White Paper–Splash305

Content Descriptions:

  • Understanding how to separate work life and social life
  • Getting inside the mind of the criminal
  • Different kinds of killers that are dealt with
  • How to deal with the horrific things you see mentally
  1.  Working Hypothesis 1

With the knowedge and the experiences you have being an FBI profiler you can either use it to your advantage, or you can let the horrific things you see negatively impact you.

Working Hypothesis 2

When it comes to the different kinds of killers, you have to know them as well as they know themselves in order to crack them.

2. Topics For Smaller Papers

Definition/Classification Argument 

 When in the mind set of an FBI profiler or someone working in the criminal intent unit, we need to understand how to speparate our work life from our social life. To do this you cannot be like a seasoned homicide detective who builds a wall of what they call `isolation of affect’ between themselves and the horrors that they see. To do this job effectively you must be able to laugh and joke around with some child-killer or look at the horrors of some case of what happened to a victim. You try to visualize, imagine what the victim experienced and try to figure out why the subject did these things to this victim. To do that it really becomes emotionally and physically draining, says John Douglas but it is what has to be done in order to stay sane. As John shared more of his experience with us, he told us some questions he would ask the prisoners he would visit just to better his knowlege and skills. He would ask questions like: Why did you select this victim over that one? And how did you get that child out of that shopping center? Did you follow the press (reports)?

To know the killer we have to know the victim, we have to know the crime scene. When it comes to the victim we must know everything there is to know. We must know how and where the crime took place, what happened verbally, physically, and sexually because without these aspects we don’t really know who he is; to know the artist you must look at the artwork as John stated. Then John goes into detail about his process prior to the interigation with the killer: Before the interview, I have to know the scene. I have to look at the crime scene, the crime scene photographs. You also have to look at the preliminary police reports, autopsy photographs, read the autopsy protocol. I have to do an analysis of the victim, called victimology, where you try to ask the question, `Why was this victim the victim of this particular crime?’ Then, armed with all that information, I’ll go in there.

With different kinds of murderers comes different amounts of victims and different kinds of kills. There are three main categories murderers fall under and what makes each one different. For example as John puts it in to perspective, a serial killer is a killer who kills three or more victims and there is a cooling-off period in between each of the killings. And the crimes are relatively sophisticated. They’re premeditated to the point the fantasy is there and they are looking to act out the fantasy. The mass murderer is generally one event. All these post office cases and school shootings are mass murders. We say it’s four or more victims are involved in the slaughter. Generally, it ends in suicide by the subject or suicide by cop, where the subject puts himself in the position. The spree killer–Andrew Cunanan, Angel Maturino Resendiz–is generally known to law enforcement and is in a fugitive status and is killing, killing, killing. He continues to tell us about how most serial killers are male. People will say that it’s unusual to have black serial killers. That was true up until 1981 with Wayne Williams (child murders in Atlanta). But we’ve had cases since then. Proportionately, by population, generally it’s the white male, and when he does kill it’s much more bizarre, like decapitation. Women kill people close to them. Serial killing is really a male thing, a testosterone kind of a thing.

 Cause/Effect Argument

Dealing With Being an  FBI Profiler

Criminal investigators undergo a lot of pressure and stress during different cases. With each different case comes a different way of coping with what has been seen. For example when it comes to murder cases as Dr. Laurence Miller states the sheer magnitude and shock effect of many mass-murder scenes and the violence, mutilation and sadistic brutality associated with many serial killings – especially those involving children – often exceed the defense mechanisms and coping abilities of even the most jaded investigator.

In addition to that he also goes on to explaining how problems with other cases can be very emotionally damaging. As the investigation drags on, the inability to solve the crime and close the case further frustrates and demoralizes the assigned officers and seems to jeeringly proclaim the hollowness of society’s notions of fairness and justice.

As noted above, all the more disturbing are situations where the killer is known but the existing evidence is insufficient to support an arrest or conviction. Stress and self-recrimination are further magnified when the failure to apprehend the perpetrator is caused by human error, as when an officer’s misguided actions or breach of protocol leads to loss or damage of evidence or suppression of testimony, allowing the perpetrator to walk.

With that being said it is a very exhausting effort in trying to solve these murder cases and having a perpetrator walk free can be really damaging to your work quality and cause you to start making sloppy errors and increases your vulnerability to more stress and failure with cases.

