Rebuttal Rewrite – scarletthief

Race vs. Gender: Is There A Difference?

Self-identification of race encounters more opposition than self-identification of gender in America. We easily accepted Bruce Jenner identifying as a woman in 2015, but shunned Rachel Dolezal, a Caucasian-born woman, for identifying as African-American in that same year. Half of the Millennial generation acknowledge the idea that “gender is a spectrum” instead of just male or female; cities and public establishments have created no-gender ID cards and bathrooms to accommodate for all genders. So what makes choosing our race so different when they are ultimately very similar in regards to how gender and race develop and the advantages gained from claiming to be one or the other?

One example of a benefit to being a certain race would be earning college scholarships by identifying as African-American. Many see this as unfair to real African-Americans who are eligible to the scholarships – no scholarship means no education. Natasha Scott, daughter of an African-American father and an Asian mother, applied solely as an African American rather than African-American and Asian to increase her chances of being accepted into the University of Virginia. By claiming to be solely Black, more educational and most likely monetary opportunities were open to her. Gender similarly has it’s advantages despite the benefit not being monetary. A man who is transgender is able to enter an otherwise prohibited area – the women’s bathroom. Transgender and intersex individuals can also gain an advantage in activities like the Olympics. In Layden’s article, “Is It Fair for Caster Semenya to Compete against Women at the Rio Olympics?” he mentions how intersex competitors may dominate in women competitions because of how testosterone aids in certain muscular development.

Furthermore, race and gender in general are similar by how they develop in humans.  Children don’t begin classifying people into different races until around 10 years old. If the  children grew up in a politically liberal area, they believed in classifying people into racial categories as oppose to children who grew up in politically conservative areas who believed that categorizing races was wrong. The development of racial identity in children stems from the environment and the members of society surrounding them. An example would be Lacey Shwartz, mentioned in the article “Family Secret and Cultural Identity Revealed In ‘Little White Lie,'” who grew up with white Jewish parents in a white community. Despite her African American features, she identified herself as white because of the community and people she lived with. Similarly, in the documentary Somewhere Between, four Chinese-American girls were adopted by Caucasian parents and grew up thinking of themselves as white. They compared themselves to a banana that was yellow on the outside and white on the inside.

As mentioned, gender identity development is similar to the development of children’s racial identity because they both develop from their environment. Girls who grow up surrounded by princesses, dresses, dolls, and other female stereotypes are likely to identify themselves as female once they are old enough. If boys were surrounded by similar princesses, dresses, dolls, and such, they would also be likely to identify themselves as female if they weren’t told they were biologically males. Parents are encouraged to help their daughters or sons to develop a healthy gender identity by exposing their child to both genders’ activities, clothes, jobs, and to alternate gender roles such as male nurses or female firefighters. Gender identity in children develops through exposer to gender roles and activities in their community like racial identity.

However, self identifying race and self identifying gender have a major difference. When self identifying as a specific gender, people usually look like the gender they are identifying as. If a male identifies himself as female, he uses she, her, hers to describe himself and alters his appearance to appear female. In this case, the person matches his physical appearance. On the other hand, claiming one’s race isn’t as easy. Although a person can claim to be a race, their appearance may not match the claim. An example of this would be in Garcia-Navarro’s article “For Affirmative Action, Brazil Sets Up Controversial Boards To Determine Race” where 27-year-old Afro Brazilian Lucas Siquiera  was denied a Brazilian diplomatic position because the public and the government’s “race commission” considered him Caucasian based on his appearance. The main point in the article was that his claim did not match his appearance. Society isn’t confused when gender is claimed because the claim matches the looks, but race doesn’t always match the appearance of the person. The confusion with self identification of race makes it less accepted by society because the public can’t tell  if applicants  are the race they say they are if they don’t match the physical characteristics common to the race they identify as. In Natasha Scott’s situation, she claims to be purely African American in her college application and looks African American too. However, Massachusetts Democratic Senate Elizabeth Warren claims to be part Cherokee Indian and looks white. She, despite proof of her relations,  isn’t considered Native American by society because her appearance doesn’t match her Cherokee claim.

Works Cited

Garcia-Navarro, Lulu. “For Affirmative Action, Brazil Sets Up Controversial Boards To Determine Race.” NPR. NPR, 29 Sept. 2016. Web. 11 Dec. 2016.

Gender Identity Development in Children.” HealthyChildren.org. American Academy of Pediatrics, 21 Nov. 2015. Web. 11 Dec. 2016.

