1. Tmg. “Is Rugby or American Football More Dangerous?The Telegraph, Telegraph Media Group, 25 Jan. 2016,

Background: This article discusses the injuries rugby players face compared to those of football players. It focuses on concussions and the impact the long-term impact it has on player health.

How I used it: This article helped me understand the concussion epidemic in professional football. It also shed light on the injuries that rugby most commonly has and helped to build my argument around that.

2. To, P. B. (2016, June 08). Rugby, like NFL, doesn’t have concussion issue figured out. Retrieved from

Background: This article on the ESPN website focuses on the inherent concussion problem in rugby and comparing it to the concussion problem in the NFL. Kat Merchant was a female rugby player for the English national team, and she suffered 10 or more concussions just to play rugby at the highest level possible. The NFL’s attempt to lessen their concussion problem is also highlighted. Head Coach Pete Carroll with the Seattle Seahawks began teaching a different tackling technique for his players to use. This new tackling technique is based on how rugby players tackle and making sure that the head is not involved in the tackle.

How I used it: This article helped me to see the concussion issue in rugby and how it measures up to that of football. It explains how the tackling techniques in rugby are safer than football’s techniques. This helped me build a solid argument.

3. Leonard, T. (2016, August 21). Is rugby safer than football? Retrieved from

Background: This article from the San Diego Union-Tribune focuses on the long-term effects of playing high-speed contact sports, like rugby and football. There are not many studies done comparing the concussions side by side, but there is plenty of information on injuries. One player on San Diego’s rugby team had suffered numerous concussions and blackouts while playing the game. Studies done in the UK found that high-level rugby players also developed CTE like their NFL counterparts. The studies and stories show proof of a problem, and USA rugby, like the NFL, is working on ways to remedy concussions.

How I used it: CTE is not limited to just football. For both football and rugby to stay around, the concussion percentage needs to be reduced by different rules or better techniques.

4. Moyes, J. (1996, April 22). Risk of spinal injuries highest in rugby. Retrieved from

Background: This article from the Independent focuses on the relation of spinal injuries in rugby compared to those in other sports. By far, rugby has the most spinal injuries compared to any other sport. Out of 98 injuries compiled by the Trevor Jones Tetraplegic Trust, 58 are rugby related. Along with the reported injuries, the Rugby Football Union has withheld information and statistics on spinal injuries for years.

How I used it: Rugby is the least safe sport when it comes to spinal injuries and paralyzation. Compared to every other sport, there are none that have near the same amount of spinal injuries.

5. Khaleeli, H. (2013, January 28). American football or rugby: Which is more dangerous? Retrieved from

Background: This article from The Guardian focuses on the safety concern for players in the NFL. More than 4,000 families have brought lawsuits to the NFL regarding concussions and debilitating head injuries. Players like Junior Seau took their own life because of symptoms brought on by CTE. His family sued the NFL for “wrongful death” and won the lawsuit. Jim McKenna, A professor of physical safety and health at Leeds Metropolitan University, claims that rugby is much safer than football. Football players use their head as a tackling tool, which is never the case with rugby tackles. Football players purposely throw their head into contact to bring down an opponent, and rugby players do their best to keep their head out of a tackle.

How I used it: Rugby players do not suffer as many concussions and head injuries as football players. Football players need to be taught techniques for safer play so they can have a life after the NFL and not suffer from CTE or other debilitating head injuries.

6. American College of Sports Medicine. (2011). ACSM Information On ConcussionPs In Sports[Brochure]. Author.

Background: This article from the ACSM, American College of Sports Medicine, focuses on the symptoms and causes of a concussion. A concussion happens when there is a sudden acceleration or deceleration of the head. It can occur when the head contacts the ground, a ball, or another player. Concussion symptoms are not always obvious and apparent. A couple symptoms are irritability, change in sleeping patterns, dizziness, vomiting, and double vision. Even doctors sometimes struggle in detecting symptoms associated with concussions.

How I used it: Concussions are hard to detect and there needs to be more research done to reveal better detection methods. If someone may have suffered a concussion, it is better to take the preventative measures rather than risk their health and safety.

