiety and autism, all have very similar symptoms to Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder. Overlapping disorders and the comorbidity of the symptoms sometimes only get identified as one disorder, as opposed to another. Thus, leaving ADHD to get ignored and the disorder to be mistreated.
As of right now, my research is coming along well and I am confident that I’ll be able to organize my ideas into a well formatted paper. I still have a lot of work to do and changes to make. The research I’ve been finding is very interesting, some of which I didn’t know prior and would like to include it into my paper. However, the knowledge that I already had on the topic came from things I’ve studied in my Psychology classes and from taking care of my younger brother who was diagnosed with the disorder.
It seems counterintuitive that men are defining rape against women. Throughout time, rape had different meanings and act of rape itself was not always seen as an assault. The laws provide against rape greatly relate to the era in which the laws were placed. Because of the different historical periods, laws on rape were constantly changing. In January of 2012, the most current definition of rape was updated by the FBI and includes different forms of sexual assault and assault on other genders.
It seems counterintuitive that an individual is unaware of what goes on in their own mind. Beliefs that one many have about their thoughts has been confirmed as inaccurate according to the Psychological studies conducted throughout the years. Becoming familiar with the content of these studies provides insight on how you live your everyday life, including how you make decisions, perceive authority figures, planning out the day and performing tasks.
It seems counterintuitive that college-aged students suffer many different psychological disorders during their time in college. Disorder such as depression, anxiety, eating disorders and ADHD are becoming more prevalent in students. The cause of these rising disorders could be due to the economy, making it harder for students and their families to pay for a college education. In addition, due to the increase of students facing these disorders, finding, providing and maintaining treatment is becoming more difficult. Making alternative resources available is greatly encouraged to students who may not be able to find help on their own.
In today’s society, money is the most essential factor in our everyday lives. Although money can not physically give life to an individual, it can provide all the things that are needed to survive. If you were to ask a group of people what is money according to them, they would all probably give similar responses. One might say it is a measure of wealth, or they would say it is a method of payment. But the concept of money is more abstract than just that. While money is only paper, a birth certificate is also only a piece of paper, as is a high school or college diploma. So that makes my wonder; why is a piece of paper so important? What gives money so much value and power?
Growing up, I remember receiving money in birthday and holiday cards, sometimes I would even be given a gift card with a limited balance on it that could be spent at a particular store. Being so young and not even really needing paper money, I never knew what to do with it so I would put it away in a piggy bank. I knew the money was important enough to save but I didn’t really know why. However, I understood the purpose of a gift card well enough to know to put it in my wallet and carry it with me next time I went shopping. As I got older, I began to realize that money takes on many forms, other than just a green, rectangular piece of paper. Now being a student in college, the value of money has became greater to me.
While reading, “The Island of Stone Money”, by Milton Friedman, I was introduced to a new idea of currency. Yap currency consisted of large pieces of limestone, that was also known as fei, and were sometimes too large to even move. I initially thought it was strange because limestone isn’t something that an individual can keep safe at a bank or to even carry in their wallet. The people of Yap would make purchases with the stone, however the stone did not have to be physically exchanged or even present in order for the new owner to accept the possession. Before passing judgement too quickly, I began to think about the society we live in today. Funds can be transferred or exchanged without physically changing hands. For example, going into a grocery store and swiping a credit card, resulting in the purchase of the grocery items. No physical money was present or even visible, but the transaction was still able to be completed. Despite the similarities we may have to the people of Yap, it is almost assumed that today, if you do not have physical money in your possession, then you are not as wealthy as someone who does. If someone does not have physical possession of the money, or an item that was bought with their money, it is not considered to be theirs. A fei at the bottom of the ocean near the Yap islands still has value and can still be used as an exchange, but if you were to drop a dollar in the street, that dollar is no longer yours and has no value to you.
Next, I was introduced to the Bitcoin. I was never aware that this existed until recently. I quickly became familiar with the concept. A Bitcoin is a digital currency, and has also gained a great amount of power. The value of Bitcoin changes almost everyday. It can range from zero dollars, to millions of dollars. With this virtual currency, users are able to keep their Bitcoins in a virtual wallet and can use those Bitcoins to make exchanges of products. However, Bitcoins do have a down side, including the anonymity of the users can lead to potential illegal activity and the vulnerability of the virtual currency makes an easy target for online hackers.
