Asano, E. (2017, January 4) How Much Time Do People Spend on Social Media? Retrieved from https://www.socialmediatoday.com/marketing/how-much-time-do-people-spend-social-media-infographic
The essential content of this article: This article discusses how much time the average person spends on social media daily and added up to see how many years it equals up to. The article also discusses each top social media and how much time the average person spends a day on each one of these platforms.
How it was used: It was used in my definition argument to show that people used social media very often which leads to bullying cases online.
Aqab,S. (2015, October 10) 6 Reasons Why Social Networking is Popular Nowadays. Retrieved from https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/6-reasons-why-social-networking-popular-nowadays-sara-aqab
The essential content of this article: This article lists the top six reasons to why social media is popular in this day and age. It gives you an opportunity to meet new people,they are user friendly, they are free, they have a job marker, they allow businesses to reach out to potential customers,and they allow you to join groups.
How it was used: The article was used for my definition argument to show that social media is used for many different reasons not only for children to bully each other on. Social media is not the problem.
Goldman, L. (2004-12-27) Raising Our Children to Be Resilient. Retrieved from https://ebookcentral.proquest.com/lib/rowan/reader.action?docID=240663&ppg=22
The essential content of this article: This article discusses grief and trauma and the impact it has on children and how to work with kids and trauma within home, school and the community. Traumatized kids feel powerless, hopeless, and helpless. Children often respond to a traumatic event with fear, terror and extreme vulnerability. Trauma can create distorted perceptions of self in children, commonly produces angry and combative reactions and overriding feeling of terror. When experiencing trauma teenagers may withdraw, bully or resort to drugs and violence in order to cope.
How it was used: This article was used to show that it is hard for children to deal with trauma in their lives, from death of a family member to abuse at home. Children often can’t cope with their feelings at a young age, proving that they need some help. I used this to state that bullying can’t be stopped by children alone they need help and support.
Ma, X. (2001) Bullying and Being Bullied: To What Extent Are Bullies Also Victims? Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org.ezproxy.rowan.edu/stable/pdf/3202462.pdf?refreqid=excelsior%3A60abb9588a61d9951c2434b757060c62
The essential content of this article: “concluded that bullies come from families where parents are authoritarian, hostile, and rejecting, have poor problem-solving skills, and advocate fighting-back at the least provocation. Bullies have aggressive behavior histories, and they often take advantage of their physical strength (Olweus, 1991b). There are no significant socioeconomic differences among bullies. Bullies do not have low self-esteem as many educators expect (Rigby & Slee, 1991), and bullying behaviors are not a result of academic failure in school (Olweus, 1991a, 1993, 1994; Rigby & Slee, 1991). Bullying in school varies with grade levels (Whitney & Smith, 1993), but researchers are divided in their findings. Bran white (1994) reported more incidents of bullying in secondary school than in elementary school. On the other hand, some researchers suggest that the percentage of students being bullied decreases significantly with age or grade, although the decline in rate is less substantial during junior and senior”
How it was used: This article provided information stating that bullies come from families where parents are authoritarian, hostile, and rejecting which gave me more support for the claim that I am trying to prove.
Musu-Gillette, L. (2017, May) Indicators of School Crime and Safety: 2016. Retrieved from https://nces.ed.gov/pubs2017/2017064.pdf
The essential content of this article: This article shows the statistics of bullying cases and what the effects of bullying are. As well as discussing statistics of cyberbullying cases, students with disabilities, students of color, and students who identify with LGBTQ. Bullying and suicide rates are discussed and interventions places have put into place due to bullying.
How it was used: This was used to show how many cyberbullying cases occur, while my paper did not end up going down the cyberbullying route it still provided valuable information that was used in my definition argument.
Olweus, D. (1997, May) Bully/victim problems in school: Facts and intervention. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org.ezproxy.rowan.edu/stable/pdf/23420286.pdf?refreqid=excelsior%3A81a118046b9f273c73808da868e8d722
The essential content of this article: “1. The basic emotional attitude of the primary caretaker(s) toward the child during early years (usually the mother). A negative emotional attitude, characterized by lack of warmth and involvement, increases the risk that the child will later become aggressive and hostile toward others. 2. Permissiveness for aggressive behaviour by the child. If the primary caretaker is generally permissive and “tolerant” without setting clear limits to aggressive behaviour towards peers, siblings, and adults, the child’s aggression level is likely to increase. 3. Use of power-assertive child-rearing methods such as physical punishment and violent emotional outbursts. Children of parents who make frequent use of these methods are likely to become more aggressive than the average child. In other words, “violence begets violence”
How it was used: It was used to show that if children don’t often gain affection at home they tend to grow up to be more aggressive. Children who grow to be aggressive may result in becoming a bully.