Layden, Tim. “Is It Fair for Caster Semenya to Compete against Women at the Rio Olympics?” SI.com. Sports Illustrated, 11 Aug. 2016. Web. 11 Dec. 2016.

Markman, Art. “Categories, Essentialism, Race, and Culture.” Psychology Today. N.p., 27 Oct. 2009. Web. 11 Dec. 2016.

Minority Rules: Who Gets To Claim Status As A Person Of Color?” NPR. 16 May 2012. Web. 31 October 2016.

Norris, Michele. “Family Secret And Cultural Identity Revealed In ‘Little White Lie’” NPR. NPR, 23 Mar. 2015. Web. 11 Dec. 2016.

On College Forms a Question of Race, or Races, Can Perplex.” The New York Times. 13 June 2011. Web. 31 October 2016.

Being Blackish: Race and Self-Identification.” The Huffington Post. TheHuffingtonPost.com, 23 June 2015. Web. 11 Dec. 2016.

Wong, Curtis M. “50 Percent Of Millennials Believe Gender Is A Spectrum, Fusion’s Massive Millennial Poll Finds.” The Huffington Post. TheHuffingtonPost.com, 2 Feb. 2016. Web. 11 Dec. 2016.

Self-Reflective Statement – scarletthief

Core Value I. My work demonstrates that I used a variety of social and interactive practices that involve recursive stages of exploration, discovery, conceptualization, and development.

For my Visual Rewrite and Definition Rewrite paper, I took advantage of Professor Hodges feedback to develop and improve my work. For my Visual Rewrite, my first draft had little depth as I never went into the emotional or significance of the environment and the actions of the characters in the video “Your Son’s Messed Up Haircut.” Although I mentioned how the son didn’t have a large reaction to his mother’s shaving mistake, I hadn’t dissected the meaning behind his reaction. For my second draft of the paper, after receiving meaningful and helpful feedback from the professor, I explained in thorough detail the meaning behind the actions I described in the video such as the squeeze after the hug at the end of the video. In the first draft I said the mother hugs her son, but to go deeper into the action I added how a squeeze after the initial hug typically is used to show support and care toward the person being hugged. Hugs in general don’t mean much, but in this context where we find out the son is adopted and that the “squeeze hug” means his adoptive mother loves him as if he was her own flesh and blood.

In my Definition Rewrite, I missed explaining the main reason to why self-identification of race is more important today than it ever has been. Professor Hodges immediately pointed this out and his advice was greatly appreciated. While revising the essay, I addressed how applicants of college scholarships, college admissions, and work institutions were the main subjects who find racial identification of the utmost importance. This core value has been met.

Core Value II. My work demonstrates that I placed texts into conversation with one another to create meaning by synthesizing ideas from various discourse communities. 

I did not converse much with my peers during the writing of my Definition Rewrite and Rebuttal Rewrite. I had used Professor Hodge’s feedback wisely to address points in my posts that I had missed. I am unsure if I responded enough to the feed back though. Despite my lack of peer discussions, I used multiple articles to help form the thesis of my papers with evidence and information. Especially for my Rebuttal Rewrite, I used sources to not the similarity of race and gender in general, then countered this by mentioning that self-identifying as a race and gender are actually very different. In this case, I have met the requirements for this core value as I did create an essay that compared two almost unrelated topics by using the information of several sources.

Core Value III. My work demonstrates that I rhetorically analyzed the purpose, audience, and contexts of my own writing and other texts and visual arguments.

For an exercise in class, I was given the opportunity to give feedback to yankeeskid6prof2020, and dublin517’s on their Definition, Causal, and Rebuttal posts respectively. By analyzing their posts, I gained a greater understanding of what my audience would also want from my works: a clear thesis, direct explanations, and relative examples. I definitely applied what I learned to my Definition Rewrite by clarifying my thesis and writing as concisely as possible for my examples. I can say I have meat the requirements for this core value.

Core Value IV: My work demonstrates that I have met the expectations of academic writing by locating, evaluating, and incorporating illustrations and evidence to support my own ideas and interpretations.

For almost all of my works, I have met this core value. My Definition RewriteRebuttal Rewrite, and Research Paper all incorporate evidence from multiple articles to support my theses. I have used beyond the minimum required number of sources in order to properly describe my ideas. My Rebuttal Rewrite is the best example of how I went beyond the required the expected number of sources which ranged from The Huffington Post articles to pediatrician tips for parents.

