“Secondary traumatic stress has been documented in the spouses of veterans with PTSD from Vietnam. And the spouses of Israeli veterans with PTSD, and Dutch veterans with PTSD.”
- “Secondary traumatic stress” is claimed to be a type of PTSD, but is not an actual disorder.
- “documented” is just the record, not an actual study completed. We do not know how it was documented or if a study was even done.
- “Spouses of veterans” only indicates spouses were studied and taken into consideration of secondary PTSD. This could show not everyone in a household was studied or documented.
- “Spouses of Israeli veterans with PTSD, and Dutch veterans with PTSD” shows different people, that could have fought in different wars. All of these veterans could have different ways of life and ways they fought.
“In one study, the incidence of secondary trauma in wives of Croatian war vets with PTSD was 30 percent. In another study there, it was 39 percent.”
- “One study” does not show a whole picture. We cannot conclude secondary PTSD is real with one study being shown.
- “incidence of secondary trauma in wives of Croatian war vets” does not show how many wives were actually studied. It could be two wives or two hundred wives.
- “30 percent” gives us a number of just this group. We still also do not know what this 30 percent is out of. We cannot conclude this an accurate representation of a whole population of veteran’s wives.
- “another study” is just a basic statement that another test was done. This does not give us a representation of how many people were actually studied.
- “39 percent” is still a basic number that can represent some many different things. We do not know who was studied and what each wife has been though.
“’Trauma is really not something that happens to an individual,’ says Robert Motta, a clinical psychologist and psychology professor at Hofstra University who wrote a few of the many medical-journal articles about secondary trauma in Vietnam vets’ families.”
- “really not something that happens to an individual” does not make too much sense. There are many types of trauma someone can have and some types just cannot be contagious.
- “a few of the many medical-journal articles about secondary trauma in Vietnam vets’ families.” a few does not give a very exact number. We cannot know how knowledgeable he is if it’s just a few. Also, if it is only Vietnam war vets, that’s only a small portion of veterans.
“Katie Vines, the first time I meet her, is in trouble. Not that you’d know it to look at her, bounding up to the car, blondish bob flying as she sprints from her kindergarten class, nice round face like her daddy’s. No one’s the wiser until she cheerfully hands her mother a folder from the backseat she’s hopped into.”
- “the first time I meet her” shows that it is only one occasion. We do not know if this has happened before or not if it is only the first time meeting Katie.
- “she sprints from her kindergarten class” could just mean what she does shows her age if shes only in kindergarten.
- “Not that you’d know it to look at her, bounding up to the car, blondish bob flying as she sprints from her kindergarten class” shows us that Katie looks normal on the outside, but has something wrong on the inside.
- “nice round face like her daddy’s” is comparing a kindergartner to a war vet with PTSD. That is not something you can do because they are have two different mindsets.
- “No one’s the wiser until she cheerfully hands her mother a folder” shows Katie does not seem to know or understand she did something wrong.
“’It says here,’ Brannan says, her eyes narrowing incredulously, ‘that you spit on somebody today.’”
- “It says here” is a second hand source. We do not know the whole story from just this note.
- “you spit on somebody today” seems like something normal kids do sometimes because they do not completely understand right from wrong. Again, we cannot compare a normal child to a veteran.
“’Yes ma’am,’ Katie admits, lowering her voice and her eyes guiltily.”
- “lowering her voice and her eyes guiltily” tells us maybe Katie did know it was wrong.
“Her schoolmate said something mean. Maybe. Katie doesn’t sound sure, or like she remembers exactly. One thing she’s positive of: “She just made me…so. MAD.” Brannan asks Katie to name some of the alternatives. “Walk away, get the teacher, yes ma’am, no ma’am,” Katie dutifully responds to the prompts. She looks disappointed in herself. Her eyebrows are heavily creased when she shakes her head and says quietly again, “I was so mad.”
- “Her schoolmate said something mean. Maybe. Katie doesn’t sound sure, or like she remembers exactly” doesn’t seem like something that proves that PTSD is contagious. Katie is a young child, and normal children try to cover what happened.
- “‘She just made me…so. MAD'” may tell us the other students did something to cause Katie to spit on her.
- “She looks disappointed in herself. Her eyebrows are heavily creased when she shakes her head and says quietly again, ‘I was so mad.'” implies Katie knows what she did, but could not help herself and got very mad.