After reading these articles and gaining insight to different forms of currency, “money” is still a very broad term. Money is not just paper or plastic, but it is whatever holds value. This money can be a 10 foot limestone that is not physically transferable, a virtual form that exists but is not visible, or a green sheet of rectangular paper that can be folded into a wallet. I personally believe any form of currency has to be handled and exchanged with trust. For the people of Yap, they had to trust one another when an individual wanted to purchase land and said that their 10 foot limestone was now exchanged for that spot of land. Now, it is still about having trust in each other that the money we claim to have is in fact accurate and can be used to physically exchange goods and products.
Friedman, Milton. “The Island of Stone Money.” Diss. Hoover Institution, Stanford University , 1991.
“Bitcoin has no place in your – or any – portfolio.” Marketwatch.com. 31 Jan. 2015
Renaut, Anne. “The bubble bursts on e-currency Bitcoin.” Yahoo.com. 13 Apr. 2013
If you were to ask a group of people what is money according to them, they would all probably give similar answers. One might say it is a measure of wealth, or a method of payment. But the concept of money is more abstract than just that. Money is only paper, but so is a birth certificate, or a high school or college diploma. Why is a piece of paper so important? What gives it it’s value and power?
Growing up, I remember receiving money in birthday and holiday cards, sometimes I would even be given a gift card with a limited balance on it that could be spent at a particular store. Being so young and not even really needing money, I never knew what to do with it so I would put it away in a piggy bank. I knew the money was important enough to save but I didn’t really know why. However, I understood the purpose of a gift card well enough to know to put it in my wallet and carry it with me next time I went shopping. As I got older, I began to realize that money takes on many forms, other than just a green, rectangular piece of paper.
While reading, “The Island of Stone Money”, by Milton Friedman, I was introduced to a new idea of currency. Yap currency consisted of large pieces of limestone, that was also known as fei, and were sometimes too large to even move. I initially thought it was strange because limestone isn’t something that an individual can keep safe at a bank or to even carry in their wallet. The people of Yap would make purchases with the stone, however the stone did not have to be physically exchanged or even present in order for the new owner to accept the possession. Before passing judgement too quickly, I began to think about the society we live in today. Funds can be transferred or exchanged without physically changing hands. For example, going into a grocery store and swiping a credit card, resulting in the purchase of your grocery items. No money was present or even visible, but the transaction was still able to be completed. Despite the similarities we may have to the people of Yap, it is almost assumed that today, if you do not have physical money in your possession, then you are not as wealthy as someone who does. A fei at the bottom of the ocean near the Yap islands still has value and can still be used as an exchange, but if you were to drop a dollar in the street, that dollar is no longer yours and has no value to you.
Friedman, Milton. “The Island of Stone Money.” Diss. Hoover Institution, Stanford University , 1991.
0:00-0:01- The Ad starts off showing a family SUV parked in the driveway of a suburban home and all the doors on the car close simultaneously.
0:02-0:04- The scene switches to the inside of the car. There are two young boys, possibly brothers, sitting next to each other in the second row of the family’s truck and fighting over a bag of chips. The visual goes into slow motion then switches over to an older girl in the third row of the car, who is assumed to be the older sister, listening to music through her headphones while banging on the seats with her two drumsticks and blowing a bubble with the gum in her mouth. She appears to be in her own world, not paying attention to the fight her brothers are in just one row ahead of her.
0:05- Now, the father, who is also the driver, is being focused on. He appears to have an impatient look on his face as his children are in the background making a lot of noise and playing around.
0:06- 0:09- With the film still in slow motion, the scene first goes back to the daughter in the third row looking out the window with a fully blown bubble of gum coming out of her mouth. Next shows the two brothers again in the middle row still yelling at each other over the single back of chips. Then, to the mother in the passenger seat as she opens her mouth to scold her children. At these three seconds, you can hear the sounds in the background quickly growing more intense, indicating that this scene is leading up to the climax of the advertisement.
0:10-0:13- The rearview mirror is now in focus and the father’s eye looking into the back seat. Here, the daughter is shown yet again. The big wad of gum that she blew into a perfect sized bubble bursts back onto her lips causing a dramatic popping sound. The big bag of chips that the brothers were fighting over rips apart and the contents of the bag go flying all around the car.
