1. That’s exactly what happened to Wells Fargo customers nationwide. “5,300 Wells Fargo Employees Fired over 2 Million Phony Accounts.” CNNMoney, Cable News Network.
Background: This article discusses the millions of phony accounts that Wells Fargo employees made. Each employee at Wells Fargo are required to meet a certain amount of new accounts being opened. So each of them took customer’s information and opened up multiple accounts under the customer’s name without telling them. Wells Fargo soon found out what the employees were secretly doing and fired around 5,300 people. These employees showed their true unethical behavior.
How I used it: How I used this article in my essay was to make sure the audience knows that working for a company and trying to meet certain standards changes a human being and their ethics. These employees had to choose the route of unethical behavior to meet their margin in order to keep their jobs.
2. Kauflin, Jeff. “The World’s Most Ethical Companies 2017.” Forbes, Forbes Magazine, 14 Mar. 2017.
Background: This article contains a list of companies who have been the most ethical companies of 2017. Now the companies that aren’t on this list are not most ethical probably because of something that may have happened in the past or is happening now.
How I used it: How I used this article was to demonstrate how smaller companies are more ethical than bigger companies because of the less customers they have to satisfy and the less employees that must be paid. While bigger companies tell us that they are ethical but in reality they mostly aren’t.
3. “The Rise and Fall of Enron.” Journal of Accountancy, 1 Apr. 2002,
Background: This article summarizes the rise and fall of Enron, a once so successful energy company that rose to the top so quickly in just a couple of months. Enron was a great company but the CEOs were very greedy with the profits that they wanted to have more. So as Enron kept on rising they skyrocketed at one point because of the fraud the CEOs decided to commit, they lied on their books.
How I used it: How I used this article was to explain another situation of how big companies always have unethical problems that they want to keep hidden. Enron was a great example to explain because it really changed everyone working for that company the minute you walked in.
4. Tribune, Chicago. “Ties to Enron Blinded Andersen.” Chicagotribune.com, 12 July 2008.
Background: This article summarizes the effect Enron had on Andersen; Andersen was one of the big five accounting firms until Enron became one of their customers. Enron asked Andersen to lie on the books about how their company were making profits but in reality they were losing. Soon when the SEC found out that Enron committed fraud it also came into ties with Andersen and how they didn’t announce what Enron was doing.
How I used it: How I used this article was to explain how easy it is for one big company to influence other companies. I made an example from Enron and how the company encouraged Andersen to behave unethically with having money thrown at them. Greed, money, moral ethics and business ethics all come into play its the survival of the strongest and who is willing to disobey the rules.
5. Investopedia. “5 Most Publicized Ethics Violations By CEOs.” Forbes, Forbes Magazine, 5 Feb. 2013.
Background: This article contains a list of CEOs who publicized ethic violations. For each CEO named there is a summary of what harm they caused to their company. The CEOs are come Enron, Yahoo, Tyco, Worldcom, and Hollinger International.
How I used it: How I used this article’s information was to elaborate and have more evidence about Enron and how the unethical behavior wasn’t the fault of the employees. The person who usually enforces ethic behavior rules must stand by them but not Kenneth Lay the CEO of Enron who personally wasn’t ethical which means the whole company had not been either. “CEOs have always been expected by shareholders and investors to maintain high ethical standards. Although it doesn’t always happen, today’s regulatory environment makes it easier to identify transgressions and bring violators to justice.”
6. Arlow, Peter. “Personal Characteristics in College Students’ Evaluations of Business Ethics and Corporate Social Responsibility.” Journal of Business Ethics 10.1 (1991): 63. ProQuest.
Background: This journal discussed how the age, years of experience, and sex goes hand in hand to determine whether someone will commit unethical behaviors. Arlow took many surveys with older people, college students, males/females to measure the correlation between who is more likely to be unethical when in a difficult situation. In the end he figured out that students’ ethical attitudes are influenced more by exposure to the larger socio-cultural norms.
How I used it: How I used this journal was by evaluating the age of employees who worked specifically at Enron. I noticed that older employees were more likely to be unethical in order to keep their jobs because they are families to take care of rather than younger people.
7. Ackman, Dan. “Enron The Incredible.” Forbes. Forbes Magazine, 06 June 2013.
Background: This article is similar to some other ones but has a bit more information of how Enron made their profits in just a short span of time. This article compares the amounts of hours between other companies in the 2000s and Enron and the ratio of hours to revenue don’t quite just add up.
How I used it: How I used this article was to explain the certain years Enron started to skyrocket in profits and how before hand they were following the rules. I made sure to explain how that Enron’s numbers couldn’t have been so high in revenue within 3 years and with a small amount of employees it is figuratively impossible.
