Causal Rewrite-Dohertyk9

If we start with radically different premises of what the definition of rape is, then we end up with radically different data. Wikipedia itself admits, “Data on the prevalence of rape vary greatly depending on what definition of rape is used.” This is why the number of reported rape cases varies so greatly between the different sources.

The Department of Justice reports the FBI’s definition of rape as,

Penetration, no matter how slight, of the vagina or anus with any body part or object, or oral penetration by a sex organ of another person, without the consent of the victim.

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website states, “Sexual violence is defined as a sexual act committed against someone without that person’s freely given consent.” It explains a number of situations that are considered to be sexual violence:

Completed or attempted forced penetration of a victim, Completed or attempted alcohol/drug-facilitated penetration of a victim, Completed or attempted forced acts in which a victim is made to penetrate a perpetrator or someone else, Completed or attempted alcohol/drug-facilitated acts in which a victim is made to penetrate a perpetrator or someone else, Non-physically forced penetration which occurs after a person is pressured verbally or through intimidation or misuse of authority to consent or acquiesce, Unwanted sexual contact, Non-contact unwanted sexual experiences.

The Bureau of Justice Statistics defines rape as,

Forced sexual intercourse including both psychological coercion and physical force. Forced sexual intercourse means vaginal, anal, or oral penetration by the offender(s). This category also includes incidents where the penetration is from a foreign object, such as a bottle. Includes attempted rape, male and female victims, and both heterosexual and same sex rape. Attempted rape includes verbal threats of rape.

As a result of the disparate definitions, the data are dissimilar. In the same year, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reported nearly 1.3 million incidents of “sexual violence,” while the FBI accounted for only 85,593 incidents of “rape.” If the two had used the same terminology, or if the words, “sexual violence,” and “rape,” shared the same definition, they may have attained very similar numbers. However, despite such an enormous difference in number between the two agencies, it can’t be said that either count is wrong.

Until a definition of rape is standardized and universalized, this trend will continue, and none of the statistics across the board will agree with each other. Unless we achieve such a definition, we will never come close to knowing just how many cases of rape truly exist in any given year. As it stands, few conclusions can be drawn from data, unless we choose to use only one source, with one definition, for our conclusions.

In addition, the unreported nature of rape furthers the preexisting disparity in statistics. Some victims are more likely to report the crime than others. This is clear in an article that cites the Department of Justice’s statistics- “New DOJ Data On Sexual Assaults: College Students Are Actually Less Likely To Be Victimized,” by the Federalist Staff, compares the numbers from DOJ statistics and attempts to prove that non-students are more likely to be raped than students. It states, “The full study, which was published by the Bureau of Justice Statistics, a division within DOJ, found that rather than one in five female college students becoming victims of sexual assault, the actual rate is 6.1 per 1,000 students, or 0.61 percent (instead of 1-in-5, the real number is 0.03-in-5). For non-students, the rate of sexual assault is 7.6 per 1,000 people.” However, within the article itself, it admits that, “Unfortunately, according to data from the BJS study, a huge percentage of sexual assaults — upwards of 80 percent for female college students — go unreported, and students who are victimized are far less likely to report the crime than are non-student victims.” It even goes so far as to list that 80% of students do not report rape, compared to 67% of non-students that do not report rape. If students are so much less likely than non-students to report rape, than how can it possibly be determined that non-students are more frequently victims of the crime? The data can be trusted to prove neither that students are more often victims of rape nor that non-students are.

Not only are the definitions of rape significantly different from each other, so as to produce different statistics, but also, the data can only measure rapes that are reported; they can say nothing about the rapes that aren’t reported. Even with the standardized and universalized definition of rape previously mentioned, we would still be unable to achieve completely accurate statistics. To do so, we would need to ensure that every case of rape is reported, and the data would start there, not accounting for previous years where this was not the case. If this was somehow possible, the data could then be trusted.




Definitions|Sexual Violence|Violence Prevention|Injury Center|CDC. (2017, March 22). Retrieved from

Rape statistics. (2018, April 3). Retrieved from

An Updated Definition of Rape. (n.d.). Retrieved from

Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS) – Rape and Sexual Assault. (n.d.). Retrieved from

New DOJ Data On Sexual Assaults: Students Are Less Likely To Be Raped. (2014, December 11). Retrieved from


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12 Responses to Causal Rewrite-Dohertyk9

  1. davidbdale says:

    DK, since you’ve taken the trouble to trace the “new definition” of rape to its more original source at the Department of Justice, use THAT as your reference instead of Wikipedia. (Not that there’s anything wrong with Wikipedia. 🙂 )

    Liked by 1 person

  2. davidbdale says:

    It’s disingenuous to accuse an organization of internal disagreement based on its recognition that it needs to evolve, don’t you think, DK? There are plenty of divergent definitions and descriptions of rape for you to compare that are more instructive than calling out the FBI for changing its description to reflect a more enlightened attitude. Or so it seems to me.


  3. davidbdale says:

    Reminder about the periods and commas. They go inside the quotation marks ALWAYS.
    NOT: “forcible rape”, which was defined
    BUT: “forcible rape,” which was defined

    Liked by 1 person

  4. davidbdale says:

    I’ve revised your text to utilize block quotes for quoted material longer than three lines of text. That’s a standard readers find useful and the model for academic work.

    Liked by 1 person

  5. davidbdale says:

    A thoughtful reader might wonder why you expect to find uniformity in statistics if you count different phenomena, DK. For example, comparing the number of rapes as defined by the FBI to to instances of sexual violence as defined by the Centers for Disease Control, wouldn’t necessarily result in the same numbers unless the two agencies stipulate that rape and sexual violence are synonymous. Instead of making readers wonder why you’re comparing the two, you need to address the problem that the organizations we count on to provide us with data don’t even share the same terminology about forced sex, nonconsensual sex, violent sex, etc.


  6. davidbdale says:

    Regarding your compelling evidence that the DOJ believes 80% of rapes of students go unreported, one has to ask—doesn’t one?—how in the world that percentage can be determined?

    On what evidence that a rape has occurred is such a calculation based?


  7. davidbdale says:

    A missing component here is the discussion of bias and intentionality.

    You should spend a paragraph to at least speculate why the FBI and the CDC, for example (plus any other agency you wish to include), would use such different definitions in the first place. The FBI considers rape a criminal matter. The CDC considers it a public health matter. Would that change the focus of their data analysis? Would it make one agency more likely to up-count and another to down-count reports as instances of rape or not?


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