Core Value V. My work demonstrates that I respect my ethical responsibility to represent complex ideas fairly and to the sources of my information with appropriate citation. 

Maintaining this core value was of the utmost importance by citing the sources I used in my Research PaperRebuttal Rewrite, and Definition Rewrite. I learned to properly cite through the Good Citation exercise assigned by Professor Hodges. Instead of using parenthetical citations after sentences or paragraphs, I have inserted the author and title of the articles into my essays along with the information I drew from the sources. I have given the sources of the information respect through my citations in my posts and have not tried to pass of their ideas as my own. I have only used their ideas to help embody my own idea of self-identifitication.

 

Definition Rewrite – scarletthief

Race: Who Gets to Choose?

Self identifying race has never been more important to Americans than it is now because it is more than a source of pride in ones’ history and family – it is a choice that allows people to access more opportunities in society. Censuses, college forms, and any other events with the option to choose which race applicants identify as such as job applications, causes confusion. The main reason for this confusion would be: How do people know what race they are?  Race can be based on whether a man looks African American or on the blood of his African American ancestors. According to D’vera Cohn’s article, “Millions of Americans changed their racial or ethnic identity from one census to the next,” applicants tend to change the race they identify as such as Americans who identified as Hispanic and “some other race” in the 2000 census, who then identified as Hispanic and white in the 2010 census. America’s diversity explains the reason for the 2010 census including an option to check multiple races and a final option for “some other race” if some one couldn’t choose one of the listed races. The fact is, race can’t be defined as easily as black and white because our nation is filled with so many colors. By solving this dilemma of racial identification, proper respect toward one’s race can be given and exploitation of racial benefits can be prevented.

Mixed-race college applicants face the moral dilemma of selecting the race most likely to get them accepted. Natasha Scott, the child of an African-American father and an Asian mother, applied to the University of Virginia in 2011 as African-American to improve her odds, but feels guilty about it. When posting her dilemma on College Confidential, none of the commenters mentioned putting only Asian yet many either said to choose African American and Asian or just African American. She is both races, but in this case, chose to be the one most beneficial to her.

Because the rules for determining race are fuzzy, institutions can dispute applicants’ choices. 27-year-old Afro-Brazilian diplomatic applicant Lucas Siqueira was denied a Brazilian diplomatic position because the government “race commission” decided his looks made him White. Regardless of how he self-identifies, others will determine how he is treated in his neighborhood, at his school, and by prospective employers.

Similarly, in American history a man was deemed Black by society if they had even a drop of Black blood in them. This was called the “one-drop rule.” Even if a man had White parents, White grandparents, and White great-grandparents, if his great-great-grandmother or grandfather was African American, he was considered Black. Institutions such as schools or factories during this time of segregation had the power to identify applicants’ races despite the wishes or appearance of the applicants.

The “one-drop rule” however, in Elise Hu’s article “Minority Rules: Who Gets To Claim Status As A Person Of Color?” can also be applied by applicants to gain the societal benefits as a person of color in scholarships, college admissions, or work institutions. Massachusetts Democratic Senator Elizabeth Warren claimed to be Cherokee Indian which in some cases would allow her to have the same health care and education benefits Native American tribe members have. Despite her claim, her self-identification doesn’t match her white looks.

Self-identifying race is important to Americans more than ever because of the benefits and opportunities in school or in the workplace that are more accessible to certain races.  Clarifying what and who makes applicants Caucasian, or African American, or Asian is only the beginning to defining race.

Works Cited:

For Affirmative Action, Brazil Sets Up Controversial Boards To Determine Race.” NPR. 29 September 2016. Web. 31 October 2016.

Millions of Americans changed their racial or ethnic identity from one census to the next.” Pew Research Center. 5 May 2014. Web. 31 October 2016.

Minority Rules: Who Gets To Claim Status As A Person Of Color?” NPR. 16 May 2012. Web. 31 October 2016.

On College Forms a Question of Race, or Races, Can Perplex.” The New York Times. 13 June 2011. Web. 31 October 2016.

Research Position – scarletthief

Why Can’t We Choose Our Race, Too?

Self-identifying race has never been more important to Americans than it is now because it is more than a source of pride in ones’ history and family – it is a choice that allows people to access more opportunities in society. However, self-identification of race encounters more opposition than self-identification of gender in America. As a society, we accepted Bruce Jenner identifying as a woman in 2015. However, we simultaneously shunned Rachel Dolezal, a Caucasian-born woman, for identifying as African-American in that same year, resulting in her forced resignation as the President of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP). Half of the Millennial generation acknowledges the idea that “gender is a spectrum” instead of just male or female; cities and public establishments have created no-gender ID cards and bathrooms to accommodate for all genders. So what makes choosing our race so different when race and gender are ultimately very similar in regards to how they develop in people and the advantages gained from claiming to be one or the other?

