Research paper- branxmad

Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disease that affects one’s ability to sustain attention and involves excessive activity and deficiencies in impulse control. Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder is a lifetime disorder that is often found in the early childhood years and affects the individual throughout their lifetime. For children who are diagnosed with the disorder, it makes it difficult for them to focus in school causing them to receive poor grades, they tend to be more awkward in social settings, and performing simple everyday tasks becomes a challenge. While they are able to learn how to cope as they get older, the problem will always exist. For adults who were diagnosed with ADHD during their childhood and still experience symptoms might end up being forgetful, disorganized and overwhelmed when it comes to their daily lives and jobs. The symptoms being experienced are more frustrating as an adult because of the impact it can have on work and an individual’s personal relationships [12]. Proper maintenance of their medication and simply learning more about their own disorder can potentially provide great help to adults diagnosed with ADHD.

I believe that in today’s times, Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder is one that is overdiagnosed and often misdiagnosed. When I was 8 years old, my baby brother was diagnosed with Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder. He showed very apparent symptoms and because I lived with him, I saw the diagnosis to be an accurate one. At that age, it seemed as if the discussion of mental disorders was taboo and my family was in denial, but of course my brother’s diagnosis appeared to be the truth because the symptoms the disorder seemed to accurately match what I saw in my brother’s behavior. When high school came around, a lot of my classmates suddenly began to claim to have been diagnosed with ADHD, as if it were a trend. When those classmates were asked why they believed they had such a life altering biological mental condition, their answers would be something like, “I can never focus in class” and “I get distracted so easily” like they were making it out to be a joke. We all get distracted and sitting through a 50 minute history class might cause one to gaze out the window and day dream or play on their phone, so I never took their claims seriously.  However, the frequency at which the topic was brought up sparked curiosity in me. It is true that more and more young children are receiving a diagnosis of ADHD and my classmates’ claims are exactly the type of claims and beliefs that lead pediatricians to make those diagnoses. While my high school classmates may have been making up stories for attention, there is no true way to know the accuracy of the growing epidemic.

The sudden increase of children being diagnosed with ADHD is growing at an alarming rate. While looking through statistical articles regarding the rise of diagnosis, I found that 6.4 million children between the ages of 4 through 17 years old have been diagnosed with the disorder in the years 2011 and 2012 alone [2]. The prevalence rate of Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity disorder between the years 2003 and 2011 went up by 35%. At the rate of which ADHD diagnosis is increasing, this disorder is now the second most diagnosed child disease, right next to childhood obesity [2]. A study conducted in September of 2010 by the Journal of Health Economics has determined that a child’s birth month has a great impact on their likelihood of being diagnosed with ADHD and their treatments [10]. According to the study, kindergarten aged children who were born in August, otherwise known as before the kindergarten cutoff date, were said to be more likely to be diagnosed with ADHD than those children who were born in September, after the kindergarten cutoff date. Those children born in August were also believed to be twice as likely to be treated with medications for their diagnosis. It was later found that the study could have possibly resulted in 900,000 cases of the misdiagnosis of ADHD [11].

The increase of this diagnosis being given to children could be the result of many different factors that could potentially begin the onset of children developing Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder, but also many professional beliefs could lead to a child finally being clinically diagnosed. Primarily, environmental factors are what is believed to cause the early onset. While it is common knowledge that ADHD is mainly a genetic disorder, many believe that other things contribute to their child being diagnosed with ADHD. For example, it’s believed that mothers who have smoked cigarettes or drank alcohol during their pregnancy could have possibly lead to their child being born with the disorder. However, the fact is that the use of tobacco or alcohol during pregnancy causes the child to be born with Fetal Alcohol syndrome, which has very similar symptoms to those of ADHD [7]. Thus, resulting in the children being treated and medicated for the wrong disorder.

Furthermore, in the case of misdiagnosis, the ADHD diagnosis is most commonly given to toddlers or young children. They don’t receive a diagnosis based off of abnormal behaviors, but because of the normal behaviors that toddlers and young children display at their age. Toddlers and young children tend be very active during play and behave impulsively. In today’s educational systems, preschoolers and kindergarten aged children have very high expectations placed upon them [2]. These children are expected to sit still in class while they listen to their teacher read a book out loud, or maybe expected to read the book themselves. The moment that the 4-year-old student starts to get impatient and squirms a little in his seat, there is suddenly a diagnosis he is labelled with.