8. “How Corporate Social Responsibility Pays Off.” Long Range Planning, Pergamon, 26 Feb. 1999.
Background: This database explains what CSR is a how it pays off to have enforced in a company. CSR was announced in the mid 70s but was never really looked upon because every business company were doing fine without it.
How I used it: How I used this database was to discuss how Enron had corporate values and responsibilities but they never really enforced it like they should have.
9. Tribune, Chicago. “The Fall of Andersen.” Chicagotribune.com, 12 July 2008.
Background: This article focuses on the fall of Andersen a big time accounting firm that was part of the big five. Well once known as the big five now it’s just the big four. Andersen had great clients but because of one mistake they fell and lost all of their clients because none of them wanted to be bothered getting investigated after what happened to Enron. Enron brought Andersen down because they asked and paid much money to Andersen to help them cover and falsely write on their books.
How I used it: How I used this information was by explaining the methods of how Andersen dealt with Enron. I intend to expose Andersen and how they could’ve used common sense and not get mixed up in this mess. Andersen could of followed their normal ethics by doing the right thing of just letting Enron go and slip away from their fingers or could have told the SEC what they were doing.
10. Berenson, Alex. “S.E.C. Opens Investigation Into Enron.” The New York Times. The New York Times, 31 Oct. 2001.
Background: This article discusses about the SEC and what they are capable of doing. S.E.C. stands for Securities and Exchange Commissions which stand for what is right and what is wrong. The SEC follow the corporate rules just as moral ethics. In Enron’s case, the SEC were not keeping a close eye on Enron until word was busy through Wall Street about Enron skyrocketing in the stock market as well as Forbes magazines as being the best place to work. That is where the SEC just opened an Investigation on Enron and wanted to know how they were making so much revenue in small span of time, Enron tried to tell them their profits were real but once the SEC got a hold of Andersen and the books; Enron as everyone knew was ruined.
How I used it: How I used this article was to explain how the SEC works and what they are allowed to do through an open investigation. I also plan to say that companies that say they are ethical like Enron are never truly ethical. Since the Enron incident I intend to say that the SEC has been more strict upon businesses and because of Enron there is the Sarbanes-Oxley Act.
11. “Ethics vs Morals.” Ethics vs Morals – Difference and Comparison
Background: This article describes the differences between business ethics and morals. It explains the definition, where do they come from, why, origins and etc. Knowing the differences helps identify what each company follows by.
How I used it: How I used this article was by understanding the concept of the two and make sure to keep reminding myself the difference. I intend to implement them into my writing and talk about different companies and how they have gone through unethical phases and how that hasn’t done any justice for them. While those who have been ethical like on that list are active, I also plan to write about how sticking with our morals from birth will help us become successful. If we intend to do the opposite of what we were taught because of business standards then we shall know what happens to those who fall in that trap. Being unethical ruins environments and causes more strict rules that other businesses do not deserve to get penalized.
12. Investopedia. “Enron Scandal: The Fall of a Wall Street Darling.” Investopedia, 23 Oct. 2017.
Background: This article elaborates more about what happened in each year. Enron started back in 1985 and was rising slowly up without and frauds or lies. Though it says once management changed within Enron everything changed and profits were skyrocketing but the SEC got suspicious that within 3 years Enron went bankrupt and was the fall of wall street.
How I used it: How I used this article was by elaborating the skyrocket of Enron and the cause of downfall. Within the article there is a timeline where it states that in 1998 Andrew Fastow was promoted to CFO. I used this information to connect the pieces of when the business was going to fail because when Fastow became the new CFO he hid there debts by falsely cooking the books with Andersen and since Enron was in the stock market they wanted their shares to keep rising so they “increased” revenue to have people buy more shares and increase profits that would then be put in the CFO, and CEOs wallets.
13. PBS. Public Broadcasting Service,Web. 02.
Background: This article is a timeline of all the years of Enron and what happen in almost every month of each year. The timeline gives detailed information about the stock market, the revenue of the business, the CEOs who fined and charged for the fraud offense.
How I used it: How I used this article was by backing up any sort of explanation with each time year and what happen to Enron and the amount of stock it went up or when they changed CEOs or even the time they wanted Arthur Andersen to be their auditing team to help them increase their profits.
14. Jenkins, Heledd. “Small Business Champions for Corporate Social Responsibility.“SpringerLink. Kluwer Academic Publishers, 02 Sept. 2006. Web. 03
Background: This journal contains information and statistical data from the UK proclaiming that small to medium businesses perform best and follow the ethics they have as rules
How I used it: How I used this journal was by confirming about how business have less of a lack of ethics like big businesses do. I will use think link for my rebuttal and say give examples that can go along with this journal I got off of google scholar.