0:14-0:16- Back up to the driver’s seat, the father looks into the camera, gripping the steering wheel and takes a long, deep breath. He is patiently waiting for the kids to settle down.
0:17- The two boys in the middle row are now in each other’s faces over the ruined bag and the sister is suddenly taken out of her daydream with a surprised look on her face. They all freeze and together, quickly their attention goes to the front of the car. The two boys, with guilty faces.
0:18- In the passenger seat, the mother is turned around looking back with wide eyes and tight lips, she mouths the word “Now!”
0:19-0:22- Frightened, all three of the kids quickly stop what they’re doing and turn to grab their seat belts and fasten themselves in.
0:23- With the scene now back in regular motion, the focus goes back to the father who looks and smiles at his wife, a look of relief.
0:24-0:26- Now the camera is zoomed out and focusing on both parents, with a view of the kids in the back. The mother brushes a chip from the bursted bag off her shoulder and turns back to face front. The father’s smile turns into a sign of relief as he adjusts his hands onto the steering wheel. All the children in the back are now finally behaving, buckled in and ready for the ride.
0:27- The SUV is now pulling out of the driveway in which it was parked.
0:28-0:30- The family SUV is now driving off down the street as the words appear on the screen and a man’s voice reads, “Don’t give up until they buckle up”
10 Big Advantages and Disadvantages of Standardized Testing. Conncectusfund.org. Connect US Fund. Accessed 28 Nov. 2017.
Background: There are numerous benefits as well as disadvantages when it comes to standardized testing. Whether it be that the questions are too generalized or that sometimes students are not in the effective state of mind on test day. These disadvantages aid my argument on how standardized testing stunts academic growth.
How I used it: I did not use this as an in-depth source mainly because it only pointed out a few basic facts about testing. Those basic ideas helped me find out what questions I should be looking for the answers to. The main use for this source was to further my research. It has lead me to many other sources to which I have used more predominantly.
Alcocer, Paulina. “History of Standardized Testing in the United States.” National Education Association. Accessed 1 Dec. 2017.
Background: The very beginnings of standardized testing starting around 1838. Educators around the US began to render new ideas to measure the knowledge of students. Written exams replaced oral exams when the primary purpose of education shifted from educating the elite class to educating the mass population. These tests were designed to measure the educational capabilities of students in the United States. Gradually, the intention changed, standardized testing became a way to evaluate teacher and school performance to punish schools whose test results were poor and to reward those schools with high performance scores.
How I used it: One of my arguments is how once, standardized testing was an effective way to evaluate students. Today, the primary focus of testing is to make money based decisions on the basis of test scores. A timeline of the history of standardized testing has allowed me to clearly see this important shift.
Brooks, Martin. Brooks, Jacqueline. “The Courage to Be Constructivist.” The Constructivist Classroom. vol. 57, no. 3, 1999, pp. 18-24. http://www.ascd.org/publications/educational-leadership/nov99/vol57/num03/The-Courage-to-Be-Constructivist.aspx. Accessed 28 Nov. 2017.
Background: The constructivist style of teaching proves to be the most effective method of educating. Ideas, such as challenging the supposition of students, teaching broad concepts and valuing student opinions, are all central to the primary goal of constructivist teachers. Learning is a convoluted process in which people absorb new information to either alter their perspective of the surrounding world or not. Constructivist teachers keep relevant facts and information in their educational toolbox as to keep the minds of students engaged in classroom activity. Creativity and free thinking are lost in a world of standard assessment, forcing students to be tested on material that does not positively impact their education. Standardized testing scores the end rather than the journey of learning. Each student has a different background of knowledge; therefore, everyone learns at different rates. There needs to be a shift from students learning the same curriculum to analyzing individual student needs in the classroom.
How I used it: To understand the issues revolving standardized testing, the true meaning of an effective educator must be clear. I used the evidence and real-life examples, provided by this source, to determine my stance on the problem. The first line of the educational defense is the teacher. The research surrounding high-stakes testing has its roots in first-hand accounts from educators whom interact with their students the most. This article aided in molding my thesis; I felt that I needed to research the basics of my argument to be able to completely understand the subject.