Dr. Miller explains in rare cases when it comes to no-arrest cases, and particularly those involving children, some homicide or sex crime investigators may become emotionally involved with the victims’ families and remain in contact with them for many years. Some detectives become obsessed with a particular case and continue to work on it at every available moment, sometimes to the point of compromising their work on other cases and leading to a deterioration of health and family life.

When it comes to cases related to sex crime investigations there is more of a frustration or sadness when it comes to those who were more vulnerable like children or the elderly.

Most cases are hard to get through on a normal basis and it takes a lot of mental strength and coping skills to finish certain assignments. Criminal investigators need to use coping skills regularly when doing their assignments to be able to finish them effectively. Dr. Miller has stated some strategies that criminal investigators use to cope and has gone into detail about each of them.

First we have the defense mechanism and mental toughening, this is used as the most familiar way of blocking up unpleasant material who are used to taking a tough, suck-it-up attitude toward unpleasant aspects of the job.

Next there is a strategy called compartmentalization or isolation, this affect is where negative emotions are separated out and put in a “mental file cabinet” in order to allow the rest of the officer’s cognitive faculties to keep functioning. Individuals differ in their ability to make this mental separation without undue emotional leakage into other areas of work and family life.

another strategy is intellectualization is another strategy used to describe the process of detoxifying an emotionally wrenching task or experience by adopting the stance of detached, objective, intellectual curiosity: for example, the emotional revulsion and horror of encountering the remains of a sexually mutilated corpse is diffused and diluted by immersion in the technical scientific minutiae of crime-scene investigation and offender-profiling.

Then we have the strategy of sublimation which refers to the process of turning a “bad” impulse into a socially acceptable, or even admirable “good” activity or vocation. For this strategy you can easily take the impulses that many people would consider bad or not natural and channel them into something acceptable while still getting that release.

Humor is a strategy that plays a big role in coping when it comes to this job field. Being able to laugh about the horrors you seem and the insane serial killers that walk this earth really helps with being able to play off that those things actually exist.

Peer support and healthy humor from the people and investigative team around you also play a big part in helping you stay sane in this line of work.

With professionalism begins with a certain attitude that says the investigator will do his or her best because of a general service orientation and specifically because the work provides professional satisfaction and a sense of accomplishment.

Confidentiality is an essential part of professionalism. As Dr. Miller talks about, Victims and their families must be certain that their sensitive material – testimony transcripts, crime scene photographs, videotapes, property used for evidence – will be seen only by those directly involved in solving and prosecuting the case.

As Dr. Miller discussed these strategies as stated above, there are far more that play different roles in keeping calm and level headed while working on hard stressful and emotionally draining work. But aside from all of those things it really means so much when you get through those hard cases without damaging or losing evidence so the criminal doesn’t walk free.

   Rebuttal Argument

Suicide Among Cops and FBI Agents

Many people who work in this kind of field deal with many mental stressers. Many of police officers and FBI agents get so overwhelmed with the things going on in and out of the work place, they can’t seem to find healthy ways to deal with them. In most cases when cops feel the need to commit suicide because of whatever they having going on they can’t deal with, they often do it in directly. They will have another cop shoot and kill them. As explained by Elizabeth A. Arias she gives us a specifice case study where this took place. A 36-year-old Caucasian male (A.A.) drove into a local convenience store to obtain gas for his car. He put $11.75 worth of gasoline in his vehicle and drove off without paying. A civilian followed A.A. and persuaded him to return to pay for the stolen gas. Police officers had already been called to the scene and upon A.A.’s return to the store, they approached him while he was still in his car. He refused to speak to the officers, backed his vehicle up, nearly striking two other officers, and began what turned into a high speed chase. During the chase, A.A. drove recklessly, reaching speeds up to 100 mph, and several times turned off his headlights and turned on a blue strobe light. Deputies attempted to block the vehicle several times, but A.A. managed to elude the roadblocks. The chase ended after about 10 min. When the officer’s approached A.A.’s car, he exited his vehicle with a thermos in one hand and a 0.45 caliber semi-automatic handgun in the other. After he pointed his weapon at an officer, he was fatally shot. It was later determined that A.A.’s gun was not loaded. Inside the thermos were several bags of cocaine which police believed were stolen from the police evidence room.