A diagnosis of a mental or medical disorder almost always is followed up with a prescription of a stabilizing medication. Patients who are diagnosed with ADHD are prescribed with psychostimulant drugs, such as Ritalin, Adderall, Cylert or Dexedrine. These drugs are meant to regulate and improve an individual’s concentration, cooperation and the ability to stay on task. In relation to the problem of misdiagnosis, these medications can be given to a patient who does not need stimulant drugs. After many years of taking these medications, the patient can later on become dependent on the drugs or could end up abusing them. For example, the stimulant drug, Ritalin, has the chemical similarities of cocaine. Ritalin and Adderall are two of the most common drugs that are prescribed to treat ADHD, but are also the most commonly used recreational drugs. Adolescents who are misdiagnosed with ADHD and being prescribed those medications often end up abusing the drugs or selling them. As for young children who have been misdiagnosed with the disorder and are prescribed stimulant medications can eventually end up in danger due to the negative side effects of the drug [3]. These side effects could potentially cause the child to sleep disturbances, loss of appetite and stunted growth.

Another leading cause to the misdiagnosis of Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder is the possible comorbidity of another disorder overlapping. Many of the disorders that exist today could very likely have similar symptoms as one another. ADHD and Autism both share some symptoms, such as inability to stay focused and impulsivity. However, while a child who is diagnosed with autism might show some symptoms of ADHD, but that does not mean a child with ADHD is autistic [1].  But the misdiagnosis due to comorbidity does not just end at autism. An individual may experience anxiety, Post- traumatic stress disorder, bipolar disorder, or another learning disability, such as dyslexia. The symptoms of another disorder might look similar to those of ADHD. Someone with bad anxiety, or even dyslexia, is suddenly being mistreated because of the inadequate evaluation of the disorder. Mood and behavioral disorders that can possibly be found in young children could also end up being mistaken as symptoms of ADHD. Recognizing the difference between ADHD and symptoms of comorbid disorders can lead to a more accurate evaluation and diagnosis. Having a disorder with similar symptoms to ADHD is often overlooked and the inaccurate diagnosis could almost be taken as a dismissive response.

The term “Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder” is one that is broad. Similar to many other disorders, ADHD has more than one type. The three different subtypes of ADHD include ADHD Hyperactive-Impulsive type, ADHD Inattentive type and then ADHD with the two types combined [6]. The hyperactive- impulsive type is seen in children who participate in inappropriate amounts of activity and act without thinking of the consequences to their actions. Children, or adults, with ADHD hyperactive-impulsive type will often have trouble waiting their turn, interrupting others during conversation or during class, talk a lot, play loudly and aggressively, and will stand or run around at inappropriate times. ADHD Inattentive type can be seen in children who have trouble focusing or paying attention. They may not listen when being spoken to,  they can be forgetful and easily distracted, and have trouble keeping their tasks organized. And finally, there is the type of ADHD with the two combined. The individual can have the disorder and be both hyperactive-impulsive and inattentive. While I find it helpful to be able differentiate between the various types of ADHD, I also believe that further mental evaluations should be done.

Having knowledge of the different types of ADHD and being able to identify them might be helpful when it comes to making more of an accurate diagnosis. Making an accurate diagnosis, should the disorder be present, will also be helpful when it’s time to prescribe the appropriate medication.

Boys and men are far more likely to be diagnosed with Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity disorder more frequently than females. However, gender differences have a great impact on the diagnosis of the disorder because each of the genders express symptoms differently [4]. Males with ADHD usually have the hyperactive-impulsive type. Boys are naturally more aggressive than girls and with that type of ADHD, boys will exert more behavioral problems than girls with the same disorder. Due to the apparent abnormal behavior boys show, they are more likely to be seen by a doctor and receive a clinical diagnosis. As for females, their symptoms are usually overlooked or mistaken for other disorders. Girls with the disorder usually have the inattentive type and show symptoms similar to depression or anxiety. Because girls don’t have behavioral problems, they tend to go undiagnosed for the disorder and will seek treatment for depression, or another comorbid disorder. I believe that before administering treatment, other options should looked in to. For example, a 6-year-old boy who seems to be active and aggressive with his classmates in school should maybe be put into an organized sport, like football. Possibly keeping the child active in a setting that is more appropriate is a lot better, and safer, than trying to oppress the child in a situation he or she might not be comfortable in. If those other options don’t work, then a trip to the child’s physiatrist might be a good idea.

