1.  APA Review Confirms Link Between Playing Violent Video Games and Aggression.” American Psychological Association. N.p., 13 Aug. 2015. Web. 30 Nov. 2016.

Background: The article discusses how a study done by the American Psychological Association concludes that there is a correlation between playing violent video games and an increase in aggression. There is also a decrease in empathy among gamers.

How I Used It: I used this evidence to establish that while there is a link between increasing aggression and violent video games, there is no link between violent video games and increasing aggressive behavior that directly involves criminal activity or violent offenses. Aggression is a broad term and does not always mean physical altercations. It could be as simple as lying or throwing a tantrum.

  1. Fraser, Mark W., James K. Nash, Maeda J. Galinsky, and Kathleen M. Darwin. “The Making Choices Program: Social Problem- Solving Skills …” University of North Carolina. N.p., n.d. Web. 30 Oct. 2016.

Background: This document establishes what aggression exactly is. It is defined as “a persistent pattern of behavior that causes or threatens harm to other people.” Forms of aggression include verbal, physical, instrumental, reactive, proactive, overt, covert, and indirect.

How I Used It: I used this document to explain that while video games may increase aggression, there are so many forms of aggression that it is not a clear indication of video games leading to violent offenses. Violent video games may only increase the chances of throwing a tantrum or lying to somebody.

  1. Greitemeyer, Tobias, and Christina Sagioglou. “Subjective Socioeconomic Status Causes Aggression: A Test Of The Theory Of Social Deprivation.” Journal Of Personality And Social Psychology 111.2 (2016): 178-194. PsycARTICLES. Web. 6 Nov. 2016.

Background: This was a study performed to see if socioeconomic classes determine how aggressive someone can be. Through the study, it was found that a lower socioeconomic class generally led to a higher level of aggression among individuals.

How I Used It: I used this study to show that there are other things that increase aggression that would come off as unflattering to those involved with it. These same people may want to blame video games to avoid accusations on themselves. In this instance, it would be the government since their systems have led to many people being stuck in the working class, which in turn would lead to their increase in aggressive behavior.

  1. Welsh, Jennifer. “‘Negative Parenting’ Starts Aggressive Personalities Early.” Live Science. N.p., 26 Oct. 2011. Web. 6 Nov. 2016.

Background: This study shows that negative parenting when a child is still an infant will lead to an aggressive personality later on.

How I Used It: Parents tend to blame video games for a child’s aggressive behavior, but it may just be a way of diverting attention from them. This study proves that a parent who is poorly raising their child, specifically earlier on, will have a more aggressive kid. This may raise concern about the parent, which is why they would want to get rid of the attention and pin any crimes on video games.

  1. Entertainment Software Association, “Essential Facts About Games and Violence,, 2008

Background: This is a graph showing the increase in video game sales while showing the slight decrease in violent crime offenses.

How I Used It: I used this evidence to prove that the correlation between video games and violent crimes is seemingly illogical. If more people are getting their hands on violent video games and these games are supposedly increasing violent behavior, then the rate of crimes should be going up. However, that is not the case.

  1. News, ABC. “Did Video Game Drive Teens to Shootings?” ABC News. ABC News Network, 06 Sept. 2003. Web. 23 Nov. 2016.

Background: This is an article about William and Joshua Buckner who shot at cars which led to deaths and injuries. They had claimed that Grand Theft Auto inspired them to perform the crime which in turn led to the increased belief that violent video games were causing more crimes.

How I Used It: I used this article to establish that there are often instances of the criminals themselves claiming that the games are what caused them to commit the crimes.

  1. Fleck, J. R. (2011). Why we blame others: An examination of scapegoating (Order No. 1492807). Available from ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global. (862344967).

Background: An essay about why people will blame others for the actions that they committed. In the essay, James Fleck explains that people will blame others as a natural reaction to avoid having negative attention on themselves.

How I Used It: I used this essay to invalidate the testimonies of William and Joshua Buckner, and people like them who will claim that video games are why they committed the crime. This essay shows that blaming is something everyone does to avoid negative attention. It does not have to be true; it just has to work.

  1. Adam Thierer, MA, “Video Games, Ratings, Parental Controls, & Public Policy: Where Do We Stand?,, Apr. 2008

Background: This is a graph indicating the increase in video game ratings awareness and whether parents utilize them. It shows that their awareness and usage is increasing over time.

How I Used It: I used this graph to show that for the most part, the youth are being protected from violent video games. While I do not believe they lead to aggressive behavior, this shows that most youth are not even playing games with content that is too mature for them.

  1. A Timeline of Video Game Controversies.” National Coalition Against Censorship. N.p., 2016. Web. 30 Nov. 2016.

Background: This is a timeline indicating the most notable instances of video game controversies, most of which dealing with real world violence.

How I Used It: I used this timeline to establish the history of violent video games and the belief that they lead to violent behavior.

  1. Kerstetter, Jim. “Why Do We Blame Games for Real-world Violence?” CNET. N.p., 26 Feb. 2013. Web. 30 Nov. 2016.

Background: Out of 2278 US adults, a third say they will let their child play anything that they want. Whether it is violent or too mature for the kid does not matter to them at all.

How I Used It: I do not believe that violent video games lead to criminal activity, but I do believe that bad parenting may have more to do with it. The fact that these parents have little care for what their child plays, may also mean they are negatively parenting them.

2 thoughts on “Bibliography-edwardnihlman”

    1. You’ve done a particularly good job with your “How I Used It” sections, Nihlman. To make this more complete, I need hyperlinks to the sources that can be accessed via the internet. The appearance of the word “Web” in your first four sources, and others, indicates that you accessed them online, so I should be able to do so also if provided the links. I’ve highlighted the few places where your grammar needs to be improved to avoid FFG.

      You’ve also provided a broad range of source types. However, I followed this link
      Entertainment Software Association, “Essential Facts About Games and Violence,”, 2008
      looking for the chart you promised and was delivered to a home page with no idea where to find it.


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