A.A. had previously served as a sheriff’s deputy for 13 years, but at the time of the incident—and for the prior 5 years—he was an identification and evidence technician for the local police department. On the day of the incident, he was off-duty and was driving a police department van with the police decals removed. It is not clear whether he was the one who removed the decals. The van and A.A.’s use of the blue strobe light led officers to believe that the suspect they were chasing was indeed a police officer. Of importance is that all local police officers were allowed to get free gas directly across the street from where A.A. stole it, which suggests his motivation for creating the incident.

In the months preceding the deadly encounter, A.A. spoke with his supervisor about his financial hardships: mounting bills, growing debt that was covered with borrowed money, maxed out credit cards, and a re-mortgaged home. Approximately 2 weeks prior to the incident, A.A. told his supervisor that his wife had incurred even more debt and he felt increasingly depressed over the situation. Other police officers who were in contact with A.A. on the day before the shooting did not observe anything remarkable. He had no psychiatric history and had always been in good standing with the police department. Although a toxicology report was positive for cocaine and amphetamines at the time of his death, A.A. had never failed a drug test with the department.

3. Current State of My Research Paper

My research paper is going alright. I enjoy my topic very much and I think it has a lot of potential to be something thrilling. But it seems I have some trouble wording everything I need to say correctly to make sense as to what point I am trying to get across. There are many different aspects of things to write about when it comes to this topic, and I feel as though I am trying to put them all into one essay. Other than that I think I have all the information I need to continue.

Definition Argument– Splash305

When in the mind set of an FBI profiler or someone working in the criminal intent unit, there is a need to understand how to separate work life from social life. The person doing this cannot be like a seasoned homicide detective who builds a wall of what they call the `isolation of affect’ between themselves and the horrors they see. To do this job effectively one must be able to laugh and joke around with some child-killer or look at the horrors of some case and casually discuss what had happened to a victim. By trying to visualize and imagine what the victim experienced and try to figure out why the subject did these things to this victim. To be able to do that it really becomes emotionally and physically draining says John Douglas, but it is what has to be done in order to stay sane. As John shared more of his experience with us, he told us about some questions he would ask the prisoners he would visit just to better his knowledge and skills. He would ask questions like: Why did this killer select this victim over that one? And how did they get that child out of that shopping center? Did this suspect follow the press (reports)? Asking these questions helps give a better idea of what was going through the killer’s mind when he chose that specific victim or chose to commit that crime in this specific area.

To know the killer, one must know the victim and the crime scene. When it comes to the victim one must know everything there is to know. For example, how and where the crime took place, what happened verbally, physically, and sexually because without these aspects it is hard to really know who he is; to know the artist you must look at the artwork as John stated. John then goes into detail about his process prior to the interrogation with the killer: Before the interview he has to know the scene, he must look at the crime scene and the crime scene photographs. He also has to look at the preliminary police reports, autopsy photographs and read the autopsy protocol. John has to do an analysis of the victim called victimology, where he tries to ask the question, `Why was this victim the victim of this particular crime?’ Then, armed with all that information, he’ll go in there. Talking with the criminal is a crucial part of investigations, especially when there are multiple suspects. Talking with each one will help narrow down the options. Also with the more verbal communication the more John Douglas can watch the suspect and get a feel for his body language and the answers the suspect gives to the questions he is asked. Body language speaks very loudly to the types of people who study human behavior and criminology.

With different kinds of murderers comes different amounts of victims and different kinds of kills. There are three main categories murderers fall under and what makes each one different. For example, as John puts it in to perspective, a serial killer is a killer who kills three or more victims and there is a cooling-off period in between each of the killings. And the crimes are relatively sophisticated. They’re premeditated to the point the fantasy is there and they are looking to act out the fantasy. The mass murderer is generally one event. All these post office cases and school shootings are mass murders. We say it’s four or more victims are involved in the slaughter. Generally, it ends in suicide by the subject or suicide by cop, where the subject puts himself in the position. The spree killer–Andrew Cunanan, Angel Maturino Resendiz–is generally known to law enforcement and is in a fugitive status and is killing, killing, killing. He continues to talk about how most serial killers are male. People will sometimes say that it is unusual to have black serial killers. That was true up until 1981 with Wayne Williams (child murders in Atlanta). But we’ve had cases since then. Proportionately, by population generally it is the white male, and when he does kill it is much more bizarre, like decapitation. Women usually will kill people close to them. Serial killing is really a male thing, a testosterone kind of a thing. Which is something I found to be really interesting because in a lot of crime shows I have watched, there is a good number of women killing people they don’t know or abducting children and making them their own.