We are constantly confused by censuses, college and scholarship applications, and work applications that require race identification. The reason being: How do we know what race we are?  Race can be based on whether a man looks African American or on the blood of his African American ancestors. According to D’vera Cohn’s article, “Millions of Americans changed their racial or ethnic identity from one census to the next,” applicants tend to change the race they identify as such as Americans who identified as Hispanic and “some other race” in the 2000 census, who then identified as Hispanic and White in the 2010 census. Determining a person’s race is only the beginning of the difficulties of racial self-identification. America’s diversity explains the reason for the 2010 census including an option to check multiple races and a final option for “some other race” if someone couldn’t choose one of the listed races. Race can’t be defined as easily as black and white because our nation is filled with so many colors. By solving this dilemma of racial identification, proper respect toward one’s race can be given and exploitation of racial benefits can be prevented.

Let’s begin with determining what race is. While race is characterized by the looks of the individual, it can also be determined by blood. In American history a man was deemed Black by society if they had even a drop of Black blood in them and didn’t have to look Black to be considered Black. This was called the “one-drop rule.” Even if a man had White parents, White grandparents, and White great-grandparents, if his great-great-grandmother or grandfather was African American, he was considered Black. Institutions such as schools or factories during this time of segregation had the power to identify applicants’ races despite the wishes or appearance of the applicants.

Contrary to the original use of “one-drop rule,”the rule could be applied by applicants to gain the societal benefits as a person of color in scholarships, college admissions, or work institutions. Massachusetts Democratic Senator Elizabeth Warren claimed to be 1/32 Cherokee Indian which in some cases would allow her to have the same health care and education benefits Native American tribe members have, but she looks Caucasian. She, despite proof of her relations,  isn’t considered Native American by us because her appearance doesn’t match her Cherokee claim. Race isn’t just how we identify ourself, but also how society identifies us.

On the other hand are mixed-race college applicants who face the moral dilemma of selecting the race most likely to get them accepted. Natasha Scott, the child of an African-American father and an Asian mother, applied to the University of Virginia in 2011 solely as an African-American to improve her chances of being accepted, but felt guilty about it. By claiming to be solely Black, more educational and most likely monetary opportunities were open to her. When posting her dilemma on College Confidential, none of the commenters mentioned putting only Asian yet many either said to choose African American and Asian or just African American. She is both races, but in this case, chose to be the one most beneficial to her.

Self-identifying race shouldn’t be something that can be changed depending on the situation, but in cases like Natasha Scott,  she isn’t lying about her blood relations as she is part African American. While Natasha Scott can identify as either race, can non-mixed-race college applicants also have the ability to choose a race they have no relation to? Given the freedom to self-identify race, an applicant can earn college scholarships only eligible to certain races such as scholarships solely for African-Americans. We see this as unfair to real African-Americans who are eligible to the scholarships since no scholarship means no education. When we have the ability to choose our race we consider our family, our environment, and our situation.

Likewise gender has its advantages despite the benefit not being monetary. A man who is transgender is able to enter an otherwise prohibited area – the women’s bathroom. Transgender and intersex individuals can also gain an advantage in activities like the Olympics. In Layden’s article, “Is It Fair for Caster Semenya to Compete against Women at the Rio Olympics?” he mentions how intersex competitors may dominate in women competitions because of how the excess testosterone aids in certain muscular development. We feel that the glory and respect given to an Olympic medalist should be fairly rewarded and loathe competitors who cheat by claiming to be female.

Race and gender in general are similar by how they develop in humans.  Children don’t begin classifying people into different races until around 10 years old according to Art Markman in his article “Categories, Essentialism, Race, and Culture.” If the children grew up in a politically liberal area, they believed in classifying people into racial categories as oppose to children who grew up in politically conservative areas who believed that categorizing races was wrong. The development of racial identity in children stems from the environment and the members of society surrounding them. An example would be Lacey Shwartz, mentioned in the article “Family Secret and Cultural Identity Revealed In ‘Little White Lie,’” who grew up with white Jewish parents in a white community. Despite her African American features, she identified herself as white because of the community and people she lived with. Similarly, in the documentary Somewhere Between, four Chinese-American girls were adopted by Caucasian parents and grew up thinking of themselves as White. They compared themselves to a banana that was yellow on the outside and white on the inside.

