Bibliography – darnell18

1. Ingraham, Christopher. You Really Can Get Pulled Over for Driving While Black, Federal Statistics Show” The Washington Post, 09 Sept. 2014. Web. 1 Dec. 2016

Background: Much like some of my other sources, this article contained facts and analysis on the racial disparity of traffic stops. It provided plenty of graphs and charts to give an easily comprehendible visual of this issue.

How I Used It: I used this article to get a better understanding of both sides of the argument via statistics, but just came to realize the disparity holds true in favor of whites like the majority of my other sources. Much of the content is similar among varying sources, but that just helps to verify that the shocking statistics that I continue to see are actually accurate.

2. Soften, Kim. “The Big Question About Why Police Pull Over So Many Black Drivers” The Washington Post, 08 July 2016. Web. 1 Dec. 2016

Background: This article asked the question of why more black drivers get pulled over than any other race, and dug deep to find out the reason. It provided statistics and feedback on them to provide the reader with a better understanding of each aspect.

How I Used It: I used this material to support the majority of my side of the argument. The statistics are constant with the other sources I have used so the accuracy of these statistics is supported as well. Therefore, I was able to use these facts with confidence in my writing.

3. Harris, David. “Driving While Black: Racial Profiling On Our Nation’s Highways” American Civil Liberties Union, June 1999. Web. 1 Dec. 2016

Background: This article broke down individual aspects that contribute to discrimination on the roads. From roughly 20 years back, this literature was informative on the background of racial profiling while driving prior to society deeming it a legitimate issue that needed to be addressed.

How I Used It: I used this historical background in coordination with what I know about the topic now. Regardless of the time difference, many of the specifics on these issues remain the same, which informs me that it has been a big problem and disparity for years now, just not acknowledged as much until recently.

4. American Civil Liberties Union. “”Driving While Black” in Maryland” American Civil Liberties Union, 2 Feb. 2010. Web. 1 Dec. 2016

Background: This article specifically breaks down profiling on the road in the state of Maryland. Certain parts of the article are not necessarily from recent studies, but are still relevant in relation to the things that happen in today’s America.

How I Used It: Again, I used this background knowledge to better inform me of the history of this epidemic. There are recent instances provided, but overall this showed me how long this has actually been an issue in society and why organizations fought the Maryland Police about racial profiling at the time.

5. Office of Justice Programs. “Traffic Stops” Bureau of Justice Statistics, Dec. 2016. Web. 1 Dec. 2016

Background: This article got into the specifics of what actually happens after the traffic stops. From search and seizures to reasons given (or not given), these statistics also explain why drivers are pulled over.

How I Used It: A portion of this article stated something about speeding being the top reason given for stops. This could refute the side of the issue I am arguing. I used it to show that the other side has a point in that, speeding is speeding whether you are black or white, so not every single stop is provoked by the race of the driver. Sometimes, the driver can actually just be doing something wrong.

6. Langton, Lynn. Durose, Matthew. “Police Behavior During Traffic And Street Stops, 2011” Bureau of Justice Statistics, 24 Sep. 2013. Web. 1 Dec. 2016

Background: This article simply provides statistics in relation to police behavior during stops and whether or not they provided an actual reason for pulling people over in these instances. Although there is a noticeable difference among traffic stops, it was stated that racially, there is no notable difference in street stops.

How I Used It: I used this information to support the fact that there is a true noteworthy difference in traffic stops among different races. From searches to tickets, whites are targeted less according to these consistent statistics.

7. Makarechi, Kia. “What The Data Really Says About Police and Racial Bias” Hive, 14 July 2016. Web. 1 Dec. 2016

Background: This article goes into the killing of unarmed americans, why police pull people over, and also the use of nonlethal force among other subtopics.

How I Used It: Part of this article went into how police determine who to stop on the road. I used that newfound knowledge in accordance with what I already knew about these traffic stops. Also, off-duty police officers have been killed by on duty police officers in the past, with an astounding ratio of the victims being black or latino, so that was valuable knowledge discovered.

8. Dove, Travis. “The Disproportionate Risks of Driving While Black” The New York Times, 24 Oct. 2015. Web. 1 Dec. 2016

Background: This article is an examination of traffic stops and arrests in Greensboro, North Carolina. Wide racial differences in various measures of police conduct are uncovered through analysis of particular instances and also the use of statistical charts and tables.

How I Used It: I used this background information and quotes from police officers to better understand where the officers are coming from as well. It is also interesting and very beneficial to individually analyze statistics in certain parts of the country rather than the country as a whole.

9. Lee, Jaeah. “We Crunched the Numbers on Race and Traffic Stops in the County Where Sandra Bland Died” Mother Jones, 24 July 2015. Web. 1 Dec. 2016

Background: This article provides statistics and analysis on police stops in the exact area where Sandra Bland was arrested. Bland was a black woman who died in custody after being pulled over in a traffic stop that violently escalated rapidly.

How I Used It: I used certain knowledge gained from this to support the opposition’s rebuttal of my argument. Many numbers point towards more blacks being pulled over in most areas, but when researching, areas that have a higher amount of whites being pulled over cannot simply be looked past.

10. Jantzi, Amanda. Brown, Charlie. “Driving While Black” Cornell University Law School, 2010. Web. 1 Dec. 2016

Background: Cornell students compiled information on driving as a minority in this country and related case studies. They cover profiling, classic cases of “driving while black” and new developments with this issue.

How I Used It: I used background information from specific case studies to support the fact that this is a common occurrence that defendants often take to court. They do so because black or white, more often than not drivers know when they are doing something illegal, and when they know they are not, suspicion of racism by police officers comes into play.

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