Work Cited

 Anonymous. INSIDE THE MIND OF THE MIND HUNTER: An Interview with Legendary FBI Agent John Douglas. 2017, Spring.

 

Safer Saws — Splash305

1A: Manufacturers- The saw has a feature that allowes the blade to stop when the sensor attched to the blade picks up the detection of flesh. It stops fast enough to prevent any sort of injury.

1B: The saw has a feature that detects flesh and can prevent injury.

1C: Factual claim, it states the fact that the saw stops fast enough to prevent injury.

1D: This claim provides us with logic in wanting to change the ways of wood working to provide people with safer saws. It reassures us that with this technology people can avoid serious injury.

11A: Amputees- “My father put his hand through the table saw and it was terrible. It was an accident on an old saw that was caused by a lack of safety features (anti-kickback)”.

11B: If the saw had the safety feature attached then this person would still have their hand.

11C: Proposal claim, if he would have had the safety feature installed there would have been no injury.

11D: This claim provides us with logic, saying if we want to continue to have both hands it is worth spending the money for a safety feature.

2A: Customers- “I note the people opposed to sawstop don’t own one. I own 2. Jobsite and contractor. Used professionally, and I won’t let anyone on a jobsite use another saw.”

2B: People that don’t own sawstop say it isn’t worth it and saws can be safe if people pay attention but that is just because they don’t have one.

2C: Opinion claim, he thinks sawstop is the best and safest saw to have where as others find it unnessesary.

2D: This claim provides accuracey in the opinion being stated that safe saws may not be for everyone but when used they do what is told.

10A: Power Tool Product Reviewers- ” I care about the fact that there is a technology out there that can protect me and others who will not always be entirely 100% focused 100% of the time.”

10B: Not everyone is going to be fully focused all of the time, so we need the technology that is going to protect us when we are not.

10C: Evaluation claim, he is saying that the use of this technology will come in handy when peopl lose focus which is very common to do.

10D: This claim provides logic in letting us know that not everyone will be fully alert at all times of the day, and when they aren’t it is not to have advanced technology to bet there for our protection.

12A: Steve Gass Reviewers- “The more I see from Sawstop, and the more I hear about Gass, the more I hate them. The issues with Sawstop’s lack of quality control and their horrendous company in general is why I stay away from that brand at all costs.”

12B: His opinion of Steve Gass is the reason he dislikes the sawstop product and finds them to be a waste of time.

12C: Opinion claim, he lets his opinion of Steve Gass get in the way of seeing the reasoning behind this product and its safety.

12D: This claim provides persuasivness in trying to get people to think Steve Gass isn’t a good guy and therefore getting them to dislike his products.

Proposal +5– Splash305

For my research essay I will be discussing how being an FBI profilers affects their everyday lives. It can affect their lives by causing them to be so aware of everything around them they can not help but profile everyone they meet. Is this a good quality or bad quality to have? Is there a downside of being overly aware of everything that goes on around you?

  1.  http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/0004865814530732

The Essential Content of The Article: This article talks about the different types of profiling and how it is used in criminal investigations to seek out criminals.

What it Proves: It proves that there are many different ways of profiling based on evidence and behavior.

2.  https://search.proquest.com/docview/418929849?pq-origsite=summon

The Essential Content of The Article: This book talks about John Douglas’ personal experiance being an FBI profiler and the things he went through on and off of the job.

What it Proves: It proves how profilers go though a lot off difficult experiences and that it can really affect your mental health.

3. https://search.proquest.com/docview/207654310?pq-origsite=summon

The Essential Content of The Article: This article talks about a man Greg Cooper, and his experiences with the FBI criminal intent unit. He also shares how he worked closely with John Douglas.

What it Proves: It proves that he has different everyday experiences even being retired from the force, different experiences from the normal everyday police officer.