Brooks, Martin, and Jacqueline Brooks. In Search of Understanding: The Case for Constructivist Classrooms. Association of Supervision and Curriculum Development. 1993. http://www.ascd.org/publications/books/199234/chapters/Honoring-the-Learning-Process.aspx.
Background: The author describes the ideas and experiences around the knowledge of student learning. The process of learning must not be viewed as a ‘one-size fits all’ approach. Each individual mind has witnessed events that have shaped how they view the world; therefore, no two minds are capable of effectively learning using the same method. Because they contain generalized questions, standard assessments stunt creativity, thus defiling the true purpose of education.
How I used it: Again, researching the basics of the argument is imperative to provide me with a solid foundation of knowledge for supporting my argument. These supporting facts assisted me in convincing readers the disadvantages of standardized assessments. Although, the author’s focus was on the meaning of effective learning, the ideas formed central arguments in my research.
Herman, Joan L., and Shari Golan. “Effects of Standardized Testing on Teachers and Learning–Another Look.” (1990).
Background: The cost, in dollars, of standardized testing has risen to the billions. Test results come with high risks, for teachers especially; the classroom then becomes a course on how to pass a test, ultimately distracting the learning of other important material. Less than one-fifth of teachers interviewed in this study, believe that the results of the tests accurately reflect the learning of their students. Even when studies have shown no significant impact on development, test advocates and policy-makers still believe testing has benefits.
How I used it: The arguments introduced, allowed me to formulate pros and cons of high-stakes testing. Herman evaluates the effects that standardized tests have on the learning community; she has found that testing provides no significant impact on educational development. Research has also proved that testing negatively affects teachers and how they conduct their classroom procedures. The article furthered my search for new sources by introducing more specific concepts. The evidence contributes to my final research paper, filling it with more facts to back up my thesis.
Klein, Alyson. “No Child Left Behind: An Overview.” Education Week. Editorial Projects in Education Research Center, 2015. Accessed 29 Nov. 2017.
Background: In an effort to hold schools accountable for their student’s performance, the passing of the No Child Left Behind Act in 2001 mandated school districts to administer standardized assessments to all students and report the results to the state. Furthermore, harsh sanctions are put in place for those districts who do not meet the Adequate Yearly Progress. Prior to 2010, it became clear that many schools were not going to meet the required AYP. As of that year, 38 percent of schools in the US failed to meet requirement. The current educational system has bureaucratic tendencies more than focusing on educational growth.
How I used it: The issues of standardized testing focus on math, reading and writing, ultimately narrowing the curriculum. The more time a teacher spends on test prep, the less time they have for other creative inducing subjects. I emphasize this important claim as it strengthens my argument. Hindering critical thinking skills by straying away from social studies, foreign languages and various art subjects, devalues the important life skills one must learn to progress in this world.
Kohn, Alfie. The case against standardized testing: Raising the scores, ruining the schools. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann, 2000.
Background: Kohn poses arguments that are for standardized testing and then immediately refutes these claims with relevant facts and statistics. Standardized testing has many negative associations with knowledge development. They do not accurately reflect a child’s academic performance; in other words, students who do not pass these exams will be deemed failures. Of course, this will damage the confidence of the student, leaving them to live a life in which they believe they are failures; forever stunting the creative and educational growth. Kohn introduces a list created by educator Bill Ayers, “Standardized tests can’t measure initiative, creativity, imagination, conceptual thinking, curiosity, effort, irony, judgment, commitment, nuance, good will, ethical reflection, or a host of other valuable dispositions and attributes. What they can measure, and count are isolated skills, specific facts and functions, the least interesting and least significant aspects of learning.” All the skills tests do not emphasize are very important life attributes that will increase the quality of life further down the road.
How I used it: Kohn assisted in my research process heavily. His thorough explanations of the downsides of high-stakes testing offered thought provoking ideas. What helped the most was his ability to refute the counterarguments which gave me a wide view on the subject. I incorporated his knowledge into my research paper to support my thesis. By demonstrating the negative effects, the chances of convincing my audience of my view greatly increases.