Gender identity development is similar to the development of children’s racial identity because they both develop from their environment. Girls who grow up surrounded by princesses, dresses, dolls, and other female stereotypes are likely to identify themselves as female once they are old enough. If boys were surrounded by similar princesses, dresses, dolls, and such, they would also be likely to identify themselves as female if they weren’t told they were biologically males. Parents are encouraged to help their daughters or sons to develop a healthy gender identity by exposing their child to both genders’ activities, clothes, jobs, and to alternate gender roles such as male nurses or female firefighters. Gender identity in children develops through exposer to gender roles and activities in their community like racial identity.

We should be able to self-identify our race if we can self-identify our gender based on the similarities between race and gender. However, self identifying race and self identifying gender have a major difference. When self-identifying as a specific gender, people usually look like the gender they are identifying as. If a male identifies himself as female, he uses she, her, hers to describe himself and alters his appearance to appear female. In this case, the person matches his physical appearance and we accept her self-identification. On the other hand, claiming one’s race isn’t as easy because the rules for determining race are fuzzy, which allows institutions to dispute applicants’ choices. An example of this would be in Garcia-Navarro’s article “For Affirmative Action, Brazil Sets Up Controversial Boards To Determine Race.” 27-year-old Afro-Brazilian diplomatic applicant Lucas Siqueira was denied a Brazilian diplomatic position because the government “race commission” decided his looks made him Caucasian. Regardless of how he self-identifies, others will determine how he is treated in his neighborhood, at his school, and by prospective employers. The main point in the article was that his claim did not match his appearance. We aren’t confused when gender is claimed because the claim matches the looks, but since we can’t tell  if applicants  are the race they say they are if they don’t match the physical characteristics common to the race they identify as, racial self-identification is less accepted.

We can’t choose our race since society has to agree with the choice of the individual. Racial self-identification is important to us because there are benefits and opportunities available in our education and work institutions only accessible to specific races. Racial equality has a fine border now that most of America is mixed-race. Gender is considered a spectrum by many Americans and we are less inclined to place women and men into their stereotypical gender roles because of the concept of gender equality. If all genders are equal, then identifying as male, female, or otherwise matters little.

Works Cited:

Millions of Americans changed their racial or ethnic identity from one census to the next.” Pew Research Center. 5 May 2014. Web. 31 October 2016.

On College Forms a Question of Race, or Races, Can Perplex.” The New York Times. 13 June 2011. Web. 31 October 2016.

For Affirmative Action, Brazil Sets Up Controversial Boards To Determine Race.” NPR. NPR, 29 Sept. 2016. Web. 11 Dec. 2016.

Layden, Tim. “Is It Fair for Caster Semenya to Compete against Women at the Rio Olympics?” SI.com. Sports Illustrated, 11 Aug. 2016. Web. 11 Dec. 2016.

Markman, Art. “Categories, Essentialism, Race, and Culture.” Psychology Today. N.p., 27 Oct. 2009. Web. 11 Dec. 2016.

Minority Rules: Who Gets To Claim Status As A Person Of Color?” NPR. 16 May 2012. Web. 31 October 2016.

Norris, Michele. “Family Secret And Cultural Identity Revealed In ‘Little White Lie’” NPR. NPR, 23 Mar. 2015. Web. 11 Dec. 2016.

On College Forms a Question of Race, or Races, Can Perplex.” The New York Times. 13 June 2011. Web. 31 October 2016.

Riben, Mirah. “Being Blackish: Race and Self-Identification.” The Huffington Post. TheHuffingtonPost.com, 23 June 2015. Web. 11 Dec. 2016.

Wong, Curtis M. “50 Percent Of Millennials Believe Gender Is A Spectrum, Fusion’s Massive Millennial Poll Finds.” The Huffington Post. TheHuffingtonPost.com, 2 Feb. 2016. Web. 11 Dec. 2016.

Annotated Bibliography – scarletthief

1. http://www.npr.org/sections/parallels/2016/09/29/495665329/for-affirmative-action-brazil-sets-up-controversial-boards-to-determine-race

Background: 27 year old Lucas Siquiera took the Foreign Service exam to join Brazil’s Ministry of Foreign Affairs, but was accused of lying about his race. He claimed to be mixed race, but had a Caucasian appearance.

How I used it: To give an example of how the public and the individual can differ in opinion  on which race a person can be. Despite the individual’s claims, if the public doesn’t agree, then they can’t claim to be the race they say they are.