4. https://link-springer-com.ezproxy.rowan.edu/article/10.1007%2Fs11896-014-9153-2

The Essential Content of The Article: This article talks about the televised affect the criminal unit has on people and what it portrays to those who don’t know what really goes on in the real FBI criminal intent unit.

What it Proves: It proves that people who watch the TV versions of FBI criminal units have a comptetely different view of what actually goes into being a profiler and what they actually do.

5. https://search-proquest-com.ezproxy.rowan.edu/docview/304605609?pq-origsite=summon

The Essential Content of The Article: This article talks about the different behavioral traits each criminal can have and being able to seek that out right away. It also talks about how you learn to pick up on these factors.

What it Proves: It proves that these skills you pick up started to be tuned into your everyday life with all of the people your see and meet.

Visual Rewrite– Splash305

0:00- In this image there is an asian boy sitting on the center cushion looking at his phone on a tan, new looking leather couch, it seems to be his house. It seems that way because in the corner of the room we see a photo of what seems to be a husband and wife. There is also a thermostat, which gives the feeling of control to change has he pleases. Plus there is a fleece blanket bunched up next to him which gives off the feeling of comfort in one’s own home. He is wearing a black sweater and gray sweat pants so it might be the winter time. There is a glass door in the corner of the room and we can see what looks like a shed of some sort.

0:02- The same boy has switched places, still on his phone but now in a library. Wearing a different blue sweater but we cannot see his pants, his outfit choice still project it being winter time. He is sitting at a desk in the library with books around him but he is not reading them. The boy seems more interested in his phone rather than all the books around him. It doesn’t look like he in in a school library because all the books look to be covered in laminate, like they do in public libraries.

0:03- The boy has moved places again, this time to a gym. He is still on his phone and looks like he is doing sit-ups. He is now wearing a white T-shirt with a yellow sweat band around his head, and a watch around his wrist. Around him are free weights like a squat rack and a bench press but no people, which might suggest he enjoys working out alone or he has nobody to work out with. The expression on his face hasn’t changed in any of the scenes, he keeps the same one. He looks like he doesn’t care what is happening around him and all he’s worried about is what’s on his phone.

0:04- Now the boy has moved into what looks like a mall cafeteria, and is still on his phone. He is not worried about the people around him nor does he look like he is socializing with them, which could indicate he doesn’t like the people around him and the people he’d rather spend time with aren’t with him so he’s talking to them on his phone. He is sitting next to another boy in a red hoodie who appears to be eating maybe talking with friends. He is wearing a gray long sleeved shirt with a T-shirt underneath, which still indicates cold weather if he has to wear two types of shirts. There are strangers around him eating and talking at other tables and he seems to be the only one distracted by his phone.

0:05- The boy looks like he is at a party, maybe his birthday party because there is a cupcake right in front of him with a candle in it that’s lit. He is sitting on his phone not paying attention to the cupcake or the people around him. The people around him are all standing around him at the table, one looks to be clapping, others smiling maybe singing happy birthday and having a good time. He is wearing a nicer white blue stripped sweater but still only interested in his phone.

0:06- The boy is alone on a carousel sitting on a horse while on his phone, which could indicate he is there before it has opened to the public or he paid to have the carousel to himself. His expression is still the same and he doesn’t look to be having that much fun on a ride that is supposed to be fun. He is now wearing a cream long sleeved shirt with a T-shirt underneath still indicating the cold weather outside. He doesn’t seem to be bothered that he is alone because he has his phone.

0:07- The scene has changed to him with a girl sitting on a couch that looks fabric, maybe at her house because he had a leather couch. She has her arm on his shoulder trying to talk to him but he is only paying attention to his phone. Maybe she is his girlfriend and she is trying to get his attention but he doesn’t care, maybe she’s even upset that he isn’t paying attention to her. He is wearing the same sweater he wore in the scene at his birthday party. There are a lot cactuses behind them so maybe the girl’s parents are really into nature.

0:08- The boy is back in his house so it seems and he has his phone in his hand, the camera shot is being taken from inside the fridge and he is closing the door which could indicate he doesn’t want any of the food he saw in the fridge or he knew what he wanted, grabbed it and went.