While studies have shown a significant increase in the diagnosis of ADHD, there are still some who believe that the disorder is underdiagnosed, and undertreated. In the article, Underdiagnosis of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Adult Patients, it states that adults with ADHD tend to show more symptoms of comorbid disorders, such as alcoholism or anxiety, rather than the symptoms of their ADHD. When adults go to a physiatrist for a clinical evaluation, they usually go for their comorbid symptoms and the ADHD goes undiagnosed.this can result in poor outcomes, whether or not the comorbid disorders are the ones being treated [8].  

Prior to the extensive research of Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder, it was believed that the disorder was only present in young children and they often grew out of it as they got older and began to mature. However, that belief was incorrect and ADHD is a disorder that is carried into adulthood. Adults who have ADHD will seek help for disorders other than that of ADHD because they are unaware.

Another believed case of underdiagnosis and undertreatment of ADHD could be related to an individual’s cultural and ethnic backgrounds [5].  Due to the symptoms of Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity disorder being very similar to the symptoms of another disorder such as Fetal Alcohol syndrome or problems that result from poor perinatal care, the prevalence of ADHD among different ethnic groups is unclear. African-american youth who have ADHD tend to go untreated, as well as other nonwhites. Beliefs of illness and care differ upon various ethnic groups and religions, often leaving many children to go undiagnosed or untreated. I find this the be an accurate account and very interesting. Mental illness among people of color; African-Americans, Hispanics, Indians, etc. is a very rare topic to discuss. Families that come from minority backgrounds usually don’t believe mental illness is a true and sometimes severe, disorder. Parents will often see their kids who have ADHD, and show symptoms of the disorder, as misbehaved and deserving punishment, instead of taking them to see a physiatrist for clinical help.

Although the prevalence rates of ADHD have made a dramatic increase, there are still those who disagree. My belief is that Attention Deficit- Hyperactivity disorder is overdiagnosed to young children today caused them to be mistreated. To put an end to the rising epidemic, clinicians must first, be able to accurately evaluate their young patients. Diagnosing a child with the disorder because of behavioral problems in school or at home is not always the most adequate diagnosis. The disorder needs to be further looked into over a period of time, as opposed to just a single doctor’s appointment. Secondly, finding new ways to treat a child who does have Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity disorder might decrease the risk of substance abuse in the child’s future. Changing our perspectives and treating children with apparent behavioral or mood disorders could greatly affect how we diagnose and care for our children.

 

Works Cited

  1. “ADHD and the Autism Spectrum.” ADDitude, 17 Nov. 2017, http://www.additudemag.com/autism-aspergers-adhd-symptoms-in-children/.
  2. “A True ADHD Epidemic or an Epidemic of Over diagnosis?” Psychiatry Advisor, 11 Mar. 2016, http://www.psychiatryadvisor.com/adhd/a-true-adhd-epidemic-or-an-epidemic-of-overdiagnosis/article/429034/.
  3. “Problems of Over diagnosis and Over-prescribing in ADHD.” Problems of Overdiagnosis and Overprescribing in ADHD | Psychiatric Times, http://www.psychiatrictimes.com/adhd/problems-overdiagnosis-and-over-prescribing-adhd.
  4. Gender Differences in Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) CPANCF.COM, cpancf.com/articles_files/art_57attached_file.asp.
  5. “Cultural Issues in Diagnosis and Treatment of ADHD.” Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, Elsevier, 31 Dec. 2009, http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0890856709667241.
  6. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): Dr. Raun Mel, media.pearsoncmg.com/ph/hss/SSA_SHARED_MEDIA_1/psychology/videos/MPL/Attention_Deficit_Hyperactivity_Disorder_ADHD_Dr_Raun_Mel.html.
  7. “What Causes ADHD? 12 Myths and Facts.” Health.com, www.health.com/health/gallery/0,,20441463,00.html#tv-or-video-games-0.
  8. Ginsberg, Ylva, et al. “Underdiagnosis of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Adult Patients: A Review of the Literature.” The Primary Care Companion for CNS Disorders, Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc., 2014, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4195639/
  9. “Attention-Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD).” Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 13 Nov. 2017, www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/adhd/data.html.
  10. Evans, W N, et al. “Measuring inappropriate medical diagnosis and treatment in survey data: The case of ADHD among school-Age children.” Journal of health economics.,U.S. National Library of Medicine, Sept. 2010, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20739076.
  11. Morrow, Richard L., et al. “Influence of relative age on diagnosis and treatment of attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity disorder in children.” CMAJ : Canadian Medical Association Journal, Canadian Medical Association, 17 Apr. 2012, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3328520/.
  12. “ADHD in Adults.” Vyvanse, www.vyvanse.com/adhd-adult-symptoms.