“New Jersey State Assessments.” State.nj.us. NJ Department of Education. http://www.state.nj.us/education/assessment/
Background: New Jersey’s Department of Education provides facts about standardized testing. The website includes how they score these tests, what they do with scores, when the tests are administered, and the scores needed to meet graduation requirements. There are numerous tools for students, parents, and teachers.
How I used it: I gained a basic knowledge of standardized testing through this source. Knowing what is at stake is important for emphasizing the fact that everyone involved in testing is under a enormous amount of pressure. My goal was for the audience to see the conditions in which the students are taking the test in. Testing is ineffectively used to determine educational growth.
Simmons, Nicola. “(De)grading the Standardized Test: Can Standardized Testing Evaluate Schools?” Education Canada. vol. 44, no. 3, 2004. Accessed 29 Nov. 2017.
Background: Simmons take and in-depth look at the alleged value of standardized testing. Holding teachers accountable for their student’s achievement is necessary, but testing is not an effective way to measure. Teachers will teach their children how to take a test rather than focus on important subject matter. Telling students not to be creative or make sure you complete the test within the time limit hinder critical thinking and puts a panic on the test taker. Simmons informs readers that the tests pose biased questions that are more designed for privileged kids.
How I used it: These arguments have a strong chance of convincing my readers that standardized testing does not procure the positive results that policy-makers tend to make people believe. By proving these facts, we can comfortably assume that we need to do away with testing.
Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disease that affects one’s ability to sustain attention and involves excessive activity and deficiencies in impulse control. Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder is a lifetime disorder that is often found in the early childhood years and affects the individual throughout their lifetime. For children who are diagnosed with the disorder, it makes it difficult for them to focus in school causing them to receive poor grades, they tend to be more awkward in social settings, and performing simple everyday tasks becomes a challenge. While they are able to learn how to cope as they get older, the problem will always exist. For adults who were diagnosed with ADHD during their childhood and still experience symptoms might end up being forgetful, disorganized and overwhelmed when it comes to their daily lives and jobs. The symptoms being experienced are more frustrating as an adult because of the impact it can have on work and an individual’s personal relationships. Proper maintenance of their medication and simply learning more about their own disorder can potentially provide great help to adults diagnosed with ADHD.
I believe that in today’s times, Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder is one that is overdiagnosed and often misdiagnosed. When I was 8 years old, my baby brother was diagnosed with Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder. He showed very apparent symptoms and because I lived with him, I saw the diagnosis to be an accurate one. At that age, it seemed as if the discussion of mental disorders was taboo and my family was in denial, but of course my brother’s diagnosis appeared to be the truth because the symptoms the disorder seemed to accurately match what I saw in my brother’s behavior. When high school came around, a lot of my classmates suddenly began to claim to have been diagnosed with ADHD, as if it were a trend. When those classmates were asked why they believed they had such a life altering biological mental condition, their answers would be something like, “I can never focus in class” and “I get distracted so easily” like they were making it out to be a joke. We all get distracted and sitting through a 50 minute history class might cause one to gaze out the window and day dream or play on their phone, so I never took their claims seriously. However, the frequency at which the topic was brought up sparked curiosity in me. It is true that more and more young children are receiving a diagnosis of ADHD and my classmates’ claims are exactly the type of claims and beliefs that lead pediatricians to make those diagnoses. While my high school classmates may have been making up stories for attention, there is no true way to know the accuracy of the growing epidemic.
The sudden increase of children being diagnosed with ADHD is growing at an alarming rate. While looking through statistical articles regarding the rise of diagnosis, I found that 6.4 million children between the ages of 4 through 17 years old have been diagnosed with the disorder in the years 2011 and 2012 alone. The prevalence rate of Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity disorder between the years 2003 and 2011 went up by 35%. At the rate of which ADHD diagnosis is increasing, this disorder is now the second most diagnosed child disease, right next to childhood obesity. A study conducted in September of 2010 by the Journal of Health Economics has determined that a child’s birth month has a great impact on their likelihood of being diagnosed with ADHD and their treatments. According to the study, kindergarten aged children who were born in August, otherwise known as before the kindergarten cutoff date, were said to be more likely to be diagnosed with ADHD than those children who were born in September, after the kindergarten cutoff date. Those children born in August were also believed to be twice as likely to be treated with medications for their diagnosis. It was later found that the study could have possibly resulted in 900,000 cases of the misdiagnosis of ADHD.