Pappas, S. (2010, April 9) Behind Bullying: Why Kids Are So Cruel. Retrieved from https://www.livescience.com/6325-bullying-kids-cruel.html
The essential content of this article: This article discusses why kids are so cruel. It discusses how bullies are looking to gain admiration and dominance by bullying other children. It states that bullies also want affection and look for approval in their own group of friends. Due to this they strategically pick victims they know few other classmates will defend. Some children who bully struggle with aggression may be abuse victims themselves, others just think its the cool thing to do.
How it was used: It was used to provide background as to why children bully other students within their class. To gain support and dominance proving that bullying is a prevalent issue.
Roberts, W. B., Jr., & Morotti, A. A. (2000.December). The Bully as Victim. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/pdf/42732181.pdf?refreqid=excelsior:691cee82878e2580b4ba2f967406d63a
The essential content of this article: “Bullies are well-versed in aggressive behaviors designed to obtain goals, and these lessons most often originate first in the home environment (Brody, 1996; Craig, Peters, & Konarski, 1998; Pepler & Sedighdel lami, 1998). Greenbaum et al.(1989), Hazier (1996a), and Oliver, Oaks, and Hoover (1994) noted many of the difficult characteristics encountered and learned by bullies in the home environment. The home situation of the bully is quite harsh (Craig et al., 1998; Espelage, Bosworth, Karageorge, & Daytner, 1996; Pepler & Sedighdellami, 1998). Hazier (1996a) is explicit: “[Humans] are most vulnerable to learning appropriate behaviors when they are very young. The vast majority of what [bullies] see and hear … is from their family” (p. 34). Punishment is often capricious and physical. Minor infractions may bring violent verbal, emotional, or physical overreactions from one or both parents, after which the child is often ignored for long stretches of time. Praise, encouragement, and humor are rare in the life of the bully. Put-downs, sarcasm, and criticism are more the rule than the exception (Greenbaum et al., 1989). Parents exhibit little in the way of positive role modeling behaviors. Bullies are seldom monitored for their whereabouts or activities (Roberts, 1988) or disciplined for antisocial behaviors. Out of this home environment emerges a personality steeped in the belief and justification that intimidation and brute force are ways to interact with the obstacles encountered in life. Indeed, the parents of bullies often support their children’s behavior as “‘standing up’ for oneself” (Ross, 1996, p. 73). Additionally, bullies empower themselves through aggression toward others”
How it was used: This was used to show that bullies often pick up on bullying tendencies within their household. Bullies are often misunderstood and victimized as bad kids, when sometimes they actually don’t know any other way to act toward their peers.
Schwarz, J. (2006, September 12) Violence in the home leads to higher rates of childhood bullying. Retrieved from https://www.washington.edu/news/2006/09/12/violence-in-the-home-leads-to-higher-rates-of-childhood-bullying/
The essential content of this article: A study conducted to see whether or not children who are exposed to violence within their home are more prone to bullying behaviors.
How it was used: This article was used to show that children who are exposed to abuse between parents don’t grow into bullies. The study showed that the children prone to at home violence did not necessarily become more aggressive.
Social Media Bullying Has Become a Serious Problem. (2016, October 13) Retrieved from https://nobullying.com/social-media-bullying-has-become-a-serious-problem/
The essential content of this article: The article discusses what constitutes bullying on social media some examples include posting negative comments on pictures, posting abusive posts on a user’s wall, and using social media to stalk. A significant amount of cyberbullying takes place on Facebook. Other social media accounts are becoming more used in order to bully as well such as Twitter, Ask.FM, and SnapChat.
How it was used: This article was used in my definition argument to show what is considering online bullying and what isn’t. I used to information to show what websites are typically used for cyber bullying, the most prevalent websites seen.
What is Child Abuse.(n.d) Retrieved from https://www.childhelp.org/child-abuse/
The essential content of this article: This article provides the different types of abuse children experience and how children react to such abuse.
How it was used: This was used in order to prove the point that abuse at home is a very hard term to define, their is not a clear indicator as to whether a child is abused or not. Abuse comes in many different forms from verbal to physical making it hard to constitute what abuse at home really is.
What is Cyberbullying. (n.d.) Retrieved from https://www.stopbullying.gov/cyberbullying/what-is-it/index.html
The essential content of this article: This article discusses what cyberbullying actually is and how it takes place over digital devices like cell phones, computers, and tablets. Cyberbullying can occur through SMS, Text, and app, or online in social media forums. Common places where cyberbullying occurs are Facebook, Instagram, Snapchat and Twitter for social media accounts. But also can occur through text messages a lot of the time as well. It also talks about the special concerns when it comes to cyberbullying cases. Such as how it can be persistent, permanent, and or hand to notice.
How it was used: To provide background information as to what cyberbullying actually is. I used the definition for cyberbullying to provide information to readers that may not know what constitutes a bullying case.