7. Tong, E., & Almquist, J. (n.d.). Concussion- The Invisible Injury. Retrieved from

Background: The article written by Emily Tong and John Almquist focuses on the diagnosis and legislation related to concussions. Many high school and college athletic programs have the players take a baseline test for normal cognitive function. When a player may have gotten a concussion, they go back and have them take the same test and compare the scores. If the cognitive function of the athlete is not 100% they will not score as well as they did the first time. All 50 states have passed laws to protect young athletes from returning to play before their ready. The players are to be educated on concussions and symptoms, and they are told to refrain from playing if they have any symptoms. After a player is diagnosed with a concussion, the law requires the player to be cleared by a medical professional.

How I used it: Concussion issues are important enough to be written into the state legislature of all 50 states. Player safety is more important than any aspect of the game, and the brain is a delicate and important piece that players need to take better care of.

8. Johna Register-Mihalik, Christine Baugh, Emily Kroshus, Zachary Y. Kerr, and Tamara C. Valovich McLeod (2017) A Multifactorial Approach to Sport-Related Concussion Prevention and Education: Application of the Socioecological Framework. Journal of Athletic Training: March 2017, Vol. 52, No. 3, pp. 195-205.

Background: This article was written by Johna Register-Mihalik, Emily Kroshus, and Tamara C. Valovich McLeod. It focuses on the different levels of change that must occur to improve the concussion problem. From the interpersonal role all the way out to society’s role. Players need to be educated on concussions, coaches and parents need to be educated on identifying the symptoms, and schools and governments need to put policies in place to protect player’s future health.

How I used it: Understanding and fixing the concussion problem is not a one-step process, but a long and tedious approach that involves the individual players all the way up to the state government.

9. Armour, K. S., Clatworthy, B. J., Bean, A. R., Wells, J. E., & Clarke, A. M. (1997, December 12). Spinal injuries in New Zealand rugby and rugby league–a twenty year survey. Retrieved from

Background: This article was done by the Christchurch of Medicine and it focuses on spinal injuries rugby players suffered in New Zealand. The scrum produced the highest percentage of spinal injuries. Forwards and heavier players suffered more spinal injuries compared to backs and lighter players.

How I used it: Spinal injuries are a part of rugby and may not be avoidable, but there are precautions and techniques players can implement to reduce their chances.

10. Royston, A., & Ramey, L. (2013, September 20). Stingers and Burners. Retrieved March 20, 2018, from

Background: The article has statistical and factual information about stingers and burners. The author explains how the injury happens, what it does to the body, how to treat it, what the symptoms are, and the possible outcomes of the injury.

How I used it: I used this article to explain stingers and learn how exactly they damage the body and what to do for treatment and prevention. This helped me to build an argument about tackling techniques and how safe they are.

11. Wilkerson, R. (n.d.). Our knowledge of orthopedics. Your best health. (S. J. Fischer, Ed.). Retrieved March 20, 2018, from–conditions/burners-and-stingers/

Background: The article explains the anatomy of a stinger as it travels through the body and explains the causes and risk factors for getting a stinger.

How I used it: I used this article to understand stingers and relate the risk factors to the tackling techniques most football players use.

12. Pilon, M., & Belson, K. (2013, January 10). Seau Suffered From Brain Disease. Retrieved April 1, 2018, from

Background: This article explains that cumulative head injuries lead to CTE. It is about a well-known player that took his life and was found to have CTE.

How I used it: The article helped me to build a case against the football style of tackling. CTE is a horrible disease and the information the article provided about it and it’s effects, helped me to explain CTE and why it must be eliminated from athletes lives, starting with player safety.

13. Bodenner, C. (2016, October 14). Which Is More Dangerous, Rugby or Football? Retrieved April 1, 2018, from

Background: This article explains the ways that football and rugby compare on injuries and the dangerousness of both sports compared to each other.

How I used it: I used this article to explain the false sense of security football players have because of their padding. It helped me build an argument explaining how football is more dangerous overall, and especially in the tackle.

14. “USA Rugby Injuries” [One slide in a presentation received by email]. (n.d.). Referred to a study purported to have been conducted by USA Rugby. Origin unknown.

Background: This is a powerpoint put out by the national governing body for rugby in the United States. It compares injuries in rugby and football. Specifically, colligate athletes are monitored throughout the study. It focuses on injuries as a whole and then mentions a comparison of concussions.

How I used it: I used the information in this powerpoint to support my claims about rugby being safer compared to football. There is a specific study mentioned in the powerpoint that touches on the concussion rates comparing both sports.

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