0:09- He is now laying in his bed and is underneath the covers but still on his phone. He looks like he is hiding so maybe he’s supposed to be asleep, maybe his parents check on him throughout the night to make sure he’s in bad and getting a good night sleep. But he’d rather play on his phone.

0:09- The scene has switched to another house, maybe his friend’s house and he is standing on one side of the ping pong table, maybe he doesn’t feel like playing or doesn’t like ping pong. It looks like he is trying to film his friends playing ping pong. He is wearing a T-shirt and sweat pants, so maybe that represents that the season is changing or his friends house has the heat on blast. His facial expression has still not changed.

0:10- This scene he is on an escalator that looks like it could be in a mall and is seems to be going upward. There are no people around so maybe the mall is closing and he is still on his phone not in a rush to leave the mall. He is wearing a worn out red hat and a puffy blue winter jacket so it must still be the winter time. In the background, the lights in the mall seem to be out so maybe the mall is in fact closed.

0:11- Now it looks like he is at a party with people all around. The room is dark but lights are flashing and people are having a good time but he is on his phone paying no attention to them. Maybe he was talked into going to the party and doesn’t want to be there.

0:12- He is back laying in his bed laying on his side with the covers pulled over his head, still on his phone. There is a window next to his bed and the blinds are closed but there is light shining through so it is still daylight outside. But he is sitting in the dark alone in his room.

0:15- The scenes that I have stated above where all played again multiple times in a very fast pace.

0:16- He is now sitting in a car nn the drivers side with his phone in his hands. The car seems to be in park and he does not have his seatbelt on, so he might be waiting for someone he is also in the car alone.

0:17- The boy put his phone down on the center console and it is showing us the conversation between him and someone else. He told the other person he was driving now so he would talk to them later.

0:21- He started the car and is showed him driving away and words popped up on the screen that read “Not Here, Never Here.”

0:23- Next is showed the car continuing to drive away and another caption came up that said “Don’t Text and Drive” and then the ad was over.

 

Stoney Money Rewrite–Splash

Value of Money

When I was listening to the story of about the island of Yap in class I thought to myself my teacher was making this story up. My teacher told us about how people would make huge limestones and ship the 400 miles away by boat to some island so far away. Even when people would use them for a purchase they wouldn’t have to be moved anywhere to change ownership. Why would people take the time to make such large limestone coins to be their representation of money? It seemed absurd because you couldn’t even move them easily or use them for little things like food for the house, it had to be spent on something big like building a new house or as said in the Planet Money Prologue if one of your warriors died in war we could use that stone to buy back the warriors body. It was also interesting to know that only if we had one of these stones it would mean we are considered as wealthy, which was different because we could have tons of gold and other forms of money but we weren’t ever considered to be as wealthy as someone who owned one of these stones as stated in the story of stone money. Also, something else I read was that there was no form of documentation on this island of Yap, they have such a strong faith in each other’s word. Someone could say they wanted a house built, a contractor would come out build a house with no upfront pay but know that the fei was his once the house was completed. Even while reading Friedman’s essay the thing that stood out the most to me was when he talked about the magnificent fei that was being delivered over sea. A big storm aroused and the fei sank to the bottom of the ocean, and the people on the island of Yap were perfectly fine with that. They said that even though it is at the bottom of the ocean it still has its value, just as if it were leaning against the owner’s house. To me this is ridiculous because if that were my fei that sank I wouldn’t be as calm about it as they are and it wouldn’t seem valuable to me anymore.

Then that has me go into thinking why is money so important to people, and what is the point of money in the first place? The NPR broadcast I was listening to talks about all the stages of money and how it has changed over the years. It first started as the stone fei, then to gold, and bills, off to checks, and now it is as simple as just a number appearing in our bank account. It was enjoyable how they were talking about the differences in how payments work now a days, they said that when they pay their phone bill it’s not like someone goes and delivers a hundred dollars to their phone company. It is almost as if they are just sending numbers back and forth to one another and it is a game that doesn’t even feel real. They even said in the NPR brodcast that most of the money that exists is just the idea of money.

