Annotated Bibliography-DoubleA

Source 1: NFL panel finds some knee, ankle injuries more common on turf. (n.d.). Retrieved from

Background: This article talks about the increase specifically in ACL injuries on Fieldturf surfaces. The article started off by saying that in an annual study conducted by the NFL that knee injuries on Fieldturf surfaces increased the rate of knee injuries by 88 percent. The study was conducted in the 2003-2008 seasons.

How I Used It: I used the statistics from the 2003-2008 seasons to talk about the increase Fieldturf fields had on the number of knee injuries.

Source 2: Turf Battle in the NFL: Natural vs. Artificial. (2017, March 11). Retrieved from

Background: The article talks about the struggle of running a fantasy team with all the injuries that occur now a days on turf fields. It also names multiple key players that got hurt in the preseason due to turf fields.

How I Used It: I used this in my writing by talking about my own struggles in fantasy football from injuries. Every year big name players go down early in the season and it messes up owners entire seasons.

Source 3: Todd Neale Todd Neale. (2010, March 15). AAOS: Artificial Turf Injuries Still More Likely in NFL. Retrieved from

Background: The article once again brings up the number that the articles brought up. I can continue to use the number of 88% more likely to get a knee injury on turf fields a lot.

How I Used It: This article also mentioned the 88% increase stat so I used both this and the first source in my writing almost to back each other up.

Source 4: BANSCH, J. (1993, Oct 17). Knee injuries call for abolishment of artificial turf fields. Indianapolis Star Retrieved from

Background: This article describes the moments in a game between the Eagles and the Colts where 3 separate season ending knee injuries occurred all on turf. The article quotes a trainer Otho Davis, a physical trainer for the Philadelphia Eagles. It quotes him saying that he normally does not take sides between turf and grass fields but this season has been something else to him.

How I Used It: I used this article to describe how bad turf can impact the season of a team. Also, the quote from the trainer was useful because it brought a first hand source who sees these injuries daily into my writing.

Source 5: NRG Stadium’s Playing Surface An ‘Abomination’. (2014, September 09). Retrieved from

Background: This article talks about the grass turf on Reliant Field home of the Houston Texans. The article talks about the square panels that the field uses for play. These panels are set up and when you get a cleat stuck in the side of a panel it can bend your knee the wrong way. This is what happened in Jadeveon Clowney’s first game where he planted in one of the seams and bent his knee the wrong way. According to his teammate Swearinger he also believes this is a problem because there has been a big injury bug around the Texans and knee injuries for years.

How I Used It: I can use the quotes from this article in a useful way in my writing. These players are playing on these fields every game so if one field is like this it may be the case for others. I used the quotes from players to decline the image of the artificial fields of play.

Source 6: Is an ACL tear more common on artificial turf or grass? (2018, March 03). Retrieved from

Background: This article talks about a question Dr. David Geieir was brought. It was brought to him because a kid had 3 injuries on his football team all on turf fields away games. . When answering the question Dr. said that the best results were from this study made from NFL teams from 2000-2009 where the results showed that there was not an increase in MCL injuries on turf but there was a 22% increase in knee sprains altogether and a 67% higher chance of getting an ACL sprain on turf than grass.

How I Used It: I used the study Dr. Geieir brought up to bring up more statistics in my writing. I mentioned the “67% higher chance of getting an ACL on turf than grass” statistic in my writing.

Source 7: Hershman, E. B., Anderson, R., Bergfeld, J. A., Bradley, J. P., Coughlin, M. J., Johnson, R. J., . . . Tucker, A. (2012, 09). An Analysis of Specific Lower Extremity Injury Rates on Grass and FieldTurf Playing Surfaces in National Football League Games. The American Journal of Sports Medicine, 40(10), 2200-2205. doi:10.1177/0363546512458888 

Background: This article is the results that Dr. G used in his answer to his blogger. The results are the same as stated above but it tells us what stats they used to find this data. The article says that they literally used every game from 2000-2009 seasons and made a graph and analyzed the data to find the results. The results were from 2680 games which is 5360 team games played so it is without a doubt a lot of data.

How I Used It: I used the statistics multiple times because there was a lot of games played throughout that time so there was a long period of important collective data.

Source 8: Iacovelli, J. N., Yang, J., Thomas, G., Wu, H., Schiltz, T., & Foster, D. T. (2013, August 01). The effect of field condition and shoe type on lower extremity injuries in American Football. Retrieved from

Background: This article talked about a 130 game span where they analyzed the lower extremity injuries. In this time the data was found that there was an increase in lower extremity injuries on turf but not during practice.

How I Used It: I would use this in my arguments by saying and proving that in game play there is an increase in lower extremity injuries and game play is where there is more injuries and higher intensity contact.

Source 9: 6 – Risk of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury as a Function of Type of Playing Surface. (n.d.). Retrieved from

Background: This article states how there is indeed an increase in the number of lower extremity injuries on the football field due to the playing surface. The article states a lot of causes though like surface hardness, rotational stiffness, and release torque. These physical characteristics may interact with other environmental factors such as cleat design, surface moisture levels, and ambient temperature. Altogether, these causes are what causes these  player to twist/turn their knees on the turf. It describes how the strongest evidence in field turf play injuries comes from football because of the size of players and level of play.

How I Used It: I plan on using this article to bring up the argument in my rebuttal argument that people may have problems with the fact that my evidence is from 2009. Also, this article brings up a lot of information on torque and the movement of players which causes the turf injuries.

Source 10:

A Review of Synthetic Playing Surfaces, the Shoe-Surface Interface, and Lower Extremity Injuries in Athletes. (n.d.). Retrieved from

Background: This article talks about how the versatility and durability of artificial playing fields but, are they really that safe. It states that research over time has shown an increase in injury on artificial playing surfaces and that biomechanical data suggests that both the torque and strain experienced by lower extremity joints generated by artificial surfaces may be more than those generated by natural grass fields.

How I Used It: This article is more of a recent article too and I also used this article to refute some points in my rebuttal argument. I used it to bring up the biochemical data that it describes in the article about torque to back up my other source.

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