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Annotated Bibliography 

1. “Two ‘ethical’ Ways to Harvest Stem Cells.” New Scientist. N.p., n.d. Web. 02 Nov. 2016.

Background: This article focuses on two “ethical” ways to obtain stem cells. The two procedures both obtain stem cells without harming any organisms. The first of the two use mice. Stem cells were removed from the embryo and isolated to undergo mitosis and multiply. The remaining cells formed the mice offspring with no complications. The second technique used mice, but it was not already pregnant. By fertilizing an egg outside the womb, they were given the opportunity to block a specific gene with a virus to hinder it from becoming a fetus. As a result, the only thing left of use were stem cells.

How I used it: To refute the idea that stem cells have to come from aborted fetuses, I utilized this article. Since majority of people who oppose stem cell research believe they can only be obtained through a dead fetus, this article is key to the entire argument. First, the article address

2. “The Cases For and Against Stem Cell Research.” Fox News. FOX News Network, 09 Aug. 2001. Web. 2 Nov. 2016.

Background: This article mainly focused on what is and what is not considered a  human, from all different aspects. From many scientists views, a fertilized egg is not nearly a human, but to religious groups and other anti-stem cell activists this is not the case. This helped the reader understand both sides of the argument.

How I used it: Since this article showed both sides of the argument, I used it in order to know which angles should be used to refute the idea of a one or two week old fertilized egg being a human being. After using this article, I was able to use the information found here for other possible ideas to refute the argument before it was even argued.

3. “The Bible Tells Us When A Fetus Becomes A Living Being.” The Christian Left Blog. N.p., n.d. Web. 21 Nov. 2016.

Background:  In this article, the religious argument is refuted. The idea that the christian faith states that once an egg is fertilized it is a human, was proven completely false. The article goes on and on about when life actually starts according to the Bible. It uses scriptures from the holy book itself to back the rebuttal.

How I used it: I used this article basically to remove all credibility of this argument from the table. The Bible is considered the word of God himself, so it cannot and should not be misinterpreted. By stating something that is not in the book, but also is contradictory to what it says, diminishes the credibility of the people arguing this case.

4. Knapp, Julie. “Your Developing Baby, Week by Week.” Parents. N.p., n.d. Web. 21 Nov. 2016.

Background: This article goes week by week explaining the entire process of a baby being created. It explains when the egg is fertilized, when it begins meiosis, and when it can begin to be considered a human, for the most part.

How I used it: This article was a good reference point for showing when a fertilized egg can be considered a human being with rights. The question after using this article is no longer when is it considered a human, but rather what is a human. Around week 4 it spoke about the neural tube ad how it would become the spinal-cord. Since humans are considered superior to other animals due to our complex nervous system and intelligence, without the neural tube forming, it could not be considered a human being. Thus before this point, it is only a zygote with a possibility of becoming a human.

5. “What Is an Ectopic Pregnancy? – The Ectopic Pregnancy Trust.” The Ectopic Pregnancy Trust. N.p., n.d. Web. 05 Dec. 2016.

Background: Ectopic pregnancies are pregnancies where the fertilized egg becomes trapped inside of the Fallopian tube. These zygotes are unable to reach the womb and implant themselves where they become stuck. As a result, the egg attempts to grow here and can be detrimental to the mother.

How I used it: I used this article to add to my argument that a fertilized egg should not be considered a human being with human rights. Too many things can go wrong to start placing labels on things that are not guaranteed to become humans.

6. “When Does Human Life Begin?” Council for Secular Humanism. N.p., n.d. Web. 17 Nov. 2016.

Background: This article refutes the idea that a fertilized egg is going to developed into a human being. It discusses a few different barriers that can inhibit a fertilized egg from further development. These range from errors in genetic code to simply a miscarriage.

How I used it: I used this article in order to argue that fertilized eggs do not always become human beings. There are many barriers to becoming a human and a fertilized egg is far from being a human.

7. Conger, Krista. “Earlier, More Accurate Prediction of Embryo Survival Enabled by Research.” News Center. N.p., 03 Oct. 1970. Web. 01 Dec. 2016.

Background: In this article, the idea of an embryo dying is explored further than that of the articles above. It speaks of how an egg that has been fertilized can have the genetic code correct, make it to the womb, and still fail to implant. This failure is due to the failure of a test that the uterus gives to the egg. Scientists are not too sure why this occurs, but it occurs very often.

How I used it: I used this article within my essay in order to back the idea that all fertilized eggs are not going to become a human being. In fact, most fertilized eggs fail to make it completely through the developmental phase.

8. Rettner, Rachael. “Fate of a Fertilized Egg: Why Some Embryos Don’t Implant.” Live Science. N.p., 06 Feb. 2014. Web. 01 Dec. 2016.

Background: This article discussed how a fertilized egg may die various different ways. From failing to have the correct genetic code to undergo development, to implanting itself into another place besides the womb, this article covered many angles of how a fertilized egg can fail. It also discussed how scientists are actually able to predict about 93% of the time if a zygote will develop into a human being or not.

How I used it: I used this article to back the information in my other articles. Within science, if only one source is used to support a notion, it is not very well supported. By finding and utilizing this articles data, I was able to support my support.

9. Caplan, Arthur. “When Does Human Life Begin?” Council for Secular Humanism. N.p., n.d. Web. 07 Dec. 2016.

Background: This article explains how a zygote may or may not become a human being. It connects social aspects of this argument with scientific facts in order to support the claim.

How I used it: I used this article in order to point me in the right direction. I actually did not think to use the idea that a zygote may not become a human being for my causal argument until reading this article. I owe this article a lot when it comes to ideas, but not so much information.

10. New Testament, King James Version. New York: American Bible Society, n.d. Print.

Background: The bible is the holy book for the faith Christianity. Many of the arguments from the anti-abortion/ stem cell research groups use the bible to support their argument.

How I used it: Since religious views cannot and should not be marred by scientific evidence, I used the bible to refute the words of the bible. Being an active christian and avid reader of the bible, I know the bible has a few ideas that refute each other. I utilized this flaw in their argument against them. I showed where the bible and science agree and used that as the base to back my argument.

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