2. http://www.npr.org/sections/thetwo-way/2015/06/15/414655045/rachel-dolezal-resigns-as-president-of-spokane-naacp

Background: Former president of NAACP Rachel Dolezal discovered to be biologically Caucasian when many believed she was African American.

How I used it: Further information about her situation (I had another article about her, but wanted a little more information). She claimed to be black when she was white, which lead to her becoming the President, but just because she was actually white, she was forced to resign from presidency. Pros and Cons to claiming the race.

3. http://www.npr.org/sections/codeswitch/2015/03/23/394789419/family-secret-and-cultural-identity-revealed-in-little-white-lie

Background: Lacey Schwartz grew up in an entirely white community and never knew she had African American blood in her. She did not choose a race for her college application, but was accepted as African American based on her photo. She now identifies as black when she once identified as white.

 

How I used it: Example to show how the public can categorize people as a certain race just based on physical attributes. Similar to Lucas Siquiera’s article where he was thought to be white by the public based on his appearance.

4. http://www.nytimes.com/2011/06/14/us/14admissions.html?_r=0

Background: For college applications, students must claim a race and Natasha Scott, who was African American/Asian, mentions how claiming to be African American would increase her chances of being accepted by colleges. Colleges want a diverse and multiracial population in their school, but most are multiracial nowadays.

 

How I used it: The benefits that come with some races and the difficulties people face when choosing a race to define who they are on applications/censes.

5. http://www.npr.org/sections/itsallpolitics/2012/05/16/152822762/minority-rules-who-gets-to-claim-status-as-a-person-of-color

Background: Elizabeth Warren claims to have Native American ancestors despite no proof of being 1/32 Cherokee. The “one-drop” rule is applied here. If there is even a “drop” of another race in a man’s blood, then he can claim to be that race.

How I used it: Provided information and history of how America has defined race. In the past, if a person had a drop of black blood in them they were black, no matter what. Physical characteristics do not have to match the biological makeup, but people have a harder time accepting these types of race claims.

6. https://www.healthychildren.org/English/ages-stages/gradeschool/Pages/Gender-Identity-and-Gender-Confusion-In-Children.aspx

Background: Gender is usually recognized by children around 2 years of age. Parents can help to develop gender identity in their children by exposing their child to “different gender roles and different styles of play.” Children express their gender identity through social interactions (which gender they play with more), toys, games, clothes, hairstyles, nicknames, and social behaviors. Expectations of gender roles have changed now as girls can excel in activities only boys were thought to excel in and vice versa.

How I used it: To counter the idea that race is different from gender. Both develop through social interactions and environments that influences the way a person identifies themselves as. (Rebuttal argument)

7.http://cpr.indiana.edu/uploads/Categorizing%20Identities%20Handout%20FINAL%202.pdf

Background: A flow chart depicting the change of the National Survey of Student Engagement (NSSE) categories for Race/Ethnicity, Gender, Sexual Orientation, and Disability from 2012-2014.

How I used it: Times have changed and people no longer identify as just one race, but multiple. Gender is similar as there is the choice of neither male nor female and a choice for if a person does not prefer to respond.

8. http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2014/05/05/millions-of-americans-changed-their-racial-or-ethnic-identity-from-one-census-to-the-next/ 

Background: Based on the year 2000 and the year 2010 census, millions of Americans have changed their race.

How I used it: Used as evidence for how we unconsciously change our race over time. Race isn’t definite –  it is a choice.

9. https://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/ulterior-motives/200910/categories-essentialism-race-and-culture 

Background: The article describes how children from 5-18 years old though differently as they grew older. At a young age, children closer to 5 years old showed no preference for categorizing people and animals into races, but as they aged they began to show preferences depending on the community they grew up in.

How I used it: Further information on how environment aids in the development of race categories. The article also contained information mentioning how the belief in categorizing races leads to the preconceived ideas of a person based on the race they are categorized in (Example could be “White privilege”).

10 – http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2015/02/05/fusion-millennial-poll-gender_n_6624200.html (50 Percent Of Millennials Believe Gender Is A Spectrum, Fusion’s Massive Millennial Poll Finds) 

Background: In a 2015 Millennial poll, 50% of millennials believed gender to be a spectrum and not binary. From this 57% were women and 44% were men who believed in the gender spectrum. 55% of whites, 47% of Latinos, and 32% of African Americans also said gender is on a spectrum. In 2014 only about 26% of the Americans in the poll were comfortable with self-determination of gender.