Which then brings me to the Lie That Saved Brazil, and what they had to go through.  Listening to the story was just so awful for the people of Brazil. It’s not understandable why people had to be living the way they did when there was so much money in the world to be shared.  This is because there was apparently no money for the people in Brazil and they were really struggling to get by. Chana Joffe-Walt talked about what the stores were like and how the prices of things would go up or change every single day. How there would be a sticker guy that would go up and down the aisles changing the prices each day, people would even try to get in front of the sticker guy so they could pay the old price. It was devastating when she told us that even when people would get paid, they’d have to spend their money before it wasn’t worth anything anymore. She said you could put your money in a drawer and each day that went by the clock would be ticking on the value of your money. There was even a point when the government threatened to take everyone’s money, people went into panic and some she said even committed suicide. But then one day four men came along to help Brazil’s situation so they wouldn’t have to live like this anymore. Hero’s was what she described them as, they proposed a way to make people think their money had value again. Not long after things started to change because this new idea seemed to make such a difference in the way people just “lied to themselves” so to speak. Even though there was no physical money, all they needed was for people to believe there was and that made all the difference.

This story just easily helps me flow right into Weekend at Bernanke’s, listening to this story just gets me thinking about all the different ways the Federal Reserve could have helped Brazil for example, because in the brodcast they said the Fed can create money at and given time. Why they wouldn’t think to give some to Brazil during that crisis, I don’t exactly know. They were saying that the fed can just make money out of nothing and just lend it out and if they should do this. The process is so easy as they explained, all you do is add a few numbers, click a mouse and alas money is created. Also on top of that they even exclaimed that banks don’t just like to sit on load of money they like to lend it out, so why not use all of this money to help countries in dire need of it? It is interesting to think if the Fed screws up then the people stop believing in the dollar and the dollar loses value as they explained.

Thinking about all these different ways money is transferred and the money people have and how much they have can put them in the category of being wealthy, but why?  Some things these days don’t really have a good representaion of money. What is the point or meaning of money? Money is just something that holds value, but there are so many different things that hold value to different people and if you really think about the dollar and how it is just a piece of paper with a guys face on it, it doesn’t make sense why people go so crazy over it. Money is just another materialistic thing that people think they need to be successful in life when there are far greater things, like knowledge for example. Now a days with how high tech money as gotten it’s just a game of sending numbers and not physical money, so it’s as if the money isn’t even real to begin with.

Works Cited

Friedman, Milton. “The Island of Stone Money.” Diss. Hoover Institution, Stanford University , 1991.

Joffe-Walt, Chana . “How Fake Money Saved Brazil.” NPR.org. 4 Oct. 2010. 30 Jan. 2015. <http://www.npr.org/blogs/money/2010/10/04/130329523/how-fake-money-saved-brazil&gt;.

“The Invention of Stone Money.” 423: The Invention of Stone Money. This Is American Life, WBEZ. Chicago . 7 Jan. 2011.

E03: Critical Reading– Splash305

Section 15

“There are trials where patients take MDMA (ecstasy’s active ingredient) while talking about trauma to promote more positive and less scary associations with the events.”

  • Trials, suggests they have done this test more than once to find different results.
  • MDMA, found that using a drug helps patients be more comfortable talking about their experiences.
  • casual claim: helps promote positive talk of the trama

“Some of the most interesting research involves beta-blockers, drugs that suppress the adrenaline response.”

  • some is indicating that not all the research is interesting and involves the beta-blockers.
  • some also indicates the amount of adrenaline responses it suppresses.
  • categorical claim: telling us it suppresses adrenaline responses.

“In one small study, trauma victims given beta-blockers within six hours of the incident had a 40 percent less likelihood of developing PTSD. ”

  • small study indicates they have only minorly tested these facts.
  • within is indicating they have only tested in within that time frame, but what about after the six hours?
  • 40 precent less likelihood gives us evidence of this claim.

“patients take beta-blockers while talking about trauma so their reactions are weakened and then presumably lessened the next time it comes up, so far with promising results.”

  • taking beta-blockers while talking about trama is claimed tp weaken reactions
  • also being claimed that it is lessoned the next time it comes up
  • so far is indicating that there hasn’t been problems yet but the more they test this the more different their results could be

“Researchers posit that TBI can make the brain more vulnerable to PTSD, or that it can exacerbate its symptoms of exhaustion, agitation, confusion, headaches.”

  • can indicates that it is a possibility but it isn’t certain or proven
  • this claim is categorical, it states different symptoms