 

Self- Reflective statement- branxmad

Core Value I. My work demonstrates that I used a variety of social and interactive practices that involve recursive stages of exploration, discovery, conceptualization, and development.

The process of writing is one that requires multiple stages including brainstorming, drafting, prewriting, revising, editing and eventually, submitting. When research is being done on a topic, then that process would also include exploring and discovering perspectives that go along with the chosen topic to develop your own ideas and synthesizing ideas as well. Receiving feedback on a paper can provide insight, later leading to much needed improvements. Becoming familiar with your own writing style is also a good way to improve on your future drafts. In my Stone Money rewrite, I demonstrated this Core Value by doing the research needed to complete the assignment and then revising my first draft so I could turn it into a better, and more stronger rewrite.

https://rowancounterintuitive.com/2017/12/10/stone-money-rewrite-branxmad/

Core Value II. My work demonstrates that I placed texts into conversation with one another to create meaning by synthesizing ideas from various discourse communities. 

The second Core Value is about not only being able to understand your own work, but the work of others as well. Putting the work into a different perspective, then adding in your own ideas can greatly help to achieve that goal. For the Visual Rhetoric assignment, the class was instructed to watch a 30 second advertisement and then describe what was happening in detail, without being able to hear what was being said. That allowed me to focus on the details in each frame of the video, analyze the scenario and make my own inference. As a result, I was able to better understand the message of the video that was intended for it’s viewers.

https://rowancounterintuitive.com/2017/12/03/visual-rhetoric-rewrite-branxmad/

Core Value III. My work demonstrates that I rhetorically analyzed the purpose, audience, and contexts of my own writing and other texts and visual arguments. 

With the third Core Value, my work demonstrates that I have rhetorically analyzed and understand the purpose, audience and contexts. Although I had trouble with this particular assignment, I demonstrated this in my Rebuttal Argument by understanding why the author disagrees with the stance that I’ve taken in the argument.

https://rowancounterintuitive.com/2017/12/06/rebuttal-argument-branxmad/

Core Value IV: My work demonstrates that I have met the expectations of academic writing by locating, evaluating, and incorporating illustrations and evidence to support my own ideas and interpretations.

For Core Value number 4, being able to find resources to support your ideas is an essential part of the writing process. For my research paper that was assigned in class, I was required to find different cites to assist me with my topic. I located my sources by searching through Google, and looking for scholarly articles through the Rowan Library to assist me and support my stance in the argument. I was able to evaluate the sources that I found, and by writing a brief description for each one, it gave me a better understanding of exactly what I was researching. The Proposal +5 assignment has greatly helped me accomplish this Core Value and will help me with future research papers that I’ll have to do.

https://rowancounterintuitive.com/2017/10/22/proposal-5-branxmad/

Core Value V. My work demonstrates that I respect my ethical responsibility to represent complex ideas fairly and to the sources of my information with appropriate citation. 

Finally for the last Core Value, I understand that crediting sources I’ve used in my work is important and gives the original author their much deserved respect. Using another writer’s ideas, research and information that they have provided must be followed by proper citation. All the papers that I write, I make sure that I cite my sources accordingly on a “Works Cited” page. However, for my annotated bibliography, I gathered all the resources I used for my research paper and described how I used each sources with a citation following each description. This was meant to give credit to other’s work that I used and to also provide my readers with a brief insight on how I combined my ideas with those of another.

https://rowancounterintuitive.com/2017/11/28/bibliography-branxmad/

Visual Rhetoric rewrite- branxmad

0:00-0:01- The Ad starts off showing a family SUV parked in the driveway of a suburban home and all the doors on the car close simultaneously.

0:02-0:04- The scene switches to the inside of the car. There are two young boys, possibly brothers, sitting next to each other in the second row of the family’s truck and fighting over a bag of chips. The visual goes into slow motion then switches over to an older girl in the third row of the car, who is assumed to be the older sister, listening to music through her headphones while banging on the seats with her two drumsticks and blowing a bubble with the gum in her mouth. She appears to be in her own world, not paying attention to the  fight her brothers are in just one row ahead of her.

0:05- Now, the father, who is also the driver, is being focused on. He appears to have an impatient look on his face as his children are in the background making a lot of noise and playing around.