How I used it: Americans, especially the Millennials, in 2015 are now very accepting of multiple genders and society is making exceptions for people that don’t fall in the binary (male/female) categories. There is a significant acceptance change from 2014 to 2015.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Robust Verbs – scarletthief

Heroin addicts committing crimes – such as mugging, burglary, and prostitution – to support their habits generates a huge problem in Vancouver. The “free heroin for addicts” program dedicates itself to stopping the addicts from having to commit these crimes. Many undergo a hard time getting through their day to day lives. Maintaining daily activities such as jobs, interactions, and relationships because their main priority is obtaining and using heroin. This addiction causes heroin users to do whatever they have to do to get their hands on the drug and feed their addiction. However, the “free heroin for addicts” program won’t help to ween these addicts off heroin.The program only helps to lower the city’s crime rates. Providing the drug to addicts keeps them from resorting to minor street crimes to get more heroin. Because the drug is administered in the cleanest way possible, heroin addicts avoid needing to go to the hospital after using bad drugs or unsanitary needles. They often cannot afford hospital bills. Although the crime rate in Vancouver recovers from their efforts, the main problem, heroin addiction remains unresolved.

 

Enough About You – scarletthief

Money seems to have a big role in our society; we can’t do much or get far in we don’t have any. Money is valuable in different ways, even when it isn’t seen physically. In today’s society faith in the government and in the banking system that our money is being handled in the proper manner keeps us from having to hide all of our money under our mattresses or around the house. What the happens in the bank, or how they take care of our money, is unknown to many. Money used to be simple; a person either has money or doesn’t have money – that’s it. However, the Yap Fei, US gold, French francs, Brazilian cruzeiros, and debit accounts now seem similar. No one actually sees their money being transferred. When getting paid, we aren’t handed cash or a physical check, the money’s all directly transferred to our bank accounts, and we just have to trust that we got more money.

Definition Argument – scarletthief

What’s My Race?

Self identifying race has never been more important to Americans than it is now. There has always been confusion when choosing people’s races on censuses, college forms, or any other event where there is the option to choose which race they identify as. The main reason for this confusion would be: How do they know what race they are? A person can see race as a category based on physical appearances and another can see it as a biological and cultural-based category. Most of the time, for censuses, Americans tend to change the race they identify. America is extremely diverse that the 2010 census includes an option to check multiple races and a final option for “Some Other Race” if some one couldn’t choose one of the listed races. The fact is, race can’t be defined as easily as black and white because our nation is filled with so many colors.

Specifically, people of mixed race face the conundrum of which race they should identify as when applying for colleges. One example would be Natasha Scott who has an African American father and an Asian mother. In 2011 when she was applying for college, she had to choose whether to identify as African American or Asian. The reason as to why this was a difficult choice was because if she put African American she would be more likely to be accepted into colleges than if she put Asian. She wasn’t sure if identifying as the race with more benefits was morally right. She is both races, but in this case, chose to be the one most beneficial to her.

As mentioned in the first paragraph, race is can be based on a person’s physical characteristics. 27 year old Brazilian Lucas Siqueira was denied a Brazilian government position because he identified himself as mixed race, but was considered Caucasian by the government. His looks made him White to the populace, but he considered himself Afro-Brazilian. So which race is he? This is what makes self-identification of race so important. Either a person can choose their own race, or others can choose for them. Neither is fully accepted as a way to determine one’s race.

Also mentioned in the first paragraph was how race can be based on a person’s biological make up and culture. In American history, a man was deemed Black if they had even a drop of Black blood in them. This was deemed the “one-drop rule.” Even if a man had White parents, White grandparents, and White great-grandparents, if his great-great-grandmother or grandfather was African American, he was considered Black. In this case, a person would have the right to identify as any race if they have even the tiniest amount of that race in their blood despite their physical appearance not matching their biological relations.

Works Cited:

For Affirmative Action, Brazil Sets Up Controversial Boards To Determine Race.” NPR. 29 September 2016. Web. 31 October 2016.

Millions of Americans changed their racial or ethnic identity from one census to the next.” Pew Research Center. 5 May 2014. Web. 31 October 2016.

Minority Rules: Who Gets To Claim Status As A Person Of Color?” NPR. 16 May 2012. Web. 31 October 2016.

On College Forms a Question of Race, or Races, Can Perplex.” The New York Times. 13 June 2011. Web. 31 October 2016.

