- Hagel, Brent, and Willem Meeuwisse. “Risk Compensation: A.” LWW.
Background: This article explains a phenomenon called risk compensation and how it prompts humans to act more aggressively when they believe that they are protected. This will result in causing serious injuries to themselves and others. There are also parts on how risk compensation takes place in many other sports.
How I use it?: In my essay I use the information present in the article to introduce risk compensation to the reader. I do not just throw it at them, but I gradually give them information one sentence at a time; using examples from many different sports.
2. McIntosh, A S, and P McCrory. “Effectiveness of Headgear in a Pilot Study of under 15 Rugby Union Football.” British Journal of Sports Medicine, British Association of Sport and Exercise Medicine, 1 June 2001.
Background: This article presents a study about risk compensation in rugby. Out of 294 players, only 9 received concussions, and 7 of these 9 were wearing head gear.
How I used it?: In my essay, I use the information found in this article to give hard scientific evidence to prove risk compensation. The data also proves my thesis that headgear causes athletes to cause more damage to themselves. It has not tested in the sport of football, but the next closest thing to it.
3. What is CTE? Concussion Legacy Foundation, 30 Aug. 2017,
Background: This article gives us insight on what CTE is. Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy is a degenerative disease that affects a persons brain. Proteins called Tau form and destroy brain cells. CTE causes people to develop dementia at an early age, and causes people in most cases to become suicidle.
How I used it?: I used the information in this article to illustrate to the reader what CTE is and what it does to humans. I also wanted to show the tragic events that it causes.
4. “NFL Concussions Fast Facts.” CNN, Cable News Network, 16 Nov. 2017,
Background: This article gives symptoms of concussions, statistics on concussions in the NFL, and a timeline of concussion related instances in the NFL.
How I used it?: This article shows how many concussions are reported in the NFL in past years, and a time line to show what is happening. I used the information to update my reader on what has been happening for years.
5. Emanuel, Daniella. “CTE Found in 99% of Studied Brains from Deceased NFL Players.” CNN, Cable News Network, 26 July 2017,
Background: The article discusses how CTE has been found in almost all of the brains of deceased players who have played in the NFL.
How I used it?: I used the information present to show how almost every former player is being diagnosed with CTE. This shows how the changes the NFL is making is not helping the battle with brain trauma, and how there is a need for a huge change.
6. Branch, John. “ESPN Football Analyst Walks Away, Disturbed by Brain Trauma on Field.” The New York Times, The New York Times, 30 Aug. 2017,
Background: This article talks about how ESPN football broadcaster Ed Cunningham quit his job because of all the brain trauma in the sports. Cunningham a player himself, tells his story about how he cannot stand to watch players retire early due to health concerns.
How I used it?: I use this example to show how concussions in football is affecting people who are not just playing it right now. Ed Cunningham did play football, but this just adds to his worrying of the dangers of the game.
7. Stinson, Elizabeth. “This Flexible Football Helmet Wants to Save Your Brain.” Wired, Conde Nast, 3 June 2017,
Background: This article discusses how a company called Vicis developed the Zero 1 helmet. This new state of the arc helmet is more flexible and it absorbs hit, protecting players brains.
How I used it?: I use this example to show how opposing parties feel that football is evolving more safely and how we do not need to take away helmets. I also highlight that since the players will feel more protected, they will hit harder and cause more injury.
8. Loria, Kevin. “Trump Suggested the NFL Is Being Ruined Now That It’s Addressing Brain Injuries – Here’s What Collisions Do to Players.” Business Insider, Business Insider, 26 Sept. 2017,
Background: This article talks about how President Trump made a comment that assessed penalties for dangerous hits, ruin the game.
How I used it?: I used this as an example to show how people need to stop opposing changing the game of football when peoples lives are on the line.
9.Vinton, Nathaniel. “Concussions up 58% This Season in NFL Regular Season Games.” NY Daily News, NEW YORK DAILY NEWS, 29 Jan. 2016,
Background: The NFL has reported a 58% rise in head injuries since 2014.
How I used it: I used this article to show how our efforts are not working since head injuries are increasing these past 3 years.
10. Brad Gagnon Nov 3, 2017 . “NFL 2017 All-Injured Team Is Loaded with Pro Bowl Players at Halfway Point of Season.” CBSSports.com, 3 Nov. 2017,
Background: This article discusses how we could make a whole team with the players that were injured this year.
How I used it: I use this article to show how many injuries happened this year and how we can make a whole team out of them. I also make a point to show that no position is safe from the violence of football.
11. Green, Edward C. “Edward C. Green – Condoms, HIV-AIDS and Africa – The Pope Was Right.” The Washington Post, WP Company, 29 Mar. 2009,
Background: This article discusses how Pope Benedict XVI discussed that condom distribution in Africa was hurting and not helping. Also how risk compensation plays a role in the HIV-AIDS epidemic .
How I used it: I use this article to help my reader with an example of risk compensation outside of sports.