0:06- 0:09- With the film still in slow motion, the scene first goes back to the daughter in the third row looking out the window with a fully blown bubble of gum coming out of her mouth. Next shows the two brothers again in the middle row still yelling at each other over the single back of chips. Then, to the mother in the passenger seat as she opens her mouth to scold her children. At these three seconds, you can hear the sounds in the background quickly growing more intense, indicating that this scene is leading up to the climax of the advertisement.

0:10-0:13-  The rearview mirror is now in focus and the father’s eye looking into the back seat. Here, the daughter is shown yet again. The big wad of gum that she blew into a perfect sized bubble bursts back onto her lips causing a dramatic popping sound. The big bag of chips that the brothers were fighting over rips apart and the contents of the bag go flying all around the car.

0:14-0:16- Back up to the driver’s seat, the father looks into the camera, gripping the steering wheel and takes a long, deep breath. He is patiently waiting for the kids to settle down.

0:17- The two boys in the middle row are now in each other’s faces over the ruined bag and the sister is suddenly taken out of her daydream with a surprised look on her face. They all freeze and together, quickly their attention goes to the front of the car. The two boys, with guilty faces.

0:18- In the passenger seat, the mother is turned around looking back with wide eyes and tight lips, she mouths the word “Now!”

0:19-0:22- Frightened, all three of the kids quickly stop what they’re doing and turn to grab their seat belts and fasten themselves in.

0:23- With the scene now back in regular motion, the focus goes back to the father who looks and smiles at his wife, a look of relief.

0:24-0:26- Now the camera is zoomed out and focusing on both parents, with a view of the kids in the back. The mother brushes a chip from the bursted bag off her shoulder and turns back to face front. The father’s smile turns into a sign of relief as he adjusts his hands onto the steering wheel. All the children in the back are now finally behaving, buckled in and ready for the ride.

0:27- The SUV is now pulling out of the driveway in which it was parked.

0:28-0:30- The family SUV is now driving off down the street as the words appear on the screen and a man’s voice reads, “Don’t give up until they buckle up”

Annotated Bibliography- branxmad

1. “ADHD and the Autism Spectrum.” ADDitude, 17 Nov. 2017, http://www.additudemag.com/autism-aspergers-adhd-symptoms-in-children/.

Background: This article shows a possible link between autism and ADHD due to similar or overlapping symptoms.

How I used it: A child with noticeable signs of autism may show symptoms of ADHD, but that does not mean that a child with ADHD has autism.

2. “A True ADHD Epidemic or an Epidemic of Over diagnosis?” Psychiatry Advisor, 11 Mar. 2016, http://www.psychiatryadvisor.com/adhd/a-true-adhd-epidemic-or-an-epidemic-of-overdiagnosis/article/429034/.

Background: Questions the accuracy of an ADHD diagnoses and the frequency at which it is diagnosed.

How I used it: To explain how young children and toddlers get misdiagnosed because of their behaviors at the age they’re at. The prevalence rate of diagnosing ADHD has increased, even for child how are not positive for ADHD.

3. “Problems of Over diagnosis and Over-prescribing in ADHD.” Problems of Overdiagnosis and Overprescribing in ADHD | Psychiatric Times, http://www.psychiatrictimes.com/adhd/problems-overdiagnosis-and-over-prescribing-adhd.

Background:  This article discusses the controversy of misdiagnosing a child and/or over-diagnosing a population of children with ADHD and prescribing stimulant medications to children who may not need it.

How I used it: To discuss how children that do not have ADHD get prescribed treatment medications just as often as children who actually do have it.

4. Gender Differences in Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) CPANCF.COM, cpancf.com/articles_files/art_57attached_file.asp.

Background: Studies showing that boys tend to be diagnosed, or show symptoms of ADHD, more than girls do. Although, girls show symptoms of ADHD differently than boys. While boys’ symptoms are usually physically, girls may express symptoms emotionally.

How I used it: To prove that ADHD is more prevalent in boys than in girls.

5. “Cultural Issues in Diagnosis and Treatment of ADHD.” Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, Elsevier, 31 Dec. 2009, http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0890856709667241.

Background: This article provides insight on how different cultures and ethnic groups treat disorders or illnesses, such as ADHD, differently than others. While certain countries might use different medicines or drugs to cure ADHD, sometimes it can lead to substance abuse. In some cases, a treatment is not given at all.

How I used it: When symptoms of ADHD arise in a young child, their cultural or ethnic background could greatly determine how they are treated, if at all.

6. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): Dr. Raun Mel, media.pearsoncmg.com/ph/hss/SSA_SHARED_MEDIA_1/psychology/videos/MPL/Attention_Deficit_Hyperactivity_Disorder_ADHD_Dr_Raun_Mel.html.

