Annotated Bibliography

Source one: Anderson, Terry H. Movement and the Sixties. Oxford University Press. 1995

Essential context: This source gave insight on the way of the sixties, between black Americans and law enforcement officials.

How I used it: I used this to explain how no matter what black Americans did in the 1960’s there was always rioting, and there was always police brutality going on in some way, shape or form.

Source two:

Little, Becky. “Why the Star-Spangled Banner Is Played At Sporting Events.” Why theStar-
Spangled Banner Is Played At Sporting Events – History in the Headlines. N.p., 25 Sept.
2017. Web. 29 Oct. 2017. .

Essential context: The essential context of this essay was to give the origin of the Star Spangled Banner, and why it has such importance to us as Americans.

How I used it: In my essay, I used this source to explain the importance of the anthem at sporting events, and it also gives background information on how why the anthem is such an important part of our history.

Source three:

Essential Context: This article talks about how the protest started, and gave Collin Kaepernicks view and the reasons that he started the protest. It also gives insight on the reasons the protest started.

What it proves: This source gives us more information on what the protest is, and the origin of protesting. This article further explains Collin Kapernicks whole view on it, and why he even started the protest in the first place.

Source four: The song “Proud to be an American” By Lee greenwood

Essential context: talks about what it means to be an american, and how proud we should be as a nation. It is unspoken that we as Americans have a devoted love to their country, and writing this song was just one of the many ways that we as Americans show our love to the flag and our country.

What it proves: How much pride some people have in the country, that they decided to make a song showing it. The song has lines like “And Ill proudly stand up” talking about standing up and fighting for the country that they love.

Source five:

Essential Context: This article talks about the 49ers still protesting, and gives Roger Goodell’s (The NFL commissioner) statement on the matter. Roger Goodell states that he supports the players right to peacefully protest, but he does not want it to effect the attendance at football games.

What it proves: It proves that kneeling has become a big issue dealing with patriotism in the country, and even after statements from the commissioner have been released, players are still doing it because they feel so strongly.

Source Six:

Essential Context: This arctic;e gives insight on what a retired coach in the NFL would have done with the situation. Tony Dungy, a soon to be hall of fame coach, states that he would be okay with his players protesting for a cause, and if they could explain that cause to him he would support them. Dungy states that many NFL players are basically kneeling because others are kneeling, and have no clue the cause they are protesting.

What it proves: This proves to me, that a person that has seen the inner workings of the NFL, and knows player interactions extremely well, is saying that a lot of players are not protesting for the purpose intended in the first place, and that Kaepernick’s intended purpose is still ambiguous.

Source seven:

Essential context: This source explains the peaceful protests that took place during the Civil Rights movement back in the 1960’s. This particular protest was a sit-in, where black americans would go to a whites only diner, and patiently wait to be served. They sat through threats, and racial slurs, and waited for service from the establishment.

What it proves: This proves that Kaepernick’s peaceful protest is not the first time one was used. This is just the first time that someone has done it during a time that everyone should be respectful.

Source eight:

Essential context: This post gives a lot of insight on the issue of Kaepernick’s protest as it relates to police brutality in America. It gives data on the amount of blacks killed compared to other Americans in the United states. The article also states “African-Americans make up roughly 13 percent of the country’s population ― meaning they are far more likely to die at the hands of police than white Americans, even though more white people are killed by law enforcement overall.” 

What it proves: This Source proves that out of 963 people shot and killed by law enforcement officers in 2016, only 233 of them were black Americans. This shows that black Americans do not make up an extremely significant amount of people shot in this country day by day. Even though they have a higher likelihood of being shot, there are still more white people that are killed each year.

Source nine:

Essential context: This source gives data on black on black crimes, or causes of deaths of blacks that are not because of police officers or white people.

What it proves: Since the black lives matter protest in the NFL, the number of black Americans being killed by other black Americans has increased by 900 from 2015 to 2016.

Source ten:

Essential context: This source explains that police brutality has been an ongoing problem in our country for many years now, dating back to at least the 1950’s and 1960’s. This article gives us the example of Philando Castile, and how he was fatally shot by police after telling officers that he had a licensed weapon in the car. The source also gives visuals of signs from the civil rights movement in the 60’s saying “We demand an end to police brutality NOW!”

