Bibliography- Nreina34

  1. Adams, J. C., Belin, C., Toucas, B., Roberts, J., Brattberg, E., & Corre, P. L. (n.d.). Forget Criminals, Police Now Fear Activists and the Media.

Background:  This article published by The National Interest provides a case in Alabama where a man was pulled over by a police officer but instead of cooperating he decides to beat the officer as others join in and video the helpless man.  The officer didn’t fight back in fear of repercussions of the media and said, “I hesitated because I didn’t want to be in the media like I am right now. It’s hard times right now for us.”  


How I used it:  This article proved that the media has an affect on the mindset of a police officer now and is now altering decisions that can risk their life.  This is a perfect example of how unwanted prejudice leads to attacks against law enforcement, which is happening all around the country.


  1. Bejan, V., Hickman, M., Parkin, W. S., & Pozo, V. F. Primed for death: Law enforcement-citizen homicides, social media, and retaliatory violence.

Background:  PLOS ONE was a research studied designed to see if violence exists between the police and the public and see if it has a connection with social media.  They discovered ties between Black Lives Matter movements on the internet and how they were related to the amount of police officers and minorities killed in a certain time district.  


How I used it:  I used this article to prove that social media does have an influence on the livelihood of police officers and even the public too.  This research directly backs up thesis in regards to how the media is the fuel to the fire.


  1. Carlson, D. (2017, June 22). Exclusionary Rule.

Background:  This article which was published by the Cornell Law School is just a basic overview of the law and everything that it entails.  The exclusionary rule doesn’t let the government use evidence that is obtained during an unreasonable search, which violates your 4th amendment.  Supreme Court case Mapp v. Ohio was the cause for the exclusionary rule and took place in 1961.

How I used it:  This article was used to support my rebuttal argument that police officers are not allowed to make mistakes.  The exclusionary rule backs police officers on the mistakes they make and protects both them and the public.

  1. Gramlich, J., & Parker, K. (2017, January 25). Most officers say the media treat police unfairly.

Background:  Pew Research Center ran surveys in 2016 to get the opinion of police officers on how they feel the media treats the police.  The results were shocking, with 81% of them saying the media treats them unfairly, and half of that saying they strongly agree.  Also, this survey also showed that about 50% of police officers feel that the public doesn’t understand the risks and hardships they go through and could be another potential reason for their tarnished image.


How I used it: This research backs up the theory that media is influencing law enforcement and all of it is undeserved.  Society believes that the news headlines that ridicule police officers do not alter them, but how would you feel if you had to be the “bad guy” all the time when you’re just trying to do your job?  


  1. Gwendolyn Waters. Social Media and Law Enforcement. (2012, November 01)

Background:  The impact social media has on law enforcement has made the interactions between them erratic.  A big example is how the police are affected by the attacks on their credibility. Social media gives information to irrelevant people which is how things get escalated, and at the same time police officers are verbally attacked on social media at all times.  In addition, the rise of “questionable” videos online poses a threat to departments and is called cop baiting. By doing this, it makes police officers second guess their decisions which can end up hurting themself.


How I used it: This proves that there are people out there on social media that want to expose police officers for their every move.  Cop baiting is a serious epidemic among our country and is


  1. Keller, Jared. (2016, December 01). Why Are Ambush Killings of Police on the Rise?

Background:  There is a sudden increase in police ambush killing and it is starting to concern a lot of people, especially police officers.  This releases a mid-year report from the National Law Enforcement Officer Memorial Fund which keeps track of officer deaths. The numbers shocked people to see how much the number have increased in just a year.  

How I used it:  Ambush killings are definitely not something someone should take lightly and they are creating a major issue for policemen.  This article goes to show that law enforcement is receiving direct hatred and how much of a major threat to policing this is.


  1. Libaw, O. Y. (n.d.). Police Face Severe Shortage of Recruits.

Background:  Some cities around the country are seeing drops in applicants with rates up to 90 percent and it is a problem within the law enforcement industry.  This article recalls some possible reasons as to why people are not as attracted to the job anymore and gives multiple examples around the country where applicant numbers are dropping.

How I used it:  I utilized this article because I felt that it showed that since the police are starting to have more of a tarnished image, people are not wanting to be cops anymore.  The media can be blamed a reason for the low amount of police applicants around the country.


  1. McLaughlin, E. C. (2015, April 21). There aren’t more police shootings, just more coverage.

Background:  I decided to utilize this article to show an opposing side to this argument.  This article published by CNN preaches upon that their haven’t been more “controversial” police incidents, there has just been more media coverage on them giving them more exposure.  A big part to this more exposure is cell phones because it gives eye witnesses the ability to record everything that goes on.


How I used it: This could prove that this type of behavior from law enforcement can be a recurring thing dating back way farther to Eric Garner and Ferguson, Missouri.  Maybe more exposure to these incidents will educate the public about what is really going on in our police departments around the country. Starting to make police officers question if things are a set up sometimes, it’s really sad.  Social media makes police officers the biggest public figures it also comes along with the fact that the barrier between their professional and personal is no longer existent.


  1. Rieder, R. (2013, July 15).Column: Media got Zimmerman story wrong from start.

Background:  This article posted by USA TODAY  recalls an instance during the time when the George Zimmerman and Trayvon Martin case was buzzing everywhere.  This instance involved NBC News and how they edited Zimmerman’s comments on television to make them sound racist.

How I used it:  I used this article to prove that major news outlets, such as NBC News, skews information on television.  They do this to create more publicity and make the story explode because that is what they do, they are the news.


  1. Utah State University. Retaliatory violence between police and citizens is primed by social media. (January 11, 2018.)

Background:  This was another article regarding the research study PLOS ONE because it was so vital to my research essay.  This study proved that when there were deaths with minorities there were also deaths with officers, which ties the both of them together meaning retaliatory actions took place.

How I used it:   This study helped persuade my readers that social media negatively impacts the violence in the streets against police officers and the public.  If this is not put to a stop then violence will just continue and that is no way to live.


  1.  Vandita. The Real Reasons Nobody Wants To Be A Police Officer In America

Background:  The main point of this article is that numbers in the police force have been declining rapidly around the country.  Entrance exam numbers have gone down tremendously, for example in Fairfax County, Virginia, there were 4,000 applicants for their exam in 2011, but now will only catch the eye of 300.  


How I used it:  There must be a major cause to this 90% drop of applicants and people are now looking to the media to be that influence.  Ultimately, this is proving that not only does the media affect day to day officers, it is trickling down into the young minds making them not want to pursue their dreams anymore in law enforcement.



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