Background: Description of different ADHD sub-types

How I used it: Explaining the possibility of one or more types of ADHD being present.

7. “What Causes ADHD? 12 Myths and Facts.” Health.com, http://www.health.com/health/gallery/0,,20441463,00.html#tv-or-video-games-0.

Background: Provided myth and facts of causes of ADHD

How I used it: Despite what the article says, I had a different belief to the cause of ADHD.

8. Ginsberg, Ylva, et al. “Underdiagnosis of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Adult Patients: A Review of the Literature.” The Primary Care Companion for CNS Disorders, Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc., 2014, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4195639/

Background: ADHD is under diagnosed and under treated, with the belief that it is co-morbid with other disorders

How I used it: I had to disagree with this article. Comorbidity may be true, but I don’t believe the disorder is under diagnosed.

9. “Attention-Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD).” Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 13 Nov. 2017, http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/adhd/data.html.

Background: Visual statistic representations of the amount of children in the US diagnosed with ADHD and how that numbers have increased.

How I used it: To prove that there is a growing population of children being diagnosed this ADHD.

10. Evans, W N, et al. “Measuring inappropriate medical diagnosis and treatment in survey data: The case of ADHD among school-Age children.” Journal of health economics., U.S. National Library of Medicine, Sept. 2010, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20739076.

Background: A study showing how birth month has an impact on development of ADHD.

How I used it: To explain how the study is inaccurate and leads to being more inaccurate diagnosis of ADHD.

11. Morrow, Richard L., et al. “Influence of relative age on diagnosis and treatment of attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity disorder in children.” CMAJ : Canadian Medical Association Journal, Canadian Medical Association, 17 Apr. 2012, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3328520/.

Background: Summarizing the amount of misdiagnosed cases of ADHD

How I used it: To prove that there is a problem over diagnosis

12. “ADHD in Adults.” Vyvanse, http://www.vyvanse.com/adhd-adult-symptoms.

Background: How ADHD affects adults

How I used it: To show how the symptoms of ADHD in adults

 

Proposal +5- branxmad

Proposal- For my research paper, I will be discussing Attention Deficit- Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and the frequency at which it is diagnosed in children. My research will be focused on whether the symptoms of the disorder should immediately be diagnosed and labelled as a mental disability or if different people just express normal human behaviors more extreme than others.

  1. “ADHD and the Autism Spectrum”

The Essential Content of the Article: A link between autism and ADHD.

What it Proves: Both ADHD and Autism have similar and overlapping symptoms

https://www.additudemag.com/autism-aspergers-adhd-symptoms-in-children/

2. “A True ADHD Epidemic or an Epidemic of Over-Diagnosis?”

The Essential Content of the Article: In the article, the question of the accuracy of an ADHD diagnosis is addressed, as well as the frequency of which it is diagnosed among children. The article then mentions how young children or toddlers get misdiagnosed for doing things that most children of that age should be doing.

What it Proves: There had been a significant increase of ADHD diagnosis over the course of 30 years. The positive results were said to be shown in kids who do suffer from the disorder, as well as kids who don’t.

http://www.psychiatryadvisor.com/adhd/a-true-adhd-epidemic-or-an-epidemic-of-overdiagnosis/article/429034/

3. “Problems of Over-diagnosis and Over-prescribing in ADHD”

The Essential Content of the Article: This article discusses the controversy of misdiagnosing a child and/or over-diagnosing a population of children with ADHD and prescribing stimulant medications to children who may not need it.

What it Proves: Children who have shown only symptoms of ADHD have been getting prescribed treatment medications just as often as children who actually are diagnosed with the disorder.

http://www.psychiatrictimes.com/adhd/problems-overdiagnosis-and-overprescribing-adhd

4. Gender Difference in ADHD Children

The Essential Content of the Article: Studies showing that boys tend to be diagnosed, or show symptoms of ADHD, more than girls do. Although, girls’ show symptoms different than boys

What it Proves: The prevalence of ADHD is greater in males than females

http://cpancf.com/articles_files/art_57attached_file.asp

5. “Cultural Issues in Diagnosis and Treatment of ADHD”

The Essential Content of the Article: This article provides insight on how different cultures and ethnic groups treat disorders or illnesses, such as ADHD, differently than others.

What it Proves: While certain countries might use different medicines or drugs to cure ADHD, sometimes it can lead to substance abuse. In some cases, a treatment is not given at all.

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0890856709667241