White Paper – scarletthief

Opening:

Self-identification of race encounters more opposition than self-identification of gender in America. We easily accepted Bruce Jenner identifying as a woman in 2015, but shunned Rachel Dolezal, a Caucasian-born woman, for identifying as African-American in that same year. Half of the Millennial generation acknowledge the idea that “gender is a spectrum” instead of just male or female; cities and public establishments have created no-gender ID cards and bathrooms to accommodate for all genders. So what makes choosing our race so different? One example would be that there are benefits to being a certain race, such as earning college scholarships by identifying as African-American. Many see this as unfair to real African-Americans who are eligible to the scholarships – no scholarship means no education. America separates race as White (non-hispanic), African American, Hispanic, Latino, Asian, Pacific Islander, Native American, Alaskan Native, and bi- and multiracial and we are expected to choose our race when filling out applications and censuses. But if others don’t agree with our choice, then what race are we?

Point I want to make at some point in the work:
Transracial adoptees are often confused about which race they should identify as: the race of their adopted family or their biological origin.

WHAT MAKES GENDER IDENTIFICATION AND RACE IDENTIFICATION DIFFERENT?

http://www.npr.org/sections/parallels/2016/09/29/495665329/for-affirmative-action-brazil-sets-up-controversial-boards-to-determine-race

For Affirmative Action, Brazil Sets Up Controversial Boards To Determine Race

  • 27 year old Lucas Siquiera took the Foreign Service exam to join Brazil’s Ministry of Foreign Affairs
  • He considers himself to be mixed race, known in Brazil as pardo, or brown.
  • Father’s family: grandfather is black, grandmother, Indian and white.
  • Mother’s family: mostly white Portuguese
  • self identified as mixed race on his application. 20% of the government’s positions must be filled with people of color: mixed race or black
  • People saw Siqueira’s photos on social media and said he was a white and a fraud who lied to get a job in the government
  • Brazil government had to rethink their job offer
  • a committee of 7 diplomats were gathered to review his case and decided he was NOT mixed race with NO explanation
  • Siqueira sued them and in order to prove his Afro-Brazilian roots had to do tests to categorize his skin color on different sections of his body.
  • He was considered to be white b/c of his physical looks, but his racial identity “is made up of more than just physical characteristics”
  • Racial tribunals (court/jury/panel/etc) are now mandatory for all government jobs
    • measuring lip size, hair texture, nose width, and other racial stereotypes
  • U.S. “one drop rule” means one drop of Black blood means you are Black
  • Brazil says skin tone is more important than race because its population is very diverse.
  • Siqueira doesn’t support the the racial tribunals.
  • He is neither fully black or fully white, but in the middle.

http://www.npr.org/sections/thetwo-way/2015/06/15/414655045/rachel-dolezal-resigns-as-president-of-spokane-naacp

Rachel Dolezal Resigns As President Of Spokane NAACP

  • Rachel Dolezal he had been presenting herself as being of mixed race when she was really born to white parents.
  • Over her time at the NAACP, Dolezal had become a prominent figure in the civil rights movement.
  • NAACP afterward said “One’s racial identity is not a qualifying criteria or disqualifying standard for NAACP leadership,” supporting her.

http://www.npr.org/sections/codeswitch/2015/03/23/394789419/family-secret-and-cultural-identity-revealed-in-little-white-lie

Family Secret and Cultural Identity Revealed In ‘Little White Lie’

  • Lacey Schwartz who has darker skin tone and curly hair, different from her parents, grew up in a white community
  • Parents are white and Jewish and said her color came from a dark, Sicilian grandfather
  • She grew up thinking she was white
  • Found out Lacey’s mother had an affair with a black man and never told Lacey
  • Needed to clarify her racial identity for college application and was accepted as an African American student based on her photo, despite not choosing a race on the application.
  • Georgetown University decided she was African American based on physical attributes
  • She made friends with other AA students and felt like she “belonged”
  • now identifies as black when she once identified as black

http://www.alleydog.com/glossary/definition.php?term=Gender%20Identity

Gender Identity

Gender identity is one’s own perception or sense of being male or female. Please do not confuse this with sexual orientation (as heterosexual or homosexual) or the strength of one’s gender-typing; it is just a person’s own knowledge and feelings of being a male or female.

http://www.nytimes.com/2011/06/14/us/14admissions.html?_r=0

http://www.npr.org/sections/itsallpolitics/2012/05/16/152822762/minority-rules-who-gets-to-claim-status-as-a-person-of-color

Links to check out:

Feedback please, causes?