What it proves: This source proves that police brutality has been an ongoing problem in our country, and sometimes the shootings by police are unwarranted. In Phalando’s case, he was just telling officers that he did have a gun in the car, and did not reach for it (as seen on the cruisers dash cam.)

Source eleven:

Essential context: This source provides a poll, giving American’s opinions on police brutality in America. Both blacks and whites said that “Many Americans, both blacks and whites, say that violence against police is also an extremely or very serious problem in the United States. And half of all Americans, regardless of race, say fear caused by the physical danger that police officers face is a major contributor to aggression against civilians.”

What it proves: This poll shows that police are putting fear in Americans, where the should be there to protect and serve, and not to put fear into people.

Source twelve: “Tony Dungy Speaks Out on NFL Players Kneeling During National Anthem.” Intellectual Takeout

Essential context: The essential context of this article gives insight on how an NFL coach, that was around the game and the players for a very long time, would handle the kneeling situation

How I  used it: This article is a great source because Tony Dungey, a retired NFL coach and future Hall-of-Famer, gives his insight on what he would have done with his team in the situation, and implied that some NFL coaches are not handling this situation in the correct manner.

Source thirteen: “Philando Castile Killing: Police Video Sparks Outrage.” Philando Castile Killing: Police Video Sparks Outrage | USA News | Al Jazeera. N.p., n.d. Web. 29 Oct. 2017. .

Essential Context: This source gives the facts about the blatant murder of Philando Castile, who was killed by a police officer.

How I  used it: I used this source as an example of how police brutality is alive and well today. I  gave the details of this source to really depict the fear that some police officers have of black Americans, so much to the point where they will shoot an innocent black man because they felt threatened by the fact the victim explained he had a concealed weapon, and was licensed to carry it.

Source fourteen:“The Lyrics.” NMAH | The Lyrics,

Essential context: The lyrics of the Star Spangled banner

How I  used it: I used this source’s lyrics in my essay at the ending of my opening paragraph to bring up a counterintuitive Idea of our country being “the land of the free” and having black Americans living in fear.

Source fifteen: Babwin, Don. “1918 World Series Started the U.S. Love Affair with National Anthem.”, 4 July 2017,

Essential context: This source gives the origin of the National Anthem during sporting events, and how the bombing in Chicago, the city which the world series was being played in, made morale in the city low. The Navy band that attended the game played the Star Spangled banner during the seventh inning stretch and all of america loves this and made it a tradition.

How I used it: I used this source to explain the origin of the Star spangled banner, and to give reasons on why it should be respected.

Source Sixteen: Berr, Jonathan. “NFL National Anthem Protest Denting Ticket Sales.” CBS News, CBS Interactive, 29 Sept. 2017,

Essential Context: This source provided information from TicPick and TicketCity that NFL ticket sales declined after Kaepernick’s Kneeling.

How I  used it: I  this to show that Ticket sales for two different distributers declined drastically after Kaepernick’s kneeling.

Source seventeen: Personal Interview

Essential context: My father and I  had an interview, talking about the way football used to be, and also why he enjoys watching the games on Sunday.

How I  used it: This source was helpful for m paper because it allowed my to put a personal touch on it, and allow me to incorporate the opinions of a person who is close to me, and also has been around the game for generations.

Source eighteen: Branch, John. “Please Rise for Our National Anthem — If You’Re Not Too Busy.” The New York Times, The New York Times, 1 Oct. 2017,

Essential Context: This NY times article gave the tweet that President Trump released on kneeling before the football games”

How I used it: I used this source to show that the kneeling in the NFL before games for the national anthem got so bad to the point where the president had to get involved, and gave the protest attention.

Source nineteen: Classroom, Physics. “Newton’s Third Law.” The Physics Classroom,

Essential Context: This site gives Newton’s third law, which is pretty well known

How I used it: I used this to give an example of cause and effect, and how every